| Former Cinque Port constituency |
for the House of Commons
|Number of members||Two|
New Romney was a parliamentary constituency in Kent, which elected two Members of Parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons from 1371 until 1832, when it was abolished by the Great Reform Act.
Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties. It borders Greater London to the north-west, Surrey to the west and East Sussex to the south-west. The county also shares borders with Essex along the estuary of the River Thames, and with the French department of Pas-de-Calais through the Channel Tunnel. The county town is Maidstone.
New Romney was a Cinque Port, which made it technically of different status from a parliamentary borough, but the difference was purely a nominal one. The constituency consisted of the town of New Romney; it had once been a flourishing port but by the 19th century the harbour had been destroyed and there was no maritime trade, the main economic activity being grazing cattle on Romney Marsh. In 1831, the population of the constituency was 978, and the town contained 165 houses.
New Romney is a small town in Kent, England, on the edge of Romney Marsh, an area of flat, rich agricultural land reclaimed from the sea after the harbour began to silt up. New Romney, one of the original Cinque Ports, was once a sea port, with the harbour adjacent to the church, but is now more than a mile from the sea. A mooring ring can still be seen in front of the church. It is the headquarters of the Romney, Hythe and Dymchurch Railway.
Romney Marsh is a sparsely populated wetland area in the counties of Kent and East Sussex in the south-east of England. It covers about 100 square miles (260 km2).
The right to vote was reserved to the Mayor and Common Council of the town; however, many of these were customs or excise officers, who were disqualified from voting by a change in the law in 1782, so that in the early 19th century there were only 8 voters. The high proportion of voters holding paid government posts before this change in the law meant that New Romney was sometimes considered to be a "treasury borough" (that is, a constituency whose seats were in the gift of the government); but in practice the Dering family, local landowners, were even more influential and could sometimes defy government pressure.
In many countries, a mayor is the highest-ranking official in a municipal government such as that of a city or a town.
The Dering influence in New Romney seems mainly to have been achieved by letting out property to voters and their relatives at easy rents and without leases. In 1761, for example, the despairing Whig MP, Rose Fuller, explained to Prime Minister Newcastle that he had no chance of re-election since Dering had turned against him, because "several of the governing men are graziers and the Deering and Furnese family have together a very great estate in the neighbouring marsh which is very profitable to and easy for tenants". The reduction in the number of voters naturally made this influence easier, or at least cheaper, to exert.
The Whigs were a political faction and then a political party in the parliaments of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland and the United Kingdom. Between the 1680s and 1850s, they contested power with their rivals, the Tories. The Whigs' origin lay in constitutional monarchism and opposition to absolute monarchy. The Whigs played a central role in the Glorious Revolution of 1688 and were the standing enemies of the Stuart kings and pretenders, who were Roman Catholic. The Whigs took full control of the government in 1715 and remained totally dominant until King George III, coming to the throne in 1760, allowed Tories back in. The Whig Supremacy (1715–1760) was enabled by the Hanoverian succession of George I in 1714 and the failed Jacobite rising of 1715 by Tory rebels. The Whigs thoroughly purged the Tories from all major positions in government, the army, the Church of England, the legal profession and local offices. The Party's hold on power was so strong and durable, historians call the period from roughly 1714 to 1783 the age of the Whig Oligarchy. The first great leader of the Whigs was Robert Walpole, who maintained control of the government through the period 1721–1742 and whose protégé Henry Pelham led from 1743 to 1754.
Rose Fuller FRS was a West Indies plantation owner and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1756 to 1777.
New Romney was abolished as a constituency by the Reform Act, the town being incorporated into the new Eastern Kent county division.
East Kent was a county constituency in Kent in South East England. It returned two Members of Parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, elected by the first past the post system.
|Parliament||First Member||Second Member|
|1386||Simon Lunceford||John Salerne|
|1388 (Feb)||William Holyngbroke||John Salerne|
|1388 (Sep)||William Holyngbroke||John Ellis|
|1390 (Jan)||John Ive||James Tiece|
|1390 (Nov)||Edmund Huchoun||James Tiece|
|1391||John Ellis||John Salerne II|
|1393||Andrew Colyn||Robert Geffe|
|1395||John Gardener||William Child|
|1397 (Jan)||John Yon||Robert Geffe|
|1399||John Gardener||John Talbot|
|1401||William Clitheroe||John Gardener|
|1402||John Lunceford||John Ive|
|1406||Robert Geffe||Thomas Rokeslee|
|1407||John Roger||Brice Scherte|
|1410||John Adam||John Lunceford|
|1411||William Clitheroe||James Lowys|
|1413 (Feb)||William Clitheroe||John Adam|
|1413 (May)||William Clitheroe||James Lowys|
|1414 (Apr)||Richard Clitheroe||John Lunceford|
|1414 (Nov)||William Clitheroe||John Maffey|
|1415||Richard Clitheroe||James Lowys|
|1416 (Mar)||Richard Clitheroe||John Adam|
|1416 (Oct)||Stephen Harry||Thomas Sparwe|
|1417||William Clitheroe||James Tiece|
|1419||Thomas Rokeslee||Thomas Smith|
|1420||Richard Clitheroe||Stephen Harry|
|1421 (May)||Richard Clitheroe||James Lowys|
|1421 (Dec)||Thomas Sparwe||Peter Newene|
|1510||John Holl||Thomas Lambard|
|1512||Sir John Scott||Clement Baker|
|1515||Richard Stuppeny||Clement Baker|
|1523||Robert Paris||not known|
|1529|| Richard Gibson, died |
and replaced 1535 by John Marshall
|1536||John Bunting||?John Marshall|
|1539||William Tadlowe||William Garrard|
|1542||William Tadlowe||William Asnothe|
|1547|| John Dering, died |
and replaced 1552 by William Tadlowe
|1553 (Mar)||Simon Padyham||not known|
|1553 (Oct)||William Tadlowe||?Sir John Guildford|
|by 1553||John Cheseman|
|1554 (Apr)||John Cheseman||Richard Bunting|
|1554 (Nov)||Gregory Holton||William Oxendon|
|1555||Richard Baker||John Herbert|
|1558||Simon Padyham||?Thomas Randolph|
|1559||John Cheseman||William Eppes|
|1562/3||Sir Christopher Alleyne||William Eppes|
|1571||William Eppes||Edmund Morrante|
|1572|| William Wilcocks, died |
and replaced July 1574 by William Eppes
|1584||Richard Williams||William Southland|
|1586||William Southland||Robert Thurbarne|
|1588||Reginald Scot||William Southland|
|1593||John Mynge||Robert Bawle|
|1597||George Coppyn||James Thurbarne|
|1601||Thomas Lake||John Mynge|
|1604-1611||Sir Robert Remington||John Plommer|
|1614||Sir Arthur Ingram||Robert Wilcock|
|1621-1622||Sir Peter Manwood||Francis Fetherston|
|1624||Francis Fetherston||Richard Godfrey|
|1625||Sir Edmund Verney||Richard Godfrey|
|1626||Richard Godfrey||Thomas Brett|
|1628||Thomas Godfrey||Thomas Brett|
|1629-1640||No Parliaments summoned|
|Year||First member||First party||Second member||Second party|
|November 1640||Thomas Webb||Royalist||(Sir) Norton Knatchbull||Parliamentarian|
|December 1648||Browne not recorded as sitting after Pride's Purge||Knatchbull excluded in Pride's Purge - seat vacant|
|1653||New Romney was unrepresented in the Barebones Parliament and the First and Second Parliaments of the Protectorate|
|January 1659||Lambert Godfrey||Sir Robert Honeywood|
|May 1659||Not represented in the restored Rump|
|April 1660||Sir Norton Knatchbull||John Knatchbull|
|1661||Sir Charles Berkeley|
|1665||Hon. Henry Brouncker|
|1668||Sir Charles Sedley|
|1685||Sir William Goulston||Thomas Chudleigh|
|1689||John Brewer||James Chadwick|
|1690||Sir Charles Sedley|
|1695||Sir William Twysden|
|1696||Sir Charles Sedley|
|1702||Sir Benjamin Bathurst|
|April 1728||Sir Robert Austen||Sir Robert Furnese||Whig|
|May 1728||David Papillon|
|1736||Sir Robert Austen|
|1741||Henry Furnese||Sir Francis Dashwood||Tory|
|1761||Sir Edward Dering||Tory||Thomas Knight|
|1774||Sir Edward Dering||Tory|
|April 1784||John Smith|
|June 1784||Richard Atkinson|
|1787||Richard Joseph Sullivan|
|1790||Sir Elijah Impey|
|1796||John Fordyce||John Willett Willett|
|1806||William Windham||Whig||Sir John Perring, 1st Baronet||Whig|
|1807||The Earl of Clonmell||Tory||Hon. George Ashburnham||Tory|
|1812||Admiral Sir John Duckworth||Tory||William Mitford||Tory|
|1818||Andrew Strahan||Tory||Richard Erle-Drax-Grosvenor|
|1820||George Hay Dawkins-Pennant||Tory|
|1830||Arthur Hill-Trevor||Ultra-Tory||William Miles||Ultra-Tory /Tory|
|March 1831||Sir Roger Gresley||Tory|
|April 1831||Sir Edward Cholmeley Dering||Tory|
Newtown was a parliamentary borough located in Newtown on the Isle of Wight, which was represented in the House of Commons of England until 1707, then in the House of Commons of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800, and finally in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1832. It was represented by two members of parliament (MPs), elected by the bloc vote system.
Newport was a rotten borough situated in Cornwall. It is now the suburb of Newport within the town of Launceston, which was itself also a parliamentary borough at the same period. It is also referred to as Newport Iuxta Launceston, to distinguish it from other constituencies named Newport.
Hythe was a constituency centred on the town of Hythe in Kent. It returned two Members of Parliament to the House of Commons until 1832, when its representation was reduced to one member. The constituency was abolished for the 1950 general election, and replaced with the new Folkestone and Hythe constituency.
Rye was a parliamentary constituency centred on the town of Rye in East Sussex. It returned two Members of Parliament to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom until its representation was halved under the Reform Act 1832.
Weymouth and Melcombe Regis was a parliamentary borough in Dorset represented in the English House of Commons, later in that of Great Britain, and finally in the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It was formed by an Act of Parliament of 1570 which amalgamated the existing boroughs of Weymouth and Melcombe Regis. Until 1832, the combined borough continued to elect the four Members of Parliament (MPs) to which its constituent parts had previously been entitled; the Great Reform Act reduced its representation to two Members, and the constituency was abolished altogether in 1885, becoming part of the new South Dorset constituency.
Monmouth Boroughs was a parliamentary constituency consisting of several towns in Monmouthshire. It returned one Member of Parliament (MP) to the House of Commons of the Parliaments of England, Great Britain, and finally the United Kingdom; until 1832 the constituency was known simply as Monmouth, though it included other "contributory boroughs".
Launceston, also known at some periods as Dunheved, was a parliamentary constituency in Cornwall which returned two Members of Parliament to the British House of Commons from 1295 until 1832, and one member from 1832 until 1918. It was a parliamentary borough until 1885, and a county constituency thereafter.
Midhurst was a parliamentary borough in Sussex, which elected two Members of Parliament (MP) to the House of Commons from 1311 until 1832, and then one member from 1832 until 1885, when the constituency was abolished. Before the Great Reform Act of 1832, it was one of the most notorious of England's rotten boroughs.
Portsmouth was a borough constituency based upon the borough of Portsmouth in Hampshire. It returned two members of parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, elected by the bloc vote system.
Bere Alston or Beeralston was a parliamentary borough in Devon, which elected two Members of Parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons from 1584 until 1832, when the constituency was abolished by the Great Reform Act as a rotten borough.
Corfe Castle was a parliamentary borough in Dorset, which elected two Members of Parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons from 1572 until 1832, when it was abolished by the Great Reform Act.
Wareham was a parliamentary borough in Dorset, which elected two Members of Parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons from 1302 until 1832, and then one member from 1832 until 1885, when the borough was abolished.
Steyning was a parliamentary borough in Sussex, England, which elected two Members of Parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons sporadically from 1298 and continuously from 1467 until 1832. It was a notorious rotten borough, and was abolished by the Great Reform Act.
Ludgershall was a parliamentary borough in Wiltshire, which elected two Members of Parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons from 1295 until 1832, when the borough was abolished by the Great Reform Act.
Winchelsea was a parliamentary constituency in Sussex, which elected two Members of Parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons from 1366 until 1832, when it was abolished by the Great Reform Act.
Norfolk was a County constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of England then of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800 and of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1832. It was represented by two Members of Parliament. In 1832 the county was divided for parliamentary purposes into two new two member divisions – East Norfolk and West Norfolk.
Kent was a parliamentary constituency covering the county of Kent in southeast England. It returned two "knights of the shire" to the House of Commons by the bloc vote system from the year 1290. Members were returned to the Parliament of England until the Union with Scotland created the Parliament of Great Britain in 1708, and to the Parliament of the United Kingdom after the union with Ireland in 1801 until the county was divided by the Reform Act 1832.
Sir Edward Dering, 6th Baronet was a British politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1761 and 1787.
Sir Robert Furnese, 2nd Baronet was an English politician who sat in the British House of Commons from 1708 until his death.
Robert Beatson, LL.D. FRSE FSA (1742-1818) was a Scottish compiler and miscellaneous writer.
Sir Lewis Bernstein Namier was a British historian of Polish-Jewish background. His best-known works were The Structure of Politics at the Accession of George III (1929), England in the Age of the American Revolution (1930) and the History of Parliament series he edited later in his life with John Brooke.
Sir John Ernest Neale, was an English historian who specialised in Elizabethan and Parliamentary history. From 1927 to 1956, he was the Astor Professor of English History at University College London.