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Munhwa Cheyuk Gwangwang-bu
|Formed||February 29, 2008|
|Jurisdiction||Government of South Korea|
|Headquarters||Sejong City, South Korea|
|Website||Official English Site|
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
the Republic of Korea
South Korea's Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism (MCST) is a central government agency responsible for the areas of tourism, culture, art, religion, and sports. It has two vice ministers, three assistant ministers, one commission, and over 60 divisions. The first Minister of Culture was novelist Lee O-young.
Subsidiary entities such as the National Museum, the National Theater, and the National Library are under the Ministry.
The headquarters are located in the Sejong Government Complex in Sejong City.The headquarters was previously in Jongno District, Seoul.
The main goals of the MCST are:
The Ministry of Culture and Tourism was originally a suborganization of the Ministry of Education created in 1948. Later, the Ministry of Transportation set up a tourism department. The Ministry of Information was set up in 1961 for administration of art and cultural affairs. The Ministry of Culture and Information became the Ministry of Culture in 1990.
In 1993, the Ministry of Culture was integrated with the Ministry of Youth and Sports to become the Ministry of Culture and Sports. In 1998, as part of government reorganization efforts, the Ministry of Culture and Sports was replaced by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism. It was created to invest in and support the entertainment industry, as Korea needed new areas of growth in the wake of the Asian financial crisis in the 1990s.[ citation needed ]
President Kim Dae Jung put forth industrial policies supporting entertainment with the same regard as traditional industrial sectors such as manufacturing. Investments were made in both infrastructure and technology to support K-Pop, including concert halls and visual effects technology. In addition, government regulation of karaoke bars favored K-Pop.
Since then, there has been a focus on developing soft power; the Ministry believes that by promoting Korean culture abroad, exports of other goods and services will also increase. As part of those efforts to move beyond developing a domestic industry and toward international success, the Ministry established an advisory committee and announced an international training school. Direct financial support of artists increased. In 2013, the Ministry allocated 319 billion won (US$280 million) for direct support of Hallyu (Korean Wave). Cultural exports increased at an annual rate of 10 percent as a result of these efforts.
The Korean Culture and Information Service is a department of the MCST that aims to bring Korean culture closer to the rest of the world while improving the national image of Korea. It is also responsible for setting up more than 20 Korean Cultural Centers around the world.
Despite the large amounts of money the government provides for Hallyu, the K-Pop industry, the most internationally well-known part of Hallyu has criticized the Ministry's efforts. Many industries such as fashion and food have lobbied the government for inclusion in the Hallyu budget, and politicians and the bureaucracy also have varying interests in how the budget is distributed. Despite popular internet speculation on the Korean government's financial support for the promotion of K-Pop, there are no figures to substantiate the speculation. In 2013 of the $230 million allocated for Hallyu there are itemized contributions to the promotion of the Korean language, culture and food but no known figures for allocations directly to K-Pop. Independent of financial support in recent years the Ministry has been successful in reversing decades-long governmental policy of suppressing and jailing pop and gayo artists in favor of supporting K-Pop as a driver of Hallyu overseas.
K-pop is a genre of popular music originating in South Korea. It is influenced by styles and genres from around the world, such as experimental, rock, jazz, gospel, hip hop, R&B, reggae, electronic dance, folk, country, and classical on top of its traditional Korean music roots. The more modern form of the genre emerged with the formation of one of the earliest K-pop groups, Seo Taiji and Boys, in 1992. Their experimentation with different styles and genres of music and integration of foreign musical elements helped reshape and modernize South Korea's contemporary music scene.
Sejongno, also known as Sejong-daero, is a street that runs through Jongno-gu in downtown Seoul. It is named after King Sejong the Great of Joseon. The street is 600 meters in length, but due to its central location it is of great symbolic importance. It points north to Gwanaksan and Bukhansan (Mountains), and the Joseon Dynasty palace, Gyeongbokgung. It is also of historical significance as the location for royal administrative buildings and features statues of the Admiral Yi Sun-sin of Joseon Dynasty and King Sejong the Great of Joseon.
The Korean wave is the increase in global popularity of South Korean culture since the 1980s. First driven by the spread of K-dramas and K-pop across East, South and Southeast Asia during its initial stages, the Korean Wave evolved from a regional development into a global phenomenon, carried by the Internet and social media and the proliferation of K-pop music videos on YouTube. While some sources attribute the term Hallyu, a variation of a Japanese expression using Ryu (流) as a postfix to refer ‘～way’, ‘~style’, ‘～group’, to being first used by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism in South Korea in 1999, when the ministry produced a music CD titled in Chinese 韓流—Song from Korea; other scholarly sources attribute the term's ascendance from Korean television dramas first airing on Chinese television in 1997, naming the phenomenon hanliu, meaning "Korean wave". The term was adopted by Chinese media to refer to the success of South Korean popular culture in China. The term was reintroduced in Japan as hanryu or kanryu by the Asahi Shimbun in 2001.
The Ministry of Unification is an executive department of the South Korean government aimed at promoting Korean reunification. It was first established in 1969 as the National Unification Board, under the rule of Park Chung-hee. It gained its current status in 1998 and has played a major role in promoting inter-Korean dialogues, exchanges and cooperation.
The Ministry of Health and Welfare is a branch of the government of South Korea. The headquarters is in Sejong City. Previously the headquarters were on floors 6 through 12 of the Hyundai Building in Jongno District, Seoul, when they were the Ministry for Health, Welfare and Family Affairs.
Ministry of Security and Public Administration (MOSPA), formerly Ministry of Public Administration and Security (MOPAS), was a ministry of the national government of South Korea. The ministry was in charge of the civil and domestic affairs in South Korea including the National Police Agency and the National Emergency Management Agency.
Jongno District is a district in central Seoul, South Korea. It takes its name from a major local street, Jongno, which means "Bell Street".
South Korea's Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA) is in charge of the country's foreign relations, as well as handling matters related to overseas Korean nationals. It was established on 17 July 1948.
Sejong, officially the Sejong Special Self-Governing City, is a special self-governing city and de facto administrative capital of South Korea.
Ilmin Museum of Art is a private art museum of South Korea, located on Sejongno street in Jongno-gu, a central district of Seoul, known for exhibiting mainly Korean art. The museum was established and run by the Ilmin Cultural Foundation (일민문화재단), a non-profit organization founded in 1994 in memory of Kim Sang-man, former president of Dong-A Ilbo, one of the major newspaper companies of South Korea. Kim devoted his entire life to developing Korean journalism and promoting Korean culture. The museum is named after his pen name, "Ilmin".
The Order of Cultural Merit is one of South Korea's orders of merit. It is awarded by the President of South Korea for "outstanding meritorious services in the fields of culture and art in the interest of promoting the national culture and national development."
The Presidential Council on Nation Branding, Korea was established on January 22, 2009 by Executive Decree 21283 with the objective to promote Korea's global image; to right misconceptions about Korea, its culture, its products, and its people; and to raise respect for Korea so as to support Korean businesses and nationals abroad through governmental initiated strategies and policies. The council lies under the direct control and authority of the President of South Korea, Moon Jae-in.
The Ministry of Education is a cabinet-level division of the government of South Korea. It was created on March 23, 2013.
Choe Kwang-shik is a South Korean historian and museum curator who served as the Minister of Culture, Sports and Tourism under President Lee Myung-bak.
The Korean Culture and Information Service (KOCIS) is an affiliated organization of the Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism of the South Korean government and runs 32 Korean cultural centers in 27 countries. The goal of the organization is to further enhance the image of Korea's national brand by promoting Korean heritage and arts through these cultural centers.
Yoo Jin-ryong is a South Korean politician who formerly served as the Minister of Culture.
The K-POP World Festival is an annual K-pop talent competition organized by South Korea's Ministry of Foreign Affairs with the support of numerous government agencies. After going through a few preliminary rounds, fans of K-pop are invited by the South Korean government to take part in the final round of the competition held every year in Changwon, South Korea.
The Korea Creative Content Agency (KOCCA) is a South Korean government agency which is affiliated with the Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism and is charged with governing cultural content. As part of its partnership the Export-Import Bank of Korea, the agency provides loans for small companies producing cultural products such as TV shows, films, games and animated series.
The Korean Cultural Center, Mexico City, is a non-profit Korean language and cultural exchange center in Polanco, Mexico City. It is supported by the South Korean Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism and run by their KOCIS organization. The center opened on March 13, 2012, the twenty-third opened worldwide and the fourth in North America; and coincided with the 50th anniversary celebration of diplomatic ties between South Korea and Mexico. With an approximate 30,000 K-pop fans in Mexico City, at the time, the Ministry projected that the new center would "combine forces with them to spread K-pop to all over the country and play a role as a bridge between the two cultures".
Park Yang-woo is a South Korean politician currently serving as the Minister of Culture, Sports and Tourism since his appointment by President Moon Jae-in in April 2019.