Rake (tool)

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Wooden hand-rake Wooden rake.jpg
Wooden hand-rake
A heavy-duty bow rake for soil and rocks SoilRake.jpg
A heavy-duty bow rake for soil and rocks
A light-duty leaf rake for leaves and grass GrassRake.jpg
A light-duty leaf rake for leaves and grass

A rake (Old English raca, cognate with Dutch raak, German Rechen, from the root meaning "to scrape together", "heap up") is a broom for outside use; a horticultural implement consisting of a toothed bar fixed transversely to a handle, or tines fixed to a handle, and used to collect leaves, hay, grass, etc., and in gardening, for loosening the soil, light weeding and levelling, removing dead grass from lawns, and generally for purposes performed in agriculture by the harrow. [1]

Dutch language West Germanic language

Dutch(Nederlands ) is a West Germanic language spoken by around 23 million people as a first language and 5 million people as a second language, constituting the majority of people in the Netherlands and Belgium. It is the third most widely spoken Germanic language, after its close relatives English and German.

German language West Germanic language

German is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe. It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol (Italy), the German-speaking Community of Belgium, and Liechtenstein. It is also one of the three official languages of Luxembourg and a co-official language in the Opole Voivodeship in Poland. The languages which are most similar to German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch: Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, and Yiddish. There are also strong similarities in vocabulary with Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, although those belong to the North Germanic group. German is the second most widely spoken Germanic language, after English.

Broom cleaning tool

A broom is a cleaning tool consisting of usually stiff fibers attached to, and roughly parallel to, a cylindrical handle, the broomstick. It is thus a variety of brush with a long handle. It is commonly used in combination with a dustpan.

Contents

Large mechanized versions of rakes are used in farming, called hay rakes, are built in many different forms (e.g. star-wheel rakes, rotary rakes, etc.). Nonmechanized farming may be done with various forms of a hand rake.

Agriculture Cultivation of plants and animals to provide useful products

Agriculture is the science and art of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities. The history of agriculture began thousands of years ago. After gathering wild grains beginning at least 105,000 years ago, nascent farmers began to plant them around 11,500 years ago. Pigs, sheep and cattle were domesticated over 10,000 years ago. Plants were independently cultivated in at least 11 regions of the world. Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture in the twentieth century came to dominate agricultural output, though about 2 billion people still depended on subsistence agriculture into the twenty-first.

Hay rake

A hay rake is an agricultural rake used to collect cut hay or straw into windrows for later collection. It is also designed to fluff up the hay and turn it over so that it may dry. It is also used in the evening to protect the hay from morning dew. The next day a tedder is used to spread it again, so that the hay dries more quickly.

History

As weeding was a constant issue in the ancient and medieval Chinese agricultural process, it led to the invention of the weeding rake. The invention of the Chinese weed rake is derived from the invention of the Chinese harrow. [2] In the Chinese agricultural text Qimin Yaoshu written by the Northern Wei Dynasty official Jia Sixie. Harrows were originally called iron-teeth rakes due to its shaping. According to its shape, the Chinese harrow was divided into three sub-classifications: Strip rake, Y-shaped rake, and square rake. The harrows seen in the murals of the Wei and Jin Dynasties are strip rakes. [3]

The Qimin Yaoshu is the most completely preserved of the ancient Chinese agricultural texts, and was written by the Northern Wei Dynasty official Jia Sixie. The book is believed to have been completed in the second year of Wu Ding of Eastern Wei, 544 C.E., while another account gives the completion between 533 and 544 C.E.

Types of rakes

Modern hand-rakes usually have steel, plastic, or bamboo teeth or tines, though historically they have been made with wood or iron. The handle is often made of wood or metal. Some rakes are two-sided and made with dull blades in the shapes of slight crescents, used for removing dead grass (thatch) from lawns. When rakes have longer teeth, they may be arranged in the shape of an old-style folding fan.

Steel alloy made by combining iron and other elements

Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon, and sometimes other elements. Because of its high tensile strength and low cost, it is a major component used in buildings, infrastructure, tools, ships, automobiles, machines, appliances, and weapons.

Plastic material of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic solids

Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects.

Bamboo subfamily of plants

The bamboos are evergreen perennial flowering plants in the subfamily Bambusoideae of the grass family Poaceae. The word "bamboo" comes from the Kannada term bambu (ಬಂಬು), which was introduced to English through Indonesian and Malay.

Cultural associations

If a rake lies in the ground with the teeth facing upwards, as shown on the top picture, and someone accidentally steps on the teeth, the rake's handle can swing rapidly upwards, colliding with the victim's face. This is often seen in slapstick comedy and cartoons, such as Tom and Jerry and The Simpsons episode "Cape Feare", wherein a series of rakes become what Sideshow Bob describes as his "arch-nemesis". There is a Russian saying "to step on the same rake" (Russian : наступить на те же грабли), which means "to repeat the same silly mistake", also the word "rake" (Russian : грабли) in Russian slang means "troubles".

Cartoon Form of two-dimensional illustrated visual art

A cartoon is a type of illustration, possibly animated, typically in a non-realistic or semi-realistic style. The specific meaning has evolved over time, but the modern usage usually refers to either: an image or series of images intended for satire, caricature, or humor; or a motion picture that relies on a sequence of illustrations for its animation. Someone who creates cartoons in the first sense is called a cartoonist, and in the second sense they are usually called an animator.

<i>Tom and Jerry</i> Hanna Barbera cartoon series

Tom and Jerry is an American animated series of comedy short films created in 1940 by William Hanna and Joseph Barbera. It centers on a rivalry between the title characters Tom, a cat, and Jerry, a mouse. Many shorts also feature several recurring characters.

<i>The Simpsons</i> American animated sitcom created by Matt Groening

The Simpsons is an American animated sitcom created by Matt Groening for the Fox Broadcasting Company. The series is a satirical depiction of working-class life, epitomized by the Simpson family, which consists of Homer, Marge, Bart, Lisa, and Maggie. The show is set in the fictional town of Springfield and parodies American culture and society, television, and the human condition.

Heavy rake

This type of rake is for conditioning and dethatching soil as well as moving larger pieces of debris. Most weeds have weaker and shallower roots than grass and thus dethatching along with (afterward) necessary sunlight, fertilizer and seed, and if later necessary any remedial chemicals, makes for a good crop of grass. Larger tools (or lawnmower attachments) are more often used for large areas of de-thatching or soil preparation. However the action of making the soil bare and exposed to sun is not good and worms do not like it. It should be protected with straw afterward. Soil aeration tools do not remove weed but prepare soil without exposure.

Plastic or metal

There are pros and cons to each. Plastic rakes are generally lighter weight and lower cost. Because they can be fabricated in widths of greater dimensions they are more suitable for leaves which have recently been deposited. Metal tined rakes are better suited for spring raking when the debris is often wet or rotted and can best be collected when the metal tines penetrate to the thatch layer.

See also

Related Research Articles

Harrow (tool) agricultural tool

In agriculture, a harrow is an implement for breaking up and smoothing out the surface of the soil. In this way it is distinct in its effect from the plough, which is used for deeper tillage. Harrowing is often carried out on fields to follow the rough finish left by plowing operations. The purpose of this harrowing is generally to break up clods and to provide a finer finish, a good tilth or soil structure that is suitable for seedbed use. Coarser harrowing may also be used to remove weeds and to cover seed after sowing. Harrows differ from cultivators in that they disturb the whole surface of the soil, such as to prepare a seedbed, instead of disturbing only narrow trails that skirt crop rows.

Seedbed

A seedbed or seedling bed is the local soil environment in which seeds are planted. Often it comprises not only the soil but also a specially prepared cold frame, hotbed or raised bed used to grow the seedlings in a controlled environment into larger young plants before transplanting them into a garden or field. A seedling bed is used to increase the number of seeds that germinate.

Hoe (tool) agricultural tool

A hoe is an ancient and versatile agricultural and horticultural hand tool used to shape soil, remove weeds, clear soil, and harvest root crops. Shaping the soil includes piling soil around the base of plants (hilling), digging narrow furrows (drills) and shallow trenches for planting seeds or bulbs. Weeding with a hoe includes agitating the surface of the soil or cutting foliage from roots, and clearing soil of old roots and crop residues. Hoes for digging and moving soil are used to harvest root crops such as potatoes.

A mulch is a layer of material applied to the surface of soil. Reasons for applying mulch include conservation of soil moisture, improving fertility and health of the soil, reducing weed growth and enhancing the visual appeal of the area.

Seed drill

A seed drill is a device that sows the seeds for crops by positioning them in the soil and burying them to a specific depth. This ensures that seeds will be distributed evenly.

Roller (agricultural tool) agricultural tool

The roller is an agricultural tool used for flattening land or breaking up large clumps of soil, especially after ploughing or disc harrowing. Typically, rollers are pulled by tractors or, prior to mechanisation, a team of animals such as horses or oxen. As well as for agricultural purposes, rollers are used on cricket pitches and residential lawn areas.

Garden fork

A garden fork, spading fork, digging fork or graip is a gardening implement, with a handle and several short, sturdy tines. It is used for loosening, lifting and turning over soil in gardening and farming. It is used similarly to a spade, but in many circumstances it is more appropriate than a spade: the tines allow the implement to be pushed more easily into the ground, it can rake out stones and weeds and break up clods, it is not so easily stopped by stones, and it does not cut through weed roots or root-crops. Garden forks were originally made of wood, but the majority are now made of carbon steel or stainless steel.

In farming and gardening, the broadfork, also called a U-fork or grelinette, is a tool used to manually break up densely packed soil, like hardpan, to improve aeration and drainage.

Cultivator farm implement used for secondary tillage

A cultivator is any of several types of farm implement used for secondary tillage. One sense of the name refers to frames with teeth that pierce the soil as they are dragged through it linearly. Another sense refers to machines that use rotary motion of disks or teeth to accomplish a similar result. The rotary tiller is a principal example.

Garden tool item that is used to maintain gardens

A garden tool is any one of many tools made for gardens and gardening and overlaps with the range of tools made for agriculture and horticulture. Garden tools can also be hand tools and power tools.

Aeration is the process by which air is circulated through, mixed with or dissolved in a liquid or substance.

Lawn aerator

A lawn aerator is a garden tool designed to create holes in the soil in order to help lawn grasses grow. In compacted lawns, aeration improves soil drainage and encourages worms, microfauna and microflora which require oxygen.

McLeod (tool) two-sided blade used during wildfire suppression and trail restoration

A McLeod tool is a two-sided blade—one a rake with coarse tines, one a flat sharpened hoe—on a long, wooden handle. It is a standard tool during wildfire suppression and trail restoration. The combination tool was created in 1905 by Malcolm McLeod, a US Forest Service ranger at the Sierra National Forest.

Sand-based athletic fields are sports turf playing fields constructed on top of sand surfaces. It is important that turf managers select the most suitable type of sand when constructing these fields, as sands with different shapes offer varied pros and cons. Regular maintenance of sand-based athletic fields is just as important as the initial construction of the field. As water and other aqueous solutions are added, a layer of thatch may accumulate on the surface of the turf. There are different ways to manage this level of thatch, however the most common are aeration and vertical mowing.

Stone picker agricultural machine

A stone picker is an implement to sieve through the top layer of soil to separate and collect rocks and soil debris from good topsoil. It is usually tractor-pulled. A stone picker is similar in function to a rock windrower ; a stone picker generally digs to greater depths to remove stones and rocks.

Spring-tooth harrow tillage machine

A spring-tooth harrow, sometimes called a drag harrow, is a type of harrow, and specifically a type of tine harrow. It is a largely outdated piece of farm equipment. It uses many flexible iron teeth mounted in rows to loosen the soil before planting. It is set in the ground and raised manually and cannot be backed up; this is why it has been replaced by more modern equipment such as the chisel plow and field cultivator.

Agri-Fab, Inc. is an American manufacturer of lawn and garden attachments located in Sullivan, Illinois. Agri-Fab operates a 350,000 sq ft (33,000 m2). manufacturing facility and at peak season employs nearly 400 employees in a town of 4,700 and the surrounding 40-mile (64 km) area.

Dethatcher device that removes thatch from lawns

A dethatcher, or lawn scarifier is a device that removes thatch from lawns. Types of dethatchers include motorized dethatchers or those that can be pulled behind a garden tractor.

Grass Stitcher

A Grass Stitcher is a product primarily used to repair and aerate lawns. Common goals include weed control by agitating the surface of the soil, loosening the soil, and preparing it prior to spreading grass seed. As a tool it is hand held and designed to be used while standing and have the spiked wheels pushed back and forth over the earth to be treated.

References

  1. Wikisource-logo.svg This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Rake". Encyclopædia Britannica . 22 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 867.
  2. Lu, Yongxing. A History of Chinese Science and Technology. 2. Springer. p. 366. ISBN   978-3662513897.
  3. Ortega, Stephen; Cole, Adrian (2014). The Thinking Past: Questions and Problems in World History to 1750. Oxford University Press (published September 9, 2014). p. 329. ISBN   978-0199794621.

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