In geometry, Napoleon's theorem states that if equilateral triangles are constructed on the sides of any triangle, either all outward or all inward, the lines connecting the centres of those equilateral triangles themselves form an equilateral triangle.
Geometry is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space. A mathematician who works in the field of geometry is called a geometer.
In geometry, an equilateral triangle is a triangle in which all three sides are equal. In the familiar Euclidean geometry, an equilateral triangle is also equiangular; that is, all three internal angles are also congruent to each other and are each 60°. It is also a regular polygon, so it is also referred to as a regular triangle.
A triangle is a polygon with three edges and three vertices. It is one of the basic shapes in geometry. A triangle with vertices A, B, and C is denoted .
The triangle thus formed is called the inner or outer Napoleon triangle. The difference in area of these two triangles equals the area of the original triangle.
The theorem is often attributed to Napoleon Bonaparte (1769–1821). Some have suggested that it may date back to W. Rutherford's 1825 question published in The Ladies' Diary , four years after the French emperor's death,but the result is covered in three questions set in an examination for a Gold Medal at the University of Dublin in October, 1820, whereas Napoleon died the following May.
Napoléon Bonaparte was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars. He was Emperor of the French as Napoleon I from 1804 until 1814 and again briefly in 1815 during the Hundred Days. Napoleon dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars. He won most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, building a large empire that ruled over much of continental Europe before its final collapse in 1815. He is considered one of the greatest commanders in history, and his wars and campaigns are studied at military schools worldwide. Napoleon's political and cultural legacy has endured as one of the most celebrated and controversial leaders in human history.
William Rutherford (1798–1871) was an English mathematician famous for his calculation of 208 digits of the mathematical constant π in 1841.
The Ladies' Diary: or, Woman's Almanack appeared annually in London from 1704 to 1841 after which it was succeeded by The Lady's and Gentleman's Diary. It featured material relating to calendars etc. including sunrise and sunset times and phases of the moon, as well as important dates, and a chronology of remarkable events.
In the figure above, ABC is the original triangle. AZB, BXC, and CYA are equilateral triangles constructed on its sides' exteriors, and points L, M, and N are the centroids of those triangles. The theorem for outer triangles states that triangle LMN (green) is equilateral.
A quick way to see that the triangle LMN is equilateral is to observe that MN becomes CZ under a clockwise rotation of 30° around A and a homothety of ratio √ with the same center, and that LN also becomes CZ after a counterclockwise rotation of 30° around B and a homothety of ratio √ with the same center. The respective spiral similarities are A(√,-30°) and B(√,30°). That implies MN = LN and the angle between them must be 60°.
Two-dimensional rotation can occur in two possible directions. A clockwise motion is one that proceeds in the same direction as a clock's hands: from the top to the right, then down and then to the left, and back up to the top. The opposite sense of rotation or revolution is counterclockwise (CCW) or anticlockwise (ACW).
In mathematics, a homothety is a transformation of an affine space determined by a point S called its center and a nonzero number λ called its ratio, which sends
Two geometrical objects are called similar if they both have the same shape, or one has the same shape as the mirror image of the other. More precisely, one can be obtained from the other by uniformly scaling, possibly with additional translation, rotation and reflection. This means that either object can be rescaled, repositioned, and reflected, so as to coincide precisely with the other object. If two objects are similar, each is congruent to the result of a particular uniform scaling of the other. A modern and novel perspective of similarity is to consider geometrical objects similar if one appears congruent to the other when zoomed in or out at some level.
There are in fact many proofs of the theorem's statement, including a trigonometric one,a symmetry-based approach, and proofs using complex numbers.
Trigonometry is a branch of mathematics that studies relationships between side lengths and angles of triangles. The field emerged in the Hellenistic world during the 3rd century BC from applications of geometry to astronomical studies. In particular, 3rd-century astronomers first noted that the ratio of the lengths of two sides of a right-angled triangle depends only of one acute angles of the triangle. These dependencies are now called trigonometric functions.
Symmetry in everyday language refers to a sense of harmonious and beautiful proportion and balance. In mathematics, "symmetry" has a more precise definition, that an object is invariant to any of various transformations; including reflection, rotation or scaling. Although these two meanings of "symmetry" can sometimes be told apart, they are related, so in this article they are discussed together.
A complex number is a number that can be expressed in the form a + bi, where a and b are real numbers, and i is a solution of the equation x2 = −1. Because no real number satisfies this equation, i is called an imaginary number. For the complex number a + bi, a is called the real part, and b is called the imaginary part. Despite the historical nomenclature "imaginary", complex numbers are regarded in the mathematical sciences as just as "real" as the real numbers, and are fundamental in many aspects of the scientific description of the natural world.
The theorem has frequently been attributed to Napoleon, but several papers have been written concerning this issue ( Grünbaum 2012 )).which cast doubt upon this assertion (see
The following entry appeared on page 47 in the Ladies' Diary of 1825 (so in late 1824, a year or so after the compilation of Dublin examination papers). This is an early appearance of Napoleon's theorem in print, and it is to be noted that Napoleon's name is not mentioned.
Since William Rutherford was a very capable mathematician, his motive for requesting a proof of a theorem that he could certainly have proved himself is unknown. Maybe he posed the question as a challenge to his peers, or perhaps he hoped that the responses would yield a more elegant solution. However, it is clear from reading successive issues of the Ladies Diary in the 1820s, that the Editor aimed to include a varied set of questions each year, with some suited for the exercise of beginners.
Plainly there is no reference to Napoleon in either the question or the published responses, which appeared a year later in 1826, though the Editor evidently omitted some submissions. Also Rutherford himself does not appear amongst the named solvers after the printed solutions, although from the tally a few pages earlier it is evident that he did send in a solution, as did several of his pupils and associates at Woodburn School, including the first of the published solutions. Indeed, the Woodburn Problem Solving Group, as it might be known today, was sufficiently well known by then to be written up in A Historical, Geographical, and Descriptive View of the County of Northumberland ... (2nd ed. Vo. II, pp. 123–124). It had been thought that the first known reference to this result as Napoleon's theorem appears in Faifofer's 17th Edition of Elementi di Geometria published in 1911, although Faifofer does actually mention Napoleon in somewhat earlier editions. But this is moot, because we find Napoleon mentioned by name in this context in an encyclopaedia by 1867. What is of greater historical interest as regards Faifofer is the problem he had been using in earlier editions: a classic problem on circumscribing the greatest equilateral triangle about a given triangle that Thomas Moss had posed in the Ladies Diary in 1754, in the solution to which by William Bevil the following year we might easily recognize the germ of Napoleon's Theorem - the two results then run together, back and forth for at least the next hundred years in the problem pages of the popular almanacs: when Honsberger proposed in Mathematical Gems in 1973 what he thought was a novelty of his own, he was actually recapitulating part of this vast, if informal, literature.
It might be as well to recall that a popular variant of the Pythagorean proposition, where squares are placed on the edges of triangles, was to place equilateral triangles on the edges of triangles: could you do with equilateral triangles what you could do with squares - for example, in the case of right triangles, dissect the one on the hypotenuse into those on the legs? Just as authors returned repeatedly to consider other properties of Euclid's Windmill or Bride's Chair, so the equivalent figure with equilateral triangles replacing squares invited - and received - attention. Perhaps the most majestic effort in this regard is William Mason's Prize Question in the Lady's and Gentleman's Diary for 1864, the solutions and commentary for which the following year run to some fifteen pages. By then, this particular venerable venue - starting in 1704 for the Ladies' Diary and in 1741 for the Gentleman's Diary - was on its last legs, but problems of this sort continued in the Educational Times right into the early 1900s.
In the Geometry paper, set on the second morning of the papers for candidates for the Gold Medal in the General Examination of the University of Dublin in October 1820, the following three problems appear.
These problems are recorded in
Question 1249 in the Gentleman's Diary; or Mathematical Repository for 1829 (so appearing in late 1828) takes up the theme, with solutions appearing in the issue for the following year. One of the solvers, T. S. Davies then generalized the result in Question 1265 that year, presenting his own solution the following year, drawing on a paper he had already contributed to the Philosophical Magazine in 1826. There are no cross-references in this material to that described above. However, there are several items of cognate interest in the problem pages of the popular almanacs both going back to at least the mid-1750s (Moss) and continuing on to the mid-1860s (Mason), as alluded to above.
As it happens, Napoleon's name is mentioned in connection with this result in no less a work of reference than Chambers's Encyclopedia as early as 1867 (Vol. IX, towards the close of the entry on triangles).
But then the result had appeared, with proof, in a textbook by at least 1834 (James Thomson's Euclid, pp. 255–256 ). In an endnote (p. 372), Thomason adds
In the second edition (1837), Thomson extended the endnote by providing a proof from a former student in Belfast:
Thus, Thomson does not appear aware of the appearance of the problem in the Ladies' Diary for 1825 or the Gentleman's Diary for 1829 (just as J. S. Mackay was to remain unaware of the latter appearance, with its citation of Dublin Problems, while noting the former; readers of the American Mathematical Monthly have a pointer to Question 1249 in the Gentleman's Diary from R. C. Archibald in the issue for January, 1920, p. 41, fn. 7, although the first published solution in the Ladies Diary for 1826 shows that even Archibald was not omniscient in matters of priority).
The centers of both the inner and outer Napoleon triangles coincide with the centroid of the original triangle. This coincidence was noted in Chambers's Encyclopaedia in 1867, as quoted above. The entry there is unsigned. P. G. Tait, then Professor of Natural Philosophy in the University of Edinburgh, is listed amongst the contributors, but J. U. Hillhouse, Mathematical Tutor also at the University of Edinburgh, appears amongst other literary gentlemen connected for longer or shorter times with the regular staff of the Encyclopaedia. However, in Section 189(e) of An Elementary Treatise on Quaternions,also in 1867, Tait treats the problem (in effect, echoing Davies' remarks in the Gentleman's Diary in 1831 with regard to Question 1265, but now in the setting of quaternions):
Tait concludes that the mean points of equilateral triangles erected outwardly on the sides of any triangle form an equilateral triangle. The discussion is retained in subsequent editions in 1873 and 1890, as well as in his further Introduction to Quaternionsjointly with Philip Kelland in 1873.
The area of the inner Napoleon triangle of a triangle with area is
where a, b, and c are the side lengths of the original triangle, with equality only in the case in which the original triangle is equilateral, by Weitzenböck's inequality. However, from an algebraic standpointthe inner triangle is "retrograde" and its algebraic area is the negative of this expression.
The area of the outer Napoleon triangle is
Analytically, it can be shownthat each of the three sides of the outer Napoleon triangle has a length of
The relation between the latter two equations is that the area of an equilateral triangle equals the square of the side times
The centers of regular n-gons constructed over the sides of an n-gon P form a regular n-gon if and only if P is an affine image of a regular n-gon.
Area is the quantity that expresses the extent of a two-dimensional figure or shape, or planar lamina, in the plane. Surface area is its analog on the two-dimensional surface of a three-dimensional object. Area can be understood as the amount of material with a given thickness that would be necessary to fashion a model of the shape, or the amount of paint necessary to cover the surface with a single coat. It is the two-dimensional analog of the length of a curve or the volume of a solid.
In Euclidean plane geometry, a quadrilateral is a polygon with four edges and four vertices or corners. Sometimes, the term quadrangle is used, by analogy with triangle, and sometimes tetragon for consistency with pentagon (5-sided), hexagon (6-sided) and so on.
In geometry, a hexagon is a six-sided polygon or 6-gon. The total of the internal angles of any simple (non-self-intersecting) hexagon is 720°.
In geometry, bisection is the division of something into two equal or congruent parts, usually by a line, which is then called a bisector. The most often considered types of bisectors are the segment bisector and the angle bisector.
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In geometry, a median of a triangle is a line segment joining a vertex to the midpoint of the opposite side, thus bisecting that side. Every triangle has exactly three medians, one from each vertex, and they all intersect each other at the triangle's centroid. In the case of isosceles and equilateral triangles, a median bisects any angle at a vertex whose two adjacent sides are equal in length.
In plane geometry, Morley's trisector theorem states that in any triangle, the three points of intersection of the adjacent angle trisectors form an equilateral triangle, called the first Morley triangle or simply the Morley triangle. The theorem was discovered in 1899 by Anglo-American mathematician Frank Morley. It has various generalizations; in particular, if all of the trisectors are intersected, one obtains four other equilateral triangles.
In geometry, the circumscribed circle or circumcircle of a polygon is a circle that passes through all the vertices of the polygon. The center of this circle is called the circumcenter and its radius is called the circumradius.
In geometry, the Fermat point of a triangle, also called the Torricelli point or Fermat–Torricelli point, is a point such that the total distance from the three vertices of the triangle to the point is the minimum possible. It is so named because this problem is first raised by Fermat in a private letter to Evangelista Torricelli, who solved it.
Viviani's theorem, named after Vincenzo Viviani, states that the sum of the distances from any interior point to the sides of an equilateral triangle equals the length of the triangle's altitude.
In mathematics, Weitzenböck's inequality, named after Roland Weitzenböck, states that for a triangle of side lengths , , , and area , the following inequality holds:
In mathematics, the Hadwiger–Finsler inequality is a result on the geometry of triangles in the Euclidean plane. It states that if a triangle in the plane has side lengths a, b and c and area T, then
In geometry, a bicentric polygon is a tangential polygon which is also cyclic — that is, inscribed in an outer circle that passes through each vertex of the polygon. All triangles and all regular polygons are bicentric. On the other hand, a rectangle with unequal sides is not bicentric, because no circle can be tangent to all four sides.
Varignon's theorem is a statement in Euclidean geometry, that deals with the construction of a particular parallelogram, the Varignon parallelogram, from an arbitrary quadrilateral (quadrangle). It is named after Pierre Varignon, who published it in 1731.
In mathematics, Marden's theorem, named after Morris Marden but proved much earlier by Jörg Siebeck, gives a geometric relationship between the zeroes of a third-degree polynomial with complex coefficients and the zeroes of its derivative. See also Geometry of roots of real polynomials.
In geometry, the Steiner inellipse, midpoint inellipse, or midpoint ellipse of a triangle is the unique ellipse inscribed in the triangle and tangent to the sides at their midpoints. It is an example of an inellipse. By comparison the inscribed circle and Mandart inellipse of a triangle are other inconics that are tangent to the sides, but not at the midpoints unless the triangle is equilateral. The Steiner inellipse is attributed by Dörrie to Jakob Steiner, and a proof of its uniqueness is given by Kalman.
In geometry, Napoleon points are a pair of special points associated with a plane triangle. It is generally believed that the existence of these points was discovered by Napoleon Bonaparte, the Emperor of the French from 1804 to 1815, but many have questioned this belief. The Napoleon points are triangle centers and they are listed as the points X(17) and X(18) in Clark Kimberling's Encyclopedia of Triangle Centers.
In geometry, the Petr–Douglas–Neumann theorem is a result concerning arbitrary planar polygons. The theorem asserts that a certain procedure when applied to an arbitrary polygon always yields a regular polygon having the same number of sides as the initial polygon. The theorem was first published by Karel Petr (1868–1950) of Prague in 1908. The theorem was independently rediscovered by Jesse Douglas (1897–1965) in 1940 and also by B H Neumann (1909–2002) in 1941. The naming of the theorem as Petr–Douglas–Neumann theorem, or as the PDN-theorem for short, is due to Stephen B Gray. This theorem has also been called Douglas’s theorem, the Douglas–Neumann theorem, the Napoleon–Douglas–Neumann theorem and Petr’s theorem.
In mathematics, Lemoine's problem is a certain construction problem in elementary plane geometry posed by the French mathematician Émile Lemoine (1840–1912) in 1868. The problem was published as Question 864 in Nouvelles Annales de Mathématiques. The chief interest in the problem is that a discussion of the solution of the problem by Ludwig Kiepert published in Nouvelles Annales de Mathématiques contained a description of a hyperbola which is now known as the Kiepert hyperbola.
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