New Romney (UK Parliament constituency)

Last updated

New Romney
Former Cinque Port constituency
for the House of Commons
1371–1832
Number of members Two

New Romney was a parliamentary constituency in Kent, which elected two Members of Parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons from 1371 until 1832, when it was abolished by the Great Reform Act.

Kent County of England

Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties. It borders Greater London to the north-west, Surrey to the west and East Sussex to the south-west. The county also shares borders with Essex along the estuary of the River Thames, and with the French department of Pas-de-Calais through the Channel Tunnel. The county town is Maidstone.

Contents

New Romney was a Cinque Port, which made it technically of different status from a parliamentary borough, but the difference was purely a nominal one. The constituency consisted of the town of New Romney; it had once been a flourishing port but by the 19th century the harbour had been destroyed and there was no maritime trade, the main economic activity being grazing cattle on Romney Marsh. In 1831, the population of the constituency was 978, and the town contained 165 houses.

New Romney town in Kent, England

New Romney is a small town in Kent, England, on the edge of Romney Marsh, an area of flat, rich agricultural land reclaimed from the sea after the harbour began to silt up. New Romney, one of the original Cinque Ports, was once a sea port, with the harbour adjacent to the church, but is now more than a mile from the sea. A mooring ring can still be seen in front of the church. It is the headquarters of the Romney, Hythe and Dymchurch Railway.

Romney Marsh wetland area in Kent and East Sussex, England

Romney Marsh is a sparsely populated wetland area in the counties of Kent and East Sussex in the south-east of England. It covers about 100 square miles (260 km2).

The right to vote was reserved to the Mayor and Common Council of the town; however, many of these were customs or excise officers, who were disqualified from voting by a change in the law in 1782, so that in the early 19th century there were only 8 voters. The high proportion of voters holding paid government posts before this change in the law meant that New Romney was sometimes considered to be a "treasury borough" (that is, a constituency whose seats were in the gift of the government); but in practice the Dering family, local landowners, were even more influential and could sometimes defy government pressure.

In many countries, a mayor is the highest-ranking official in a municipal government such as that of a city or a town.

The Dering influence in New Romney seems mainly to have been achieved by letting out property to voters and their relatives at easy rents and without leases. In 1761, for example, the despairing Whig MP, Rose Fuller, explained to Prime Minister Newcastle that he had no chance of re-election since Dering had turned against him, because "several of the governing men are graziers and the Deering and Furnese family have together a very great estate in the neighbouring marsh which is very profitable to and easy for tenants". The reduction in the number of voters naturally made this influence easier, or at least cheaper, to exert.

The Whigs were a political faction and then a political party in the parliaments of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland and the United Kingdom. Between the 1680s and 1850s, they contested power with their rivals, the Tories. The Whigs' origin lay in constitutional monarchism and opposition to absolute monarchy. The Whigs played a central role in the Glorious Revolution of 1688 and were the standing enemies of the Stuart kings and pretenders, who were Roman Catholic. The Whigs took full control of the government in 1715 and remained totally dominant until King George III, coming to the throne in 1760, allowed Tories back in. The Whig Supremacy (1715–1760) was enabled by the Hanoverian succession of George I in 1714 and the failed Jacobite rising of 1715 by Tory rebels. The Whigs thoroughly purged the Tories from all major positions in government, the army, the Church of England, the legal profession and local offices. The Party's hold on power was so strong and durable, historians call the period from roughly 1714 to 1783 the age of the Whig Oligarchy. The first great leader of the Whigs was Robert Walpole, who maintained control of the government through the period 1721–1742 and whose protégé Henry Pelham led from 1743 to 1754.

Rose Fuller FRS was a West Indies plantation owner and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1756 to 1777.

New Romney was abolished as a constituency by the Reform Act, the town being incorporated into the new Eastern Kent county division.

East Kent was a county constituency in Kent in South East England. It returned two Members of Parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, elected by the first past the post system.

Members of Parliament

1371-1640

ParliamentFirst MemberSecond Member
1386 Simon Lunceford John Salerne [1]
1388 (Feb) William Holyngbroke John Salerne [1]
1388 (Sep) William Holyngbroke John Ellis [1]
1390 (Jan) John Ive James Tiece [1]
1390 (Nov) Edmund Huchoun James Tiece [1]
1391 John Ellis John Salerne II [1]
1393 Andrew Colyn Robert Geffe [1]
1394
1395 John Gardener William Child [1]
1397 (Jan) John Yon Robert Geffe [1]
1397 (Sep)
1399 John Gardener John Talbot [1]
1401 William Clitheroe John Gardener [1]
1402 John Lunceford John Ive [1]
1404 (Jan)
1404 (Oct)
1406 Robert Geffe Thomas Rokeslee [1]
1407 John Roger Brice Scherte [1]
1410 John Adam John Lunceford [1]
1411 William Clitheroe James Lowys [1]
1413 (Feb) William Clitheroe John Adam [1]
1413 (May) William Clitheroe James Lowys [1]
1414 (Apr) Richard Clitheroe John Lunceford [1]
1414 (Nov) William Clitheroe John Maffey [1]
1415 Richard Clitheroe James Lowys [1]
1416 (Mar) Richard Clitheroe John Adam [1]
1416 (Oct) Stephen Harry Thomas Sparwe [1]
1417 William Clitheroe James Tiece [1]
1419 Thomas Rokeslee Thomas Smith [1]
1420 Richard Clitheroe Stephen Harry [1]
1421 (May) Richard Clitheroe James Lowys [1]
1421 (Dec) Thomas Sparwe Peter Newene [1]
1510 John Holl Thomas Lambard [2]
1512 Sir John Scott Clement Baker [2]
1515 Richard Stuppeny Clement Baker [2]
1523 Robert Paris not known
1529 Richard Gibson, died
and replaced 1535 by
John Marshall
John Bunting [2]
1536 John Bunting ?John Marshall [2]
1539 William Tadlowe William Garrard [2]
1542 William Tadlowe William Asnothe [2]
1545not known
1547 John Dering, died
and replaced 1552 by
William Tadlowe
Peter Hayman [2]
1553 (Mar) Simon Padyham not known
1553 (Oct) William Tadlowe ?Sir John Guildford [2]
by 1553 John Cheseman [2]
1554 (Apr) John Cheseman Richard Bunting [2]
1554 (Nov) Gregory Holton William Oxendon [2]
1555 Richard Baker John Herbert [2]
1558 Simon Padyham ?Thomas Randolph [2]
1559 John Cheseman William Eppes [3]
1562/3 Sir Christopher Alleyne William Eppes [3]
1571 William Eppes Edmund Morrante [3]
1572 William Wilcocks, died
and replaced July 1574 by
William Eppes
Edward Wilcocks [3]
1584 Richard Williams William Southland [3]
1586 William Southland Robert Thurbarne [3]
1588 Reginald Scot William Southland [3]
1593 John Mynge Robert Bawle [3]
1597 George Coppyn James Thurbarne [3]
1601 Thomas Lake John Mynge [3]
1604-1611 Sir Robert Remington John Plommer
1614Sir Arthur Ingram Robert Wilcock
1621-1622 Sir Peter Manwood Francis Fetherston
1624 Francis Fetherston Richard Godfrey
1625 Sir Edmund Verney Richard Godfrey
1626 Richard Godfrey Thomas Brett
1628 Thomas Godfrey Thomas Brett
1629-1640No Parliaments summoned

1640-1832

YearFirst memberFirst partySecond memberSecond party
April 1640 ?
November 1640 Thomas Webb [4] Royalist (Sir) Norton Knatchbull [5] Parliamentarian
1641 Richard Browne
December 1648Browne not recorded as sitting after Pride's Purge Knatchbull excluded in Pride's Purge - seat vacant
1653New Romney was unrepresented in the Barebones Parliament and the First and Second Parliaments of the Protectorate
January 1659 Lambert Godfrey Sir Robert Honeywood
May 1659 Not represented in the restored Rump
April 1660 Sir Norton Knatchbull John Knatchbull
1661 Sir Charles Berkeley [6]
1665 Hon. Henry Brouncker [7]
1668 Sir Charles Sedley
1679 Paul Barret
1685 Sir William Goulston Thomas Chudleigh
1689 John Brewer James Chadwick
1690 Sir Charles Sedley
1695 Sir William Twysden [8]
1696 Sir Charles Sedley
1701 Edward Goulston
1702 Sir Benjamin Bathurst
1704 Walter Whitfield
1710 Robert Furnese [9] Whig
1713 Viscount Sondes
1722 David Papillon
1727 [10] John Essington
April 1728 Sir Robert Austen Sir Robert Furnese [11] Whig
May 1728 David Papillon [12]
1734 Stephen Bisse
1736 Sir Robert Austen
1741 Henry Furnese Sir Francis Dashwood Tory
1756 Rose Fuller Whig
1761 Sir Edward Dering Tory Thomas Knight
1768 Richard Jackson
1770 John Morton Tory
1774 Sir Edward Dering Tory
April 1784 John Smith
June 1784 Richard Atkinson
1785 John Henniker
1787 Richard Joseph Sullivan
1790 Sir Elijah Impey
1796 John Fordyce John Willett Willett
1802 Manasseh Lopes [13]
1806 William Windham Whig Sir John Perring, 1st Baronet Whig
1807 The Earl of Clonmell Tory Hon. George Ashburnham Tory
1812 Admiral Sir John Duckworth Tory William Mitford Tory
1817 Cholmeley Dering Tory
1818 Andrew Strahan Tory Richard Erle-Drax-Grosvenor
1819 Richard Erle-Drax-Grosvenor Whig
1820 George Hay Dawkins-Pennant Tory
1826 George Tapps Tory
1830 Arthur Hill-Trevor Ultra-Tory [14] William Miles Ultra-Tory [14] /Tory [15]
March 1831 Sir Roger Gresley Tory
April 1831 Sir Edward Cholmeley Dering Tory
1832 Constituency abolished

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 "History of Parliament". History of Parliament Trust. Retrieved 2011-11-330.Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 "History of Parliament". History of Parliament Trust. Retrieved 2011-11-330.Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 "History of Parliament". History of Parliament Trust. Retrieved 2011-11-330.Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  4. Expelled for being a monopolist, January 1641
  5. Created a baronet, August 1641
  6. Created Viscount Fitzhardinge (in the Peerage of Ireland), July 1663
  7. Expelled from the House of Commons on 21 April 1668 for his actions at the Battle of Lowestoft in 1665, when he falsified a signal which prevented the English navy pursuing the defeated Dutch fleet and capitalising on their victory
  8. Twysden was also elected for Appleby, which he chose to represent, and never sat for New Romney
  9. Succeeded to a baronetcy as Sir Robert Furnese, November 1712
  10. At the election of 1727, Essington and Papillon were returned as elected, but on petition they were held not to have been duly elected
  11. Furnese was also elected for Kent, which he chose to represent, and did not sit again for New Romney
  12. Papillon was re-elected in 1734 but had also been elected for Dover, which he chose to represent, and did not sit again for New Romney
  13. Created a baronet, November 1805
  14. 1 2 History of Parliament: DERING, Sir Edward Cholmeley, 8th bt. (1807-1896), of Surrenden Dering, nr. Ashford , Kent
  15. Created a baronet, 1859

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References

Robert Beatson, LL.D. FRSE FSA (1742-1818) was a Scottish compiler and miscellaneous writer.

Lewis Namier British historian

Sir Lewis Bernstein Namier was a British historian of Polish-Jewish background. His best-known works were The Structure of Politics at the Accession of George III (1929), England in the Age of the American Revolution (1930) and the History of Parliament series he edited later in his life with John Brooke.

Sir John Ernest Neale, was an English historian who specialised in Elizabethan and Parliamentary history. From 1927 to 1956, he was the Astor Professor of English History at University College London.