Skirmish of Loch nan Uamh

Last updated
Skirmish of Loch nan Uamh
Part of the Jacobite rising of 1745
Loch Nan Uamh - geograph.org.uk - 23934.jpg
Loch nan Uamh
Date2 May 1746 [1]
Location
Result Jacobite ships retreat [2]
Belligerents
Union flag 1606 (Kings Colors).svg British-Hanoverians from Royal Navy Jacobite Standard (1745).svg Jacobites from: French privateers
Commanders and leaders
Union flag 1606 (Kings Colors).svg Captain Noel [1] Jacobite Standard (1745).svgCaptain Rouillee [2]
Captain Lorry [2]
Strength
Three sloops-of-war (smaller than the two French frigates) [3] Two frigates [3]
Casualties and losses
Unknown 29 men killed and 85 wounded [2]

The Skirmish of Loch nan Uamh was a conflict that took place on 2 May 1746 and was part of the Jacobite rising of 1745. It was fought by the British Royal Navy against French privateers who were supporting the Jacobite rebels.

Jacobite rising of 1745 attempt by Charles Edward Stuart to regain the British throne for the exiled House of Stuart

The Jacobite rising of 1745, also known as the Forty-five Rebellion or simply the '45, was an attempt by Charles Edward Stuart to regain the British throne for his father, James Francis Edward Stuart. It took place during the War of the Austrian Succession, when the bulk of the British Army was fighting in mainland Europe, and proved to be the last in a series of revolts that began in 1689, with major outbreaks in 1708, 1715 and 1719.

Royal Navy Maritime warfare branch of the United Kingdoms military

The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years' War against the Kingdom of France. The modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century; the oldest of the UK's armed services, it is known as the Senior Service.

Contents

Background

Following the Jacobite defeat at the Battle of Culloden on 16 April 1746, two French privateer ships, the Le Mars and the La Bellone arrived at Loch nan Uamh and anchored there on 30 April 1746. [2] As they were privateers, their emblem was a black cockade which also happened to be the emblem of the British-Hanoverian supporters and as such the Jacobites on shore fired upon them. [2] [1] However, the privateers raised the French flag and the mistake was realized and sorted out. [2] [1] Le Mars was reluctant to unload her supplies (the Loch Arkaig treasure) as the British Navy was approaching and she took on board some escaping Jacobites including James Drummond, 3rd Duke of Perth and Sir Thomas Sheridan. [2]

Battle of Culloden Final confrontation of the Jacobite rising of 1745

The Battle of Culloden was the final confrontation of the Jacobite rising of 1745. On 16 April 1746, the Jacobite forces of Charles Edward Stuart were decisively defeated by Hanoverian forces commanded by William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, near Inverness in the Scottish Highlands.

Privateer private person or ship authorized by a government to attack foreign shipping

A privateer is a private person or ship that engages in maritime warfare under a commission of war. Since robbery under arms was a common aspect of seaborne trade, until the early 19th century all merchant ships carried arms. A sovereign or delegated authority issued commissions, also referred to as a letter of marque, during wartime. The commission empowered the holder to carry on all forms of hostility permissible at sea by the usages of war. This included attacking foreign vessels and taking them as prizes, and taking prize crews as prisoners for exchange. Captured ships were subject to condemnation and sale under prize law, with the proceeds divided by percentage between the privateer's sponsors, shipowners, captains and crew. A percentage share usually went to the issuer of the commission.

Mars, was a French privateer. Mars was involved in a naval battle in Loch nan Uamh during the Jacobite rising. She was captured by HMS Dreadnought off Cape Clear in 1747.

The Skirmish

On 2 May 1746 three British ships crept into the loch. [1] As the British Government ships approached Captain Rouillee of the Le Mars decided to stay at anchor, but Captain Lorry of the La Bellone set sail. [2] This allowed the Royal Navy's HMS Greyhound to give Le Mars a broadside at close quarters which caused great loss of life: [2] Nearly a score of privateers were killed and according to eyewitnesses her decks were awash with blood. [1] The crew panicked and had to be forced back to duty. [2] The La Bellone and HMS Greyhound then attacked each other and the mast of the La Bellone was broken with a broadside. [2] There was an attempt to board the La Bellone but she gave the Greyhound two broadsides. [2] The Greyhound had to move out of range and this allowed Le Mars to set sail. [2] HMS Terror tried to stop Le Mars but a volley from La Bellone disabled her. [2] Le Mars was then led by La Bellone out to a bay at the head of Loch nan Uamh, where Le Mars started her repairs, and La Bellone engaged the British ships. [2] Hundreds of spectators came to the shore to watch the battle, whom HMS Greyhound fired upon to try and stop them carrying away the gold and cargo that had been unloaded by the French ships. [2] [1] HMS Baltimore along with HMS Greyhound and HMS Terror tried to board the French ships, but Baltimore's captain sustained a head wound and her rigging was shattered. [2] She also lost her anchor and two of her masts. [2] The Baltimore then headed for The Minch to get help while the La Bellone hit the Greyhound's main mast and set fire to her hand grenades. [2] The Le Mars was in a bad state having been hit six times above the water line, seven times below the water line and with three feet of water in her hold. [2] Le Mars had also suffered 29 men killed and 85 men wounded. [2]

HMS Greyhound was a 20-gun sixth-rate ship of the Royal Navy, built in 1740-41 according to the 1733 modifications of the 1719 Establishment, and in service in the West Indies, the Americas and the Caribbean. After extensive service including the single-handed capture of two other ships of equivalent size and armament, Greyhound was driven ashore in the River Thames at Erith, Kent in January 1768. She was consequently declared unseaworthy and sold out of service three months later.

Broadside simultaneous firing of guns on one side of a ship

A broadside is the side of a ship, the battery of cannon on one side of a warship; or their coordinated fire in naval warfare. From the 16th century until the early decades of the steamship, vessels had rows of guns set in each side of the hull. Firing all guns on one side of the ship became known as a "broadside". The cannons of 18th-century men of war were accurate only at short range, and their penetrating power mediocre, entailing that the thick hulls of wooden ships could only be pierced at short ranges. These wooden ships sailed closer and closer towards each other until cannon fire would be effective. Each tried to be the first to fire a broadside, often giving one party a decisive headstart in the battle when it crippled the other ship.

20 (twenty) is the natural number following 19 and preceding 21. A group of twenty units may also be referred to as a score.

Aftermath

The French ships escaped, but another French ship returned in September and successfully rescued the Jacobite leader Charles Edward Stuart who had been in hiding. [2] Both French privateers were captured the following year by the Royal Navy. [4]

Charles Edward Stuart Jacobite pretender to the thrones of England, Scotland, Ireland, and France

Charles Edward Louis John Casimir Sylvester Severino Maria Stuart was the elder son of James Francis Edward Stuart, grandson of James II and VII, and the Stuart claimant to the throne of Great Britain after 1766. During his lifetime, he was also known as "the Young Pretender" and "the Young Chevalier"; in popular memory, he is "Bonnie Prince Charlie". He is best remembered for his role in the 1745 rising; his defeat at Culloden in April 1746 effectively ended the Stuart cause, and subsequent attempts failed to materialise, such as a planned French invasion in 1759. His escape from Scotland after the uprising led to his portrayal as a romantic figure of heroic failure.

Related Research Articles

HMS <i>Guerriere</i> (1806) ship

Guerrière was a 38-gun frigate of the French Navy, designed by Forfait. The British captured her and recommissioned her as HMS Guerriere. She is most famous for her fight against USS Constitution.

Glenfinnan human settlement in the United Kingdom

Glenfinnan is a hamlet in Lochaber area of the Highlands of Scotland. In 1745 the Jacobite rising began here when Prince Charles Edward Stuart raised his standard on the shores of Loch Shiel. Seventy years later, the 18 m (60 ft) Glenfinnan Monument, at the head of the loch, was erected to commemorate the historic event.

Archibald Cameron of Lochiel Jacobite leader

Archibald Cameron of Lochiel was a doctor and a prominent leader in the Jacobite rising of 1745. On 7 June 1753, at Tower Hill, he was the last Jacobite to be executed for high treason.

HMS <i>Coventry</i> (1757) Coventry-class Royal Navy frigate

HMS Coventry was a 28-gun sixth-rate frigate of the Royal Navy, launched in 1757 and in active service as a privateer hunter during Seven Years' War, and as part of the British fleet in India during the Anglo-French War. After seventeen years' in British service she was captured by the French in 1783, off Ganjam in the Bay of Bengal. Thereafter she spent two years as part of the French Navy until January 1785 when she was removed from service at the port of Brest. She was broken up in 1786.

Events from the year 1746 in Great Britain.

HMS <i>Donegal</i> (1798)

HMS Donegal was launched in 1794 as Barra, a Téméraire class 74-gun ship of the line of the French Navy. She was renamed Pégase in October 1795, and Hoche in December 1797. The British Royal Navy captured her on 12 October 1798 and recommissioned her as HMS Donegal.

French ship <i>Bellone</i> list of ships with the same or similar names

Eleven ships of the French Navy have borne the name Bellone, in honour of Bellona:

Princes Cairn

The Prince's Cairn marks the traditional spot from where Prince Charles Edward Stuart embarked for France from Scotland on 20 September 1746 following the failure of the Jacobite rising of 1745. The cairn is located on the shores of Loch nan Uamh in Lochaber. It was erected in 1956 by the 1745 Association, a historical society dedicated to the study, recording and preservation of the memories of the Jacobite period.

Action of 9 July 1806

The Action of 9 July 1806 was a minor engagement between a French privateer frigate and British forces off Southern Ceylon during the Napoleonic Wars. French privateers operating from the Indian Ocean islands of Île Bonaparte and Île de France were a serious threat to British trade across the Indian Ocean during the Wars, and the British deployed numerous methods of intercepting them, including disguising warships as merchant vessels to lure privateers into unequal engagements with more powerful warships. Cruising near the Little Basses Reef on the Southern coast of Ceylon, the 34-gun privateer Bellone was sighted by the 16-gun British brig HMS Rattlesnake, which began chasing the larger French vessel. At 15:15, a third ship was sighted to the south, which proved to be the 74-gun ship of the line HMS Powerful, disguised as an East Indiaman.

Battle of Delaware Bay Naval battle of the American Revolutionary War

The Battle of Delaware Bay, or the Battle of Cape May, was a naval engagement fought between the Kingdom of Great Britain and United States during the American Revolutionary War. A British squadron of three vessels attacked three American privateers, that were escorting a fleet of merchantmen. The ensuing combat in Delaware Bay, near Cape May, ended with an American victory over a superior British force.

Skirmish of Tongue

The Skirmish of Tongue was a battle that took place in March 1746 near Tongue in the Scottish Highlands during the Jacobite Rising of 1745.

French ship <i>Mars</i> list of ships with the same or similar names

Several ships of the French Navy have borne the name Mars, after Mars, the Roman god of war:

HMS Weazel or Weazle was a 16-gun ship-sloop of the Royal Navy, in active service during the War of the Austrian Succession, the Seven Years' War and the American Revolutionary War. Launched in 1745, she remained in British service until 1779 and captured a total of 11 enemy vessels. She was also present, but not actively engaged, at the Second Battle of Cape Finisterre in 1747.

Antoine Vincent Walsh, was an Irish-born shipowner and slave trader, operating in Nantes, France; whose family were exiled Jacobites.

Skirmish of Loch Ailort

The Skirmish of Loch Ailort was a conflict that took place on 9 May 1746 at Loch Ailort, in the district of Moidart, Scottish Highlands and was part of the Jacobite rising of 1745.

Skirmish of Arisaig

The Skirmish of Arisaig took place on 16 May 1746 at Arisaig, Scotland and was the last armed conflict of the Jacobite rising of 1745. It was fought between a British Government force and Jacobites of the Clan Macdonald of Clanranald.

Bellone, was a French privateer. Bellone was involved in a naval battle in Loch nan Uamh during the Jacobite rising. She was captured in 1747. She was taken into Royal Navy service as HMS Bellona and was sold in 1749.

HMS Terror was a 14-gun bomb vessel launched in 1741 and sold in 1754.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Sadler, John (2012). Blood on the Wave: Scottish Sea Battles. Birlinn. p. no page numbers.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 McKerracher, Mairead (2012). Jacobite Dictionary. Neil Wilson Publishing. p. no page numbers.
  3. 1 2 Reid, Stuart (2002). Culloden Moor 1746: The Death of the Jacobite Cause. Campaign series. Osprey Publishing. pp. 88–90. ISBN   1-84176-412-4.
  4. Winfield, Rif (2007). British Warships in the Age of Sail 1714–1792: Design, Construction, Careers and Fates. Seaforth Publishing. pp. 126, 224. ISBN   9781783469253.

See also

Jacobite risings Series of uprisings, rebellions and wars in Great Britain and Ireland between 1688 and 1746

The Jacobite risings, also known as the Jacobite rebellions or the War of the British Succession, were a series of uprisings, rebellions, and wars in Great Britain and Ireland occurring between 1688 and 1746. The uprisings had the aim of returning James II of England and VII of Scotland, the last Catholic British monarch, and later his descendants of the House of Stuart, to the throne of Great Britain after they had been deposed by Parliament during the Glorious Revolution. The series of conflicts takes its name Jacobitism, from Jacobus, the Latin form of James.