Tideglusib

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Tideglusib
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Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
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ChEBI
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
Chemical and physical data
Formula C19H14N2O2S
Molar mass 334.39 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)

Tideglusib (NP-12, NP031112) is a potent, selective and irreversible [1] small molecule non-ATP-competitive glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) inhibitor.

Contents

Other GSK inhibitors

There are few classes of GSK-inhibitors, including lithium (Martinez et al., 2011), the small peptide L803mts10, and members of the thiazolidinedione family, containing non-competitive inhibitors of GSK-3, such as TDZD-8 (Shapira et al., 2007) or Tideglusib® (Noscira, Madrid, and Spain), the latter having an irreversible inhibitory effect on GSK-3 (del Ser et al., 2013). The inhibition of the GSK-3 pathways through distinct mechanisms has been associated with a wide range of adverse reactions, ranging from mild, such as vertigo—or diarrhea (del Ser et al., 2013)—to very severe, such as hypoglycemia—or tumorigenesis (Martinez et al., 2011). The use of Tideglusib specifically was associated with mild-moderate adverse reactions, which included transient increases in serum creatine kinase, ALT—or gGT—diarrhea, nausea, cough, fatigue, and headache (del Ser et al., 2013). In a phase-IIa clinical trial, the treatment was discontinued in 35% of all the active subjects, mainly due to adverse reactions (del Ser et al., 2013).

Potential applications

Tideglusib is under investigation for multiple applications:

Related Research Articles

GSK-3 class of enzymes

Glycogen synthase kinase 3 is a serine/threonine protein kinase that mediates the addition of phosphate molecules onto serine and threonine amino acid residues. First discovered in 1980 as a regulatory kinase for its namesake, Glycogen synthase, GSK-3 has since been identified as a kinase for over 100 different proteins in a variety of different pathways. In mammals GSK-3 is encoded by two paralogous genes, GSK-3 alpha (GSK3A) and GSK-3 beta (GSK3B). GSK-3 has recently been the subject of much research because it has been implicated in a number of diseases, including Type II diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, inflammation, cancer, and bipolar disorder.

Restriction point A point of no return occurs at the Late G1 phase that ensures the fulfillment of the cycle

The restriction point (R), also known as the Start or G1/S checkpoint, is a cell cycle checkpoint in the G1 phase of the animal cell cycle at which the cell becomes "committed" to the cell cycle, and after which extracellular signals are no longer required to stimulate proliferation. The defining biochemical feature of the restriction point is the activation of G1/S- and S-phase cyclin-CDK complexes, which in turn phosphorylate proteins that initiate DNA replication, centrosome duplication, and other early cell cycle events. It is one of three main cell cycle checkpoints, the other two being the G2-M DNA damage checkpoint and the spindle checkpoint.

Protein kinase B class of enzymes

Protein kinase B (PKB), also known as Akt, is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that plays a key role in multiple cellular processes such as glucose metabolism, apoptosis, cell proliferation, transcription, and cell migration.

Lipid emulsion pharmaceutical product

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Lapatinib chemical compound

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CTP synthetase InterPro Family

CTP synthase is an enzyme involved in pyrimidine biosynthesis that interconverts UTP and CTP.

GSK3A protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Glycogen synthase kinase-3 alpha is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GSK3A gene.

GSK3B protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta, also known as GSK3B, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GSK3B gene. In mice, the enzyme is encoded by the GSK-3β gene. Abnormal regulation and expression of GSK3β is associated with an increased susceptibility towards bipolar disorder.

Tau-protein kinase Class of enzymes

In enzymology, a tau-protein kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction

MARK1 protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Serine/threonine-protein kinase MARK1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MARK1 gene.

PHKG1 protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Phosphorylase b kinase gamma catalytic chain, skeletal muscle isoform is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PHKG1 gene.

PPP1R2 protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Protein phosphatase inhibitor 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PPP1R2 gene.

Lestaurtinib chemical compound

Lestaurtinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor structurally related to staurosporine. This semisynthetic derivative of the indolocarbazole K252a was investigated by Cephalon as a treatment for various types of cancer. It is an inhibitor of the kinases fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3), Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), tropomyosin receptor kinase (trk) A (TrkA), TrkB and TrkC.

Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor drugs that inhibit cholinesterases

Acetylcholinesterase is the enzyme that is the primary member of the cholinesterase enzyme family. An acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI) is the inhibitor that inhibits acetylcholinesterase from breaking down acetylcholine into choline and acetate, thereby increasing both the level and duration of action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central nervous system, autonomic ganglia and neuromuscular junctions, which are rich in acetylcholine receptors. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are one of two types of cholinesterase inhibitors; the other being butyryl-cholinesterase inhibitors.

Losmapimod chemical compound

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A phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor is a class of medical drug that functions by inhibiting one or more of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase enzymes, which are part of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, an important signalling pathway for many cellular functions such as growth control, metabolism and translation initiation. Within this pathway there are many components, inhibition of which may result in tumor suppression. These anti-cancer drugs are examples of targeted therapy.

PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway

The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway is an intracellular signaling pathway important in regulating the cell cycle. Therefore, it is directly related to cellular quiescence, proliferation, cancer, and longevity. PI3K activation phosphorylates and activates AKT, localizing it in the plasma membrane. AKT can have a number of downstream effects such as activating CREB, inhibiting p27, localizing FOXO in the cytoplasm, activating PtdIns-3ps, and activating mTOR which can affect transcription of p70 or 4EBP1. There are many known factors that enhance the PI3K/AKT pathway including EGF, shh, IGF-1, insulin, and CaM. Both leptin and insulin recruit PI3K signalling for metabolic regulation. The pathway is antagonized by various factors including PTEN, GSK3B, and HB9.

Tyrosine kinase inhibitor class of pharmaceutical drugs

A tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) is a pharmaceutical drug that inhibits tyrosine kinases. Tyrosine kinases are enzymes responsible for the activation of many proteins by signal transduction cascades. The proteins are activated by adding a phosphate group to the protein (phosphorylation), a step that TKIs inhibit. TKIs are typically used as anticancer drugs. For example, they have substantially improved outcomes in chronic myelogenous leukemia.

Foretinib is an experimental drug candidate for the treatment of cancer. It was discovered by Exelixis and is under development by GlaxoSmithKline. About 10 Phase II clinical trials have been run. As of October 2015 it appears development has been discontinued.

GSK2606414 chemical compound

GSK2606414 is a drug which is the first selective inhibitor discovered for the enzyme protein kinase R (PKR)-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), which is involved in various processes relating to cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. GSK2606414 was found to be a potent and selective inhibitor of PERK, with good oral bioavailability and blood-brain barrier penetration. PERK mediates the unfolded protein response pathway which is involved in the initiation of protein synthesis, and this pathway has been implicated in the neurotoxicity of various diseases including prion and Alzheimer's diseases. Treatment with GSK2606414 was found to be neuroprotective in mice against damage caused by prions, and prevented the development of cognitive deficits and other clinical manifestations of prion disease. Extension of lifespan in treated mice was, however, not recorded. However, side effects such as weight loss and elevated blood glucose levels were also observed, likely due to unwanted inhibition of PERK in the pancreas gland, where it is involved in regulating insulin production.

References

  1. Domínguez JM, Fuertes A, Orozco L, del Monte-Millán M, Delgado E, Medina M (January 2012). "Evidence for irreversible inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3β by tideglusib". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 287 (2): 893–904. doi:10.1074/jbc.M111.306472. PMC   3256883 . PMID   22102280.
  2. Del Ser T (2010). "Phase IIa clinical trial on Alzheimer's disease with NP12, a GSK3 inhibitor". Alzheimer's & Dementia. 6 (4): S147. doi:10.1016/j.jalz.2010.05.455. S2CID   54293332.
  3. Eldar-Finkelman H, Martinez A (2011). "GSK-3 Inhibitors: Preclinical and Clinical Focus on CNS". Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience. 4: 32. doi:10.3389/fnmol.2011.00032. PMC   3204427 . PMID   22065134.
  4. 1 2 del Ser T, Steinwachs KC, Gertz HJ, Andrés MV, Gómez-Carrillo B, Medina M, et al. (2013). "Treatment of Alzheimer's disease with the GSK-3 inhibitor tideglusib: a pilot study". Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. 33 (1): 205–15. doi:10.3233/JAD-2012-120805. PMID   22936007.
  5. "FDA Grants Fast Track Status to Tideglusib (ZentylorTM) for Progressive Supranuclear Palsy". PR Newswire Europe Including UK Disclose. 10 September 2010. ProQuest   750175748.
  6. Domínguez JM, Fuertes A, Orozco L, del Monte-Millán M, Delgado E, Medina M (January 2012). "Evidence for irreversible inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3β by tideglusib". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 287 (2): 893–904. doi:10.1074/jbc.M111.306472. PMC   3256883 . PMID   22102280.
  7. Neves VC, Babb R, Chandrasekaran D, Sharpe PT (January 2017). "Promotion of natural tooth repair by small molecule GSK3 antagonists". Scientific Reports. 7: 39654. Bibcode:2017NatSR...739654N. doi:10.1038/srep39654. PMC   5220443 . PMID   28067250.
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