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Therapy BD cropped.jpg
Therapy? (l-r; Michael McKeegan, Andy Cairns, Neil Cooper) at Beautiful Days Festival in 2017.
Background information
Origin Larne, Northern Ireland
Years active1989present
Labels Wiiija, A&M, Ark 21, Spitfire, Blast, Amazing Record Co., Marshall Records
Members Andy Cairns
Michael McKeegan
Neil Cooper
Past members Fyfe Ewing
Martin McCarrick
Graham Hopkins

Therapy? are an alternative rock band from Northern Ireland. The band was formed in 1989 by guitarist–vocalist Andy Cairns from Ballyclare and drummer-vocalist Fyfe Ewing from Larne, Northern Ireland. The band recorded their first demo with Cairns filling in on bass guitar. To complete the lineup, the band recruited Larne bassist Michael McKeegan. [1] [2] The band signed with major label A&M Records in 1992, for which they released four albums, most notably Troublegum in 1994 and Infernal Love in 1995. Ewing's departure in early 1996 preceded the arrivals of his replacement Graham Hopkins, and Martin McCarrick on cello and guitar. Neil Cooper replaced Hopkins on drums in 2002. Following the departure of McCarrick in 2004, the band have remained a stable three-piece since.

Alternative rock is a style of rock music that emerged from the independent music underground of the 1980s and became widely popular in the 1990s. In this instance, the word "alternative" refers to the genre's distinction from mainstream rock music. The term's original meaning was broader, referring to a generation of musicians unified by their collective debt to either the musical style or simply the independent, DIY ethos of punk rock, which in the late 1970s laid the groundwork for alternative music. At times, "alternative" has been used as a catch-all description for music from underground rock artists that receives mainstream recognition, or for any music, whether rock or not, that is seen to be descended from punk rock. Although the genre evolved in the late 1970s and 1980s, music anticipating the sound of the genre can be found as early as the 1960s, with bands such as The Velvet Underground.

Northern Ireland Part of the United Kingdom lying in the north-east of the island of Ireland, created 1921

Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region. Northern Ireland shares a border to the south and west with the Republic of Ireland. In 2011, its population was 1,810,863, constituting about 30% of the island's total population and about 3% of the UK's population. Established by the Northern Ireland Act 1998 as part of the Good Friday Agreement, the Northern Ireland Assembly holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters, while other areas are reserved for the British government. Northern Ireland co-operates with the Republic of Ireland in some areas, and the Agreement granted the Republic the ability to "put forward views and proposals" with "determined efforts to resolve disagreements between the two governments".

Andrew James Cairns, is a founding member, singer, guitarist, and songwriter for Therapy?, a punk rock/alternative metal band from Northern Ireland.


Therapy? are currently signed to UK independent label Marshall Records. The band has released 15 full-length studio albums and have sold over two million albums worldwide. [3]

Marshall Amplification Company

Marshall Amplification is an English company that designs and manufactures music amplifiers, speaker cabinets, brands personal headphones and earphones, and, having acquired Natal Drums, drums and bongos. It was founded by drum shop owner and drummer Jim Marshall, and is now based in Bletchley, Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire.


Early years (1989–1992)

While attending a charity gig at the Jordanstown Polytechnic in early 1989, Andy Cairns noticed Fyfe Ewing playing drums in a punk covers band. The two spoke afterwards and agreed to meet for rehearsal in Fyfe's house in Larne with Andy playing a small practice amp and Fyfe playing his kit with brushes. In the summer they recorded a four track demo tape (Thirty Seconds of Silence) with Andy playing a bass guitar borrowed from Fyfe's classmate Michael McKeegan. Deciding to play live, they recruited McKeegan and played their debut gig at the Belfast Art College supporting Decadence Within on 20 August 1989. They followed this up with another four track demo tape (Meat Abstract). Their sound was becoming highly influenced by artists of the indie rock movement such as The Jesus Lizard, Big Black, and The Membranes as well as new beat disco acts such as Belgian outfit Erotic Dissidents. [4]


Jordanstown is a townland and electoral ward in County Antrim, Northern Ireland. It is within the urban area of Newtownabbey and the Newtownabbey Borough Council area. It is also situated in the civil parish of Carnmoney and the historic barony of Belfast Lower. It had a population of 5494 in the 2001 census, with an average age of 34.

Fyfe Alexander Ewing, is best known as the original drummer and founding member of rock band Therapy?.

Larne Civil parish in County Antrim, Northern Ireland

Larne is a seaport and industrial market town, as well as a civil parish, on the east coast of County Antrim, Northern Ireland, with a population of 18,323 people in the 2008 Estimate. The Larne Local Government District had a population of 32,180 in 2011. It has been used as a seaport for over 1,000 years, and is today a major passenger and freight roll-on roll-off port. Larne is administered by Mid and East Antrim Borough Council. Together with parts of the neighbouring districts of Antrim and Newtownabbey and Causeway Coast and Glens, it forms the East Antrim constituency for elections to the Westminster Parliament and Northern Ireland Assembly. The civil parish is situated in the historic barony of Glenarm Upper.

Therapy? released its first single, called Meat Abstract in July 1990. The single was limited to 1000 copies, and released on the bands' own Multifuckinational Records. During the summer of that year, the band made its first tour through the United Kingdom with The Beyond, catching the attention of influential DJ John Peel along the way. The band's early years followed the familiar pattern of hard graft on the local alternative music scene, with Cairns often putting in a full day at the Michelin tyre factory (where he worked as a quality controller), then speeding across Northern Ireland in order to make it to gigs. The band also took whatever support slot they could, opening for the likes of Loop, Ride, Teenage Fanclub, Inspiral Carpets, Tad, Fugazi and Ned's Atomic Dustbin. Therapy? quickly came to the attention of local music fans with their distinctively uncompromising style. Their use of guitar feedback as a "fourth instrument" and unconventional song structures, combined with a darkly original approach to lyrics and imaginative use of samples pulled from cult movies and obscure documentaries, led them to be spotted in 1990 by London-based independent label Wiiija Records . The move was helped by Lesley Rankine of Silverfish, who passed the band's first single on to Gary Walker of Wiiija. [4]

The Beyond were a progressive metal band from Derby, England. The band performed under this name between 1988 and 1993, then under the name Gorilla from 1995 to 1998.

John Peel English disc jockey, radio presenter, record producer and journalist

John Robert Parker Ravenscroft,, known professionally as John Peel, was an English disc jockey, radio presenter, record producer and journalist. He was the longest serving of the original BBC Radio 1 DJs, broadcasting regularly from 1967 until his death in 2004.

Michelin French tire company

Michelin is a French tyre manufacturer based in Clermont-Ferrand in the Auvergne région of France. It is the second largest tyre manufacturer in the world after Bridgestone and larger than both Goodyear and Continental. In addition to the Michelin brand, it also owns the BFGoodrich, Kleber, Tigar, Riken, Kormoran and Uniroyal tyre brands. Michelin is also notable for its Red and Green travel guides, its roadmaps, the Michelin stars that the Red Guide awards to restaurants for their cooking, and for its company mascot Bibendum, colloquially known as the Michelin Man.

The band's first album, July 1991's Babyteeth , and its January 1992 follow-up, Pleasure Death , were successful enough to earn the band a major label deal with A&M Records. Both albums were underground successes, hitting number 1 in the UK Indie Charts. The attention led to support slots with both Babes In Toyland and Hole on their respective UK tours. A compilation of the two albums entitled Caucasian Psychosis was prepared for the North American market, [4] and the band embarked on their first U.S. tour in October 1992.

<i>Pleasure Death</i> 1992 studio album by Therapy?

Pleasure Death is the second (mini-)album by the band Therapy?. It was released on 27 January 1992 on Wiiija Records. The album was recorded on 14 and 15 August 1991, and mixed on 16 and 17 August 1991, at Southern Studios, London. It reached number 1 in the UK Indie Charts.

A&M Records American historical record label

A&M Records was an American record label founded as an independent company by Herb Alpert and Jerry Moss in 1962. Due to the success of the discography A&M released, the label garnered interest and was acquired by PolyGram in 1989 and began distributing releases from Polydor Ltd. from the UK. Throughout its operations, A&M housed well-known acts such as Joe Cocker, Procol Harum, Captain & Tennille, Sting, Sergio Mendes, Ozark Mountain Daredevils, Supertramp, Bryan Adams, Burt Bacharach, Liza Minnelli, The Carpenters, Paul Williams, Janet Jackson, Cat Stevens, Peter Frampton, Elkie Brooks, Carole King, Styx, Extreme, Amy Grant, Joan Baez, the Human League, The Police, CeCe Peniston, Blues Traveler, Soundgarden, Duffy and Sheryl Crow.

Babes in Toyland (band) American rock band

Babes in Toyland is an American punk rock band formed in Minneapolis, Minnesota in 1987. The band was founded by vocalist and guitarist Kat Bjelland, a native of Oregon, along with drummer Lori Barbero and bassist Michelle Leon, who was later replaced by Maureen Herman in 1992.

Their debut A&M record, Nurse , made its way into UK's Top 40 Album Chart in November 1992, while lead single "Teethgrinder" became the band's first Top 40 single in both the UK [5] and Ireland. [6] The grunge revolution was in full swing, with US outfit Nirvana leading the way. Predictably, the media began to draw comparisons between the two bands. The heavy guitars and inventive drumming that was swiftly becoming Therapy?'s trademark led them more towards the grunge camp than away from it. [4]

<i>Nurse</i> (album) 1992 studio album by Therapy?

Nurse is the first major label album released by the band Therapy?. It was released on 2 November 1992 on A&M Records.

Teethgrinder 1992 single by Therapy?

Teethgrinder was a single released by the band Therapy?, taken from their album Nurse (1992). It was released on 19 October 1992 through A&M Records. The single reached number 30 in the UK Singles Chart, and number 19 in the Irish Singles Chart.

Grunge is a rock music genre and subculture that emerged during the mid-1980s in the Pacific Northwest U.S. state of Washington, particularly in Seattle and nearby towns. The early grunge movement revolved around Seattle's independent record label Sub Pop and the region's underground music scene. By the early 1990s its popularity had spread, with grunge bands appearing in California, then emerging in other parts of the United States and in Australia, building strong followings and signing major record deals.

The success (1993–1995)

If there was one true "breakthrough" year in the band's history, it would almost certainly be 1993. The release of the Shortsharpshock EP catapulted Therapy? into the Top 40, peaking at nine, featuring the lead track Screamager. The single led to the first of several appearances on the venerable UK music show Top of the Pops. Two more UK Top 40 EPs Face the Strange and Opal Mantra followed, as the band toured heavily on the European festival circuit, made two separate jaunts to the United States in support of Kings X initially, and then both Helmet and The Jesus Lizard, and played their debut shows in Japan. [4] Compilations of the three EP's were released in the U.S. and Japan ( Hats Off to the Insane ), and in Europe ( Born in a Crash ).

1994 saw the release of the commercially successful Troublegum album in February which earned the band appearances at a string of rock and indie festivals, including Reading (third consecutive appearance), Donington and Phoenix in the UK alone, as well as a clutch of top 40 singles. It achieved a string of nominations in end-of-year polls, including a Mercury Music Prize nomination, and success at the Kerrang! Awards. [7] [4]

With impatience mounting for a new album, Infernal Love was released in June 1995. This time, the press reaction was lukewarm. The band had attempted to create a "cinematic" record with Belfast DJ David Holmes employed to link each track with "insanity", but in the eyes of many, had produced a disjointed piece over-subscribed with ballads. Despite a second consecutive Donington appearance at Metallica's request, and singles Stories and Loose charting in the UK earlier in the year, it was clear that Therapy? had changed direction. Although the string laden single Diane (originally by Hüsker Dü ) was a Top 10 hit in 15 European countries later in the year, much of the early momentum had gone. [4]

Ewing quits / Four piece (1996–1998)

Fyfe Ewing left the band in January 1996. The band quickly recruited Graham Hopkins to replace Ewing as well as the permanent addition of guest cellist Martin McCarrick, and steadily toured throughout the US and Canada in 1996. [4]

After the tour wound up in October 1996, Therapy? finally took a long break. They reconvened after a few months and spent most of 1997 writing, rehearsing and recording the follow-up to Infernal Love . [8] [4]

While the Church of Noise single in March 1998 failed commercially, it marked the return of the band following three years out of the spotlight. The Semi-Detached album transcended the trajectory of Troublegum and Infernal Love with their dark, broody atmosphere. [9] However, promotion for the album was scant at best, due to problems at the A&M label, which culminated in the loss of their record deal with the company. Without label support, Cairns and McKeegan needed to finance the band's European tour in late 1998 themselves. [4]

The turn of the millennium (1999–2003)

The band's sentiment towards newer alternative metal bands was expressed in the song Ten Year Plan from the band's uncompromising 1999 Ark21 album Suicide Pact - You First , which was packed full of vitriol, discontent and barely-repressed musical aggression. This album revealed a fuller-sound, yet was noticeably lacking in songs suitable of mainstream-radio airplay. [10] [4]

The following year saw the release of the So Much For The Ten Year Plan-A Retrospective 1990-2000 album which (in title at least) was a self-deprecating poke at the bands' difficulties with corporate rock in recent years. It also allowed the band to fulfill some outstanding obligations to Universal Music. [4]

Therapy? in studio.(Seattle 2001) L-R-Graham Hopkins; Andy Cairns; Gabor Szakacsi (Sledgeback and C.A.F.B.); Michael McKeegan.-Front: Martin McCarrick Szakacsi Therapy2.jpg
Therapy? in studio.(Seattle 2001) L-R-Graham Hopkins; Andy Cairns; Gabor Szakacsi (Sledgeback and C.A.F.B.); Michael McKeegan.-Front: Martin McCarrick

Therapy? recorded follow-up record Shameless in early 2001 in Seattle. The album, produced by the legendary Jack Endino, was delayed release by record company Ark21 until September. Graham Hopkins, who was unhappy with his musical limitation within the band, quit in December 2001. Following Hopkins' departure, the band yet again found themselves without a drummer and a record deal. [4]

The band toured Europe in 2002 with ex-3 Colours Red drummer Keith Baxter. Hopkins was permanently replaced in Therapy? by ex-The Beyond/Cable/Gorilla drummer Neil Cooper, while the band signed a new record deal with Spitfire Records. [4]

This line-up lasted one album, the commercially inclined High Anxiety . The bands’ first home video release, a DVD entitled Scopophobia was released shortly afterwards, consisting of a full concert recorded live at Belfast's Mandella Hall in June 2003, promo videos and other extras. The band completed a UK tour at the end of 2003 as a three piece, due to McCarrick leaving the tour midway through owing to a perforated eardrum.

Back to a three piece (2004–2009)

McCarrick left the band permanently in March 2004, and the band were now slimmed down to a permanent three piece again for the first time since 1995. Never Apologise Never Explain was released in September 2004 to an audience re-acquainted with the three-piece Therapy? and was reminiscent of the claustrophobic sound of their earlier material. [11]

The following album One Cure Fits All was released in April 2006. The album, produced by Pedro Ferreira, was a return to the melodic tendencies of High Anxiety and again divided opinion among the band's fans. [11]

On 19 September 2006, Therapy? performed an exclusive studio show of songs chosen by fans who had voted for their three favourite tracks from a lengthy list on the band's website. These votes were counted and the twelve tracks with the most votes were then performed and recorded (both as audio and video). In early 2007, these tracks became available to buy from the band's official website. The Webgig is no longer available to purchase. [12] In addition to this release, the band received some attention from their old record company Universal Records (who own the rights to the band's material recorded on A&M Records) who released both a DVD of old promo clips ( Gold ) and a double-CD compilation of BBC sessions (Music Through A Cheap Transistor) in 2007. On the touring front, Therapy? focused on markets they had not usually played, including a slot at the NXNE festival in Canada, festival dates in Europe (one of which was as a late replacement for Helmet at the Nova Rock Festival) and a tour through countries such as Romania, Croatia and Serbia, even playing two gigs on Reunion Island, off the East African coast. The band ended 2007 by supporting New Model Army at their Christmas gig in Cologne.

Therapy? were a last minute replacement for Biffy Clyro on the Jägermeister Rock Liga tour of Germany which lasted five dates in February 2008. These dates were the only gigs played in 2008 as the band focused their energies exclusively on recording the new record. Therapy? began recording the new album in late July at Blast Studios in Newcastle and finished recording by late August. It was produced by Andy Gill. Video of rehearsals surfaced on Therapy?'s website offering previews of the new work, showcasing a more rythmetic jazz-influenced direction (Rehearsal), [13] alongside a rough track typical of newer Therapy? output (Clowns Galore). [14] The album, entitled Crooked Timber , was released on 23 March 2009 via Blast Records/Global Music. [15] The band performed the new album in its entirety on selected live dates in May, played various European festivals throughout the summer (including a debut appearance at Oxegen in Ireland and a second outing at England's Download) and toured Europe extensively from October to December.

Twentieth anniversary (2010–2013)

To mark the 20th anniversary of their debut commercial recording release, Therapy? performed for three consecutive nights at London's Monto Water Rats in March which were recorded for the bands' first official live album entitled We're Here To The End , [16] released in November. A deluxe gold edition of 2009's Crooked Timber album was released on 19 July. Therapy? also appeared at European festivals in the summer, including at Knebworth Sonisphere on 31 July when the band performed the Troublegum album in its entirety. [17] Later in 2010, the band performed several "Troublegum & more" sets throughout Europe as part of their 20th anniversary celebrations.

In December 2010, the band began recording their thirteenth studio album, entitled A Brief Crack of Light , [18] in Newcastle's Blast Studio. The album recording was completed in February 2011 and mixing began in March. [19] In late May 2011, the group announced a change of plan for the new album; another recording session was planned for June in order to record new songs that had emerged. Those songs were mixed in July 2011 and included, along with songs from the first session, for the new album. The album was released in February 2012. [20] A preceding single and video entitled Living in the Shadow of the Terrible Thing was released in January 2012. [21]

In May 2013, Cairns embarked on his first ever solo acoustic tour of the UK, as well as some dates in Europe. To especially mark the tour, he released a CD of acoustic material for sale exclusively at the shows, comprising 12 Therapy? songs, 6 original tracks freshly written for the tour and a cover version, all recorded in late April in Newcastle's Blast Studios [22]

The Gemil Box was released on 18 November 2013; a career-spanning box set of rare and unreleased material. Contents included remastered versions of Nurse, Troublegum, Infernal Love and Semi-Detached, 3 CD's of rare and unreleased tracks, a DVD of the bands' 2010 Sonisphere performance of the Troublegum album, official bootlegs of London ULU '91 and London Mean Fiddler '92, a 12" vinyl of their early demo releases and a cassette of a live recording from Dublin 1990. [23]

Deluxe Edition releases of both Troublegum and Infernal Love were released by Universal Music on 31 March 2014. [24] The band promoted these releases with a series of retro video and audio uploads to their official YouTube channel, proceeding a short UK tour in early April. A compilation of singles from 1992 to 1998 followed on 14 April 2014 via Spectrum Records, a subsidiary of Universal Music, entitled Stories: The Singles Collection.

Disquiet and acoustic shows (2014–2017)

On 18 February 2014, the band began pre-production on studio album number 14 with producer Tom Dalgety in their now usual surroundings of Blast Studios in Newcastle. The session finished on 28 February with 18 tracks laid down in demo form. [25] Having chosen 11 songs, the band began recording the album proper on 17 April 2014 and it was completed on 30 April 2014. [24] The album, entitled Disquiet , was released on the bands' new record label on 23 March 2015. Pre-orders of the album were announced on 23 February 2015 and included an instant download of two album tracks and an exclusive pre-order track called We Kill People. A digital only single called Still Hurts, featuring two more non-album tracks, was released on 9 March 2015.

The band began the first leg of their Disquiet Tour in the UK in March, before taking in the Netherlands, Belgium and Germany, and returning to the UK throughout April. Their performance in Utrecht was filmed by 'Quantum VR Media' for a future 360 VR release. In early May, Therapy? recorded a session for XFM, their 4th overall following previous sessions in 2001, 2004 and 2012. Deathstimate was released as a download only single on 30 October 2015. The single Tides was released on 15 April 2016, [26] although it was available in early March to purchase on limited edition CD at the bands' UK tour performing the Infernal Love album in its entirety. Summer festivals on the European circuit followed, including a date at the Wacken Open Air in Germany. [27] Therapy? performed a fully acoustic "Wood & Wire" tour through Belgium, Holland, Austria, Germany and the UK from 14 November until 1 December 2016. [28] A newly recorded 11 track acoustic album entitled Wood & Wire was available for purchase on CD at these shows. A six date Irish Wood & Wire tour took place in April 2017.

On 21 July 2017 the band announced a double live acoustic album, Communion: Live at the Union Chapel , for release on 21 August 2017. [29] The album was recorded in London on 1 December 2016 during the "Wood & Wire" European tour.

Cleave (2018–present)

On 15 January 2018 the band began recording their 15th studio album at Blast Recording in Newcastle with Chris Sheldon producing. Recording was completed on 6 February 2018. [30] In March, the band completed a 22-date UK and Ireland tour supporting The Stranglers.

On 10 May 2018, the band announced via their social media that they signed a worldwide record deal with Marshall Records

"Absolutely delighted to announce we have signed to @marshallrecs for a worldwide deal! The first single, “Callow”, from our 15th album “CLEAVE” will be released Fri May 25th 2018" [31]

A second single, "Wreck it Like Beckett" was released as a digital download on 7 September 2018, preceding the release of "Cleave" on 21 September 2018, following an extensive Pledge Music pre-order campaign which featured signed CD's, coloured vinyl, black vinyl and test presses.

_Flag 53 [2007] c.f. cleave

Question mark suffix

Much has been made over the years of the unusual question mark suffix to the band's name. In early interviews the band said that the name was "really deep" and intended to raise the question "do you need therapy?", but in a 1992 interview guitarist Andy Cairns admitted that it was a chance design when he was working on band's first record sleeve. Working with Letraset transfers, Cairns misaligned the band's name, and used the "?" icon to fill the space to the right. "And then we thought, well maybe we can bluff our way through when people start reading into it." [32]

Collaborations and other appearances

Therapy? collaborated with the short-lived rap group Fatal (part of the Soul Assassin camp, not to be confused with the hip hop artist Fatal) on the track "Come and Die" from the soundtrack to the 1993 film Judgment Night . Cairns has contributed vocals and guitar to various recordings with different bands throughout the years – "Jonestown Mind" (1994) and "Waiting For Earthquakes" (2001) by The Almighty, "Rehab" (2000) by UK band Manchild, "Radio" (2001) by UK band Dog Toffee (although this version remains unreleased), "Gleason" (2002) by Northern Irish band Throat, "Get Your Groove On" (2003) by The Wildhearts, "F8" (2005) by This Is Menace, "The Second Triumvirate of Lavonia" (2009) by Italian band Inferno, "Crisis? What Crisis?" and "Ignite" (2014) by UK band Thirty Six Strategies and "Celebrating Sinking" (2015) by Ricky Warwick. Therapy? appear on the 2005 "Welt Turbojugend Tage" DVD, performing three songs live in Hamburg. Therapy?, along with Biohazard and Gunshot, contributed with remixes on Pitchshifter's 1995 album, The Remix War .

Some of their songs were used in movies and video games. "Auto Surgery" and "Teethgrinder" are featured on Electronic Arts' video game Road Rash for the 3DO, Saturn, and PlayStation consoles while "Nowhere" is featured on EA Sports's video game "NCAA Football 2006" for the Xbox, Nintendo Gamecube, and PlayStation 2 consoles.

"Accelerator" appears in Dominic Sena's 1993 movie Kalifornia while "He's Not That Kind Of Girl" and "God Kicks" appear in John Carney's 2001 movie On The Edge, starring Cillian Murphy."Screamager" and "Nowhere" are heard on the first series of the BBC sitcom Game On . "Speedball" appears in the movie S.F.W..


Therapy? covered the Black Sabbath's "Iron Man", [33] and other songs such The Police's "Invisible Sun", The Misfits' "Where Eagles Dare", The Smiths' "Vicar in a Tutu" and Turbonegro's "Denim Demon". Cairns cited in his other favorite bands, Siouxsie and the Banshees for the album Juju , [34] and Captain Beefheart and his Magic Band for the album Trout Mask Replica . [35] Influences from bands such as Sonic Youth, The Jesus Lizard, Killing Joke and Helmet can also be heard in Therapy?'s music.

Band members

Current members

Former members

Touring members




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National University Cancer Institute, Singapore Hospital in Singapore, Singapore

The National University Cancer Institute, Singapore is the country's second national specialty centre under the National University Health System (NUHS) for the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation and palliative care of cancer. It is the only public cancer centre in Singapore treating both paediatric and adult cancers in one facility.

This is a historical timeline of the development and progress of cancer treatments, which includes time of discovery, progress, and approval of the treatments.


  1. Peter Buckley (2003). The Rough Guide to Rock. Rough Guides. p. 2102. ISBN   978-1843531050. THERAPY? Formed Belfast, Northern Ireland, 1987. In 1988 Andy Cairns took a copy of the first self-financed single by his power trio, Therapy?, to a Revolting Cocks gig. He handed it over to the support band, Silverfish, and they ...
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  9. "Going Back To Their Roots For Sixth Album - dotmusic (February 16th, 1998) - The Official Therapy? Site". Archived from the original on 27 May 2012. Retrieved 27 June 2016.
  10. "Features - Exclusive! Interview With Ther". Retrieved 27 June 2016.
  11. 1 2 ">> Articles >> Therapy?: It's In The Way That You Use It". The Metal Forge. 19 April 2007. Retrieved 27 June 2016.
  12. "Therapy? - Webgig (Trailer)". YouTube . Retrieved 27 June 2016.
  13. "Rehearsal". YouTube. 14 April 2014. Retrieved 27 June 2016.
  14. "Therapy? - Clowns Galore (Demo)". YouTube. 27 March 2008. Retrieved 27 June 2016.
  15. "Audio : Crooked Timber". Retrieved 27 June 2016.
  16. "HOT PRESS ALBUM REVIEW: THERAPY? 'DISQUIET'". Retrieved 27 June 2016.
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  23. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 28 October 2013. Retrieved 16 November 2013.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
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  25. "Therapy? : Diary". Retrieved 27 June 2016.
  26. "Interview with Andy Cairns (Vocals, Guitars) (In Therapy?) Myglobalmind Online Magazine". 23 December 2015. Retrieved 27 June 2016.
  27. "Wacken Open Air: Therapy? Biography".
  28. "Wood & Wire acoustic tour". Archived from the original on 11 October 2016.
  29. "Communion: Live at the Union Chapel live album".
  30. "New Album finished recording".
  31. "New record deal with Marshall Records".
  32. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 11 February 2009. Retrieved 19 February 2009.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  33. "Were Ozzy & Therapy? really in the studio together for "Iron Man"? on Wall of Mouths". Retrieved 27 June 2016.
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  35. "Q&A: Andy Cairns on Samuel Beckett, The Exorcist and The Jesus Lizard". Irishnews. 11 August 2016. Archived from the original on 11 August 2016. Retrieved 11 August 2016.