|CompTox Dashboard (EPA)|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||334.39 g·mol−1|
|3D model (JSmol)|
Tideglusib (NP-12, NP031112) is a potent, selective and irreversiblesmall molecule non-ATP-competitive glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) inhibitor.
There are few classes of GSK-inhibitors, including lithium (Martinez et al., 2011), the small peptide L803mts10, and members of the thiazolidinedione family, containing non-competitive inhibitors of GSK-3, such as TDZD-8 (Shapira et al., 2007) or Tideglusib® (Noscira, Madrid, and Spain), the latter having an irreversible inhibitory effect on GSK-3 (del Ser et al., 2013). The inhibition of the GSK-3 pathways through distinct mechanisms has been associated with a wide range of adverse reactions, ranging from mild, such as vertigo—or diarrhea (del Ser et al., 2013)—to very severe, such as hypoglycemia—or tumorigenesis (Martinez et al., 2011). The use of Tideglusib specifically was associated with mild-moderate adverse reactions, which included transient increases in serum creatine kinase, ALT—or gGT—diarrhea, nausea, cough, fatigue, and headache (del Ser et al., 2013). In a phase-IIa clinical trial, the treatment was discontinued in 35% of all the active subjects, mainly due to adverse reactions (del Ser et al., 2013).
Tideglusib is under investigation for multiple applications:
Glycogen synthase kinase 3 is a serine/threonine protein kinase that mediates the addition of phosphate molecules onto serine and threonine amino acid residues. First discovered in 1980 as a regulatory kinase for its namesake, Glycogen synthase, GSK-3 has since been identified as a kinase for over 100 different proteins in a variety of different pathways. In mammals GSK-3 is encoded by two paralogous genes, GSK-3 alpha (GSK3A) and GSK-3 beta (GSK3B). GSK-3 has recently been the subject of much research because it has been implicated in a number of diseases, including Type II diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, inflammation, cancer, and bipolar disorder.
The restriction point (R), also known as the Start or G1/S checkpoint, is a cell cycle checkpoint in the G1 phase of the animal cell cycle at which the cell becomes "committed" to the cell cycle, and after which extracellular signals are no longer required to stimulate proliferation. The defining biochemical feature of the restriction point is the activation of G1/S- and S-phase cyclin-CDK complexes, which in turn phosphorylate proteins that initiate DNA replication, centrosome duplication, and other early cell cycle events. It is one of three main cell cycle checkpoints, the other two being the G2-M DNA damage checkpoint and the spindle checkpoint.
Protein kinase B (PKB), also known as Akt, is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that plays a key role in multiple cellular processes such as glucose metabolism, apoptosis, cell proliferation, transcription, and cell migration.
Lipid emulsion or fat emulsion refers to an emulsion of lipid for human intravenous use. It is often referred to by the brand name of the most commonly used version, Intralipid, which is an emulsion of soy bean oil, egg phospholipids and glycerin, and is available in 10%, 20% and 30% concentrations. The 30% concentration is not approved for direct intravenous infusion, but should be mixed with amino acids and dextrose as part of a total nutrient admixture.
Lapatinib (INN), used in the form of lapatinib ditosylate (USAN) is an orally active drug for breast cancer and other solid tumours. It is a dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor which interrupts the HER2/neu and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathways. It is used in combination therapy for HER2-positive breast cancer. It is used for the treatment of patients with advanced or metastatic breast cancer whose tumors overexpress HER2 (ErbB2).
CTP synthase is an enzyme involved in pyrimidine biosynthesis that interconverts UTP and CTP.
Glycogen synthase kinase-3 alpha is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GSK3A gene.
Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta, also known as GSK3B, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GSK3B gene. In mice, the enzyme is encoded by the GSK-3β gene. Abnormal regulation and expression of GSK3β is associated with an increased susceptibility towards bipolar disorder.
In enzymology, a tau-protein kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction
Serine/threonine-protein kinase MARK1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MARK1 gene.
Phosphorylase b kinase gamma catalytic chain, skeletal muscle isoform is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PHKG1 gene.
Protein phosphatase inhibitor 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PPP1R2 gene.
Lestaurtinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor structurally related to staurosporine. This semisynthetic derivative of the indolocarbazole K252a was investigated by Cephalon as a treatment for various types of cancer. It is an inhibitor of the kinases fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3), Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), tropomyosin receptor kinase (trk) A (TrkA), TrkB and TrkC.
Acetylcholinesterase is the enzyme that is the primary member of the cholinesterase enzyme family. An acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI) is the inhibitor that inhibits acetylcholinesterase from breaking down acetylcholine into choline and acetate, thereby increasing both the level and duration of action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central nervous system, autonomic ganglia and neuromuscular junctions, which are rich in acetylcholine receptors. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are one of two types of cholinesterase inhibitors; the other being butyryl-cholinesterase inhibitors.
Losmapimod (GW856553X) is an investigational drug being developed by Fulcrum Therapeutics for the treatment of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) and COVID-19. It selectively inhibits enzymes p38α/β mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), which are modulators of DUX4 expression and mediators of inflammation.
A phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor is a class of medical drug that functions by inhibiting one or more of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase enzymes, which are part of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, an important signalling pathway for many cellular functions such as growth control, metabolism and translation initiation. Within this pathway there are many components, inhibition of which may result in tumor suppression. These anti-cancer drugs are examples of targeted therapy.
The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway is an intracellular signaling pathway important in regulating the cell cycle. Therefore, it is directly related to cellular quiescence, proliferation, cancer, and longevity. PI3K activation phosphorylates and activates AKT, localizing it in the plasma membrane. AKT can have a number of downstream effects such as activating CREB, inhibiting p27, localizing FOXO in the cytoplasm, activating PtdIns-3ps, and activating mTOR which can affect transcription of p70 or 4EBP1. There are many known factors that enhance the PI3K/AKT pathway including EGF, shh, IGF-1, insulin, and CaM. Both leptin and insulin recruit PI3K signalling for metabolic regulation. The pathway is antagonized by various factors including PTEN, GSK3B, and HB9.
A tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) is a pharmaceutical drug that inhibits tyrosine kinases. Tyrosine kinases are enzymes responsible for the activation of many proteins by signal transduction cascades. The proteins are activated by adding a phosphate group to the protein (phosphorylation), a step that TKIs inhibit. TKIs are typically used as anticancer drugs. For example, they have substantially improved outcomes in chronic myelogenous leukemia.
Foretinib is an experimental drug candidate for the treatment of cancer. It was discovered by Exelixis and is under development by GlaxoSmithKline. About 10 Phase II clinical trials have been run. As of October 2015 it appears development has been discontinued.
GSK2606414 is a drug which is the first selective inhibitor discovered for the enzyme protein kinase R (PKR)-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), which is involved in various processes relating to cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. GSK2606414 was found to be a potent and selective inhibitor of PERK, with good oral bioavailability and blood-brain barrier penetration. PERK mediates the unfolded protein response pathway which is involved in the initiation of protein synthesis, and this pathway has been implicated in the neurotoxicity of various diseases including prion and Alzheimer's diseases. Treatment with GSK2606414 was found to be neuroprotective in mice against damage caused by prions, and prevented the development of cognitive deficits and other clinical manifestations of prion disease. Extension of lifespan in treated mice was, however, not recorded. However, side effects such as weight loss and elevated blood glucose levels were also observed, likely due to unwanted inhibition of PERK in the pancreas gland, where it is involved in regulating insulin production.
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