Thyroid dysgenesis

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Thyroid dysgenesis
Other namesThyroid agenesis
CT and scintigraphy of lingular ectopic thyroid.jpg
CT scan and scintigraphy images of lingular ectopic thyroid
Specialty Endocrinology

Thyroid dysgenesis is a cause of congenital hypothyroidism [1] where the thyroid is missing, ectopic, or severely underdeveloped.It should not be confused with iodine deficiency, or with other forms of congenital hypothyroidism, such as thyroid dyshormonogenesis, where the thyroid is present but not functioning correctly.

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Congenital hypothyroidism caused by thyroid dysgenesis can be associated with PAX8. [2]

Ectopic thyroid

An ectopic thyroid, also called accessory thyroid gland, is a form of thyroid dysgenesis in which an entire or parts of the thyroid located in another part of the body than what is the usual case. A completely ectopic thyroid gland may be located anywhere along the path of the descent of the thyroid during its embryological development, although it is most commonly located at the base of the tongue, just posterior to the foramen cecum of the tongue. In this location, an aberrant or ectopic thyroid gland is known as a lingual thyroid. [3] If the thyroid fails to descend to even higher degree, then the resulting final resting point of the thyroid gland may be high in the neck, such as just below the hyoid bone. [3] Parts of ectopic thyroid tissue ("accessory thyroid tissue") can also occur, and arises from remnants of the thyroglossal duct, and may appear anywhere along its original length. [3] Accessory thyroid tissue may be functional, but is generally insufficient for normal function if the main thyroid gland is entirely removed. [3]

Lingual thyroid is 4-7 times more common in females, with symptoms developing during puberty, pregnancy or menopause. Lingual thyroid may be asymptomatic, or give symptoms such as dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), dysphonia (difficulty talking) and dyspnea (difficulty breathing). [4]

Related Research Articles

Hyperthyroidism Thyroid gland disease that involves an overproduction of thyroid hormone.

Hyperthyroidism is the condition that occurs due to excessive production of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland. Thyrotoxicosis is the condition that occurs due to excessive thyroid hormone of any cause and therefore includes hyperthyroidism. Some, however, use the terms interchangeably. Signs and symptoms vary between people and may include irritability, muscle weakness, sleeping problems, a fast heartbeat, heat intolerance, diarrhea, enlargement of the thyroid, hand tremor, and weight loss. Symptoms are typically less severe in the elderly and during pregnancy. An uncommon complication is thyroid storm in which an event such as an infection results in worsening symptoms such as confusion and a high temperature and often results in death. The opposite is hypothyroidism, when the thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormone.

Thyroid Endocrine gland in the neck; secretes hormones that influence metabolism

The thyroid, or thyroid gland, is an endocrine gland in the neck consisting of two connected lobes. The lower two thirds of the lobes are connected by a thin band of tissue called the thyroid isthmus. The thyroid is located at the front of the neck, below the Adam's apple. Microscopically, the functional unit of the thyroid gland is the spherical thyroid follicle, lined with follicular cells (thyrocytes), and occasional parafollicular cells that surround a lumen containing colloid. The thyroid gland secretes three hormones: the two thyroid hormones – triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) – and a peptide hormone, calcitonin. The thyroid hormones influence the metabolic rate and protein synthesis, and in children, growth and development. Calcitonin plays a role in calcium homeostasis. Secretion of the two thyroid hormones is regulated by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which is secreted from the anterior pituitary gland. TSH is regulated by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), which is produced by the hypothalamus.

Hypothyroidism Endocrine disease

Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid or low thyroid, is a disorder of the endocrine system in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone. It can cause a number of symptoms, such as poor ability to tolerate cold, a feeling of tiredness, constipation, slow heart rate, depression, and weight gain. Occasionally there may be swelling of the front part of the neck due to goiter. Untreated cases of hypothyroidism during pregnancy can lead to delays in growth and intellectual development in the baby or congenital iodine deficiency syndrome.

Congenital hypothyroidism hypothyroidism that is present at birth

Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is thyroid hormone deficiency present at birth. If untreated for several months after birth, severe congenital hypothyroidism can lead to growth failure and permanent intellectual disability. Infants born with congenital hypothyroidism may show no effects, or may display mild effects that often go unrecognized as a problem. Significant deficiency may cause excessive sleeping, reduced interest in nursing, poor muscle tone, low or hoarse cry, infrequent bowel movements, significant jaundice, and low body temperature.

Thyroglossal cyst A congenital benign cyst arising from the remnants of the thyroglossal duct. It is usually located in the midline of the neck.

A thyroglossal cyst is a fibrous cyst that forms from a persistent thyroglossal duct. Thyroglossal cysts can be defined as an irregular neck mass or a lump which develops from cells and tissues left over after the formation of the thyroid gland during developmental stages.

Pendred syndrome genetic disorder

Pendred syndrome is a genetic disorder leading to congenital bilateral sensorineural hearing loss and goitre with euthyroid or mild hypothyroidism. There is no specific treatment, other than supportive measures for the hearing loss and thyroid hormone supplementation in case of hypothyroidism. It is named after Dr Vaughan Pendred (1869–1946), the British doctor who first described the condition in an Irish family living in Durham in 1896. It accounts for 7.5% to 15% of all cases of congenital deafness.

Macroglossia enlargement of the tongue

Macroglossia is the medical term for an unusually large tongue. Severe enlargement of the tongue can cause cosmetic and functional difficulties in speaking, eating, swallowing and sleeping. Macroglossia is uncommon, and usually occurs in children. There are many causes. Treatment depends upon the exact cause.

Hamartoma non-cancerous growth, made up of an abnormal mixture of cells and tissues normally found in the area of the body

A hamartoma is a mostly benign, local malformation of cells that resembles a neoplasm of local tissue but is usually due to an overgrowth of multiple aberrant cells, with a basis in a systemic genetic condition, rather than a growth descended from a single mutated cell (monoclonality), as would typically define a benign neoplasm/tumor. Despite this, many hamartomas are found to have clonal chromosomal aberrations that are acquired through somatic mutations, and on this basis the term hamartoma is sometimes considered synonymous with neoplasm. Hamartomas are by definition benign, slow-growing or self-limiting, though the underlying condition may still predispose the individual towards malignancies.

Frenulum of tongue

The frenulum of tongue or tongue web is a small fold of mucous membrane extending from the floor of the mouth to the midline of the underside of the tongue.

Thyroid disease type of endocrine disease

Thyroid disease is a medical condition that affects the function of the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is located at the front of the neck and produces thyroid hormones that travel through the blood to help regulate many other organs, meaning that it is an endocrine organ. These hormones normally act in the body to regulate energy use, infant development, and childhood development.

Thyroiditis endocrine disease

Thyroiditis is the inflammation of the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is located on the front of the neck below the laryngeal prominence, and makes hormones that control metabolism.

Sodium/iodide cotransporter mammalian protein found in Homo sapiens

The sodium/iodide cotransporter, also known as the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC5A5 gene. It is a transmembrane glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 87 kDa and 13 transmembrane domains, which transports two sodium cations (Na+) for each iodide anion (I) into the cell. NIS mediated uptake of iodide into follicular cells of the thyroid gland is the first step in the synthesis of thyroid hormone.

PAX8 mammalian protein found in Homo sapiens

Paired box gene 8, also known as PAX8, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the PAX8 gene.

FOXE1 mammalian protein found in Homo sapiens

Forkhead box protein E1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FOXE1 gene.

TSHB protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Thyroid stimulating hormone, beta also known as TSHB is a protein which in humans is encoded by the TSHB gene.

Iodotyrosine deiodinase protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Iodotyrosine deiodinase, also known as iodotyrosine dehalogenase 1, is a type of deiodinase enzyme that scavenges iodide by removing it from iodinated tyrosine residues in the thyroid gland. These iodinated tyrosines are produced during thyroid hormone biosynthesis. The iodide that is scavenged by iodotyrosine deiodinase is necessary to again synthesize the thyroid hormones. After synthesis, the thyroid hormones circulate through the body to regulate metabolic rate, protein expression, and body temperature. Iodotyrosine deiodinase is thus necessary to keep levels of both iodide and thyroid hormones in balance.

Anterior segment mesenchymal dysgenesis Human disease

Anterior segment mesenchymal dysgenesis, or simply anterior segment dysgenesis (ASD), is a failure of the normal development of the tissues of the anterior segment of the eye. It leads to anomalies in the structure of the mature anterior segment, associated with an increased risk of glaucoma and corneal opacity.

Bamforth–Lazarus syndrome is a genetic condition that results in thyroid dysgenesis. It is due to recessive mutations in forkhead/winged-helix domain transcription factor.

FOXE3 protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Forkhead box protein E3 (FOXE3) also known as forkhead-related transcription factor 8 (FREAC-8) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FOXE3 gene located on the short arm of chromosome 1.

Salivary gland disease Human disease

Salivary gland diseases (SGD) are multiple and varied in cause.

References

  1. Castanet M, Park SM, Smith A, et al. (August 2002). "A novel loss-of-function mutation in TTF-2 is associated with congenital hypothyroidism, thyroid agenesis and cleft palate". Hum. Mol. Genet. 11 (17): 2051–9. doi: 10.1093/hmg/11.17.2051 . PMID   12165566.
  2. Macchia PE, Lapi P, Krude H, et al. (May 1998). "PAX8 mutations associated with congenital hypothyroidism caused by thyroid dysgenesis". Nat. Genet. 19 (1): 83–6. doi:10.1038/ng0598-83. PMID   9590296. S2CID   33957230.
  3. 1 2 3 4 emedicine > Embryology of the Thyroid and Parathyroids > Thyroid Embryology Clinical Correlations By David J Kay and Arlen D Meyers. Updated: Jan 14, 2010
  4. Bouquot, Brad W. Neville, Douglas D. Damm, Carl M. Allen, Jerry E. (2002). Oral & maxillofacial pathology (2. ed.). Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders. pp. 11–12. ISBN   978-0721690032.
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