Timeline of carbon nanotubes

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Inside a carbon nanotube FlyingThroughNanotube.png
Inside a carbon nanotube







The winning nanotube-enhanced bike ridden by Floyd Landis Floyd-landis-toctt.jpg
The winning nanotube-enhanced bike ridden by Floyd Landis


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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Carbon nanotube</span> Allotropes of carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure

A carbon nanotube (CNT) is a tube made of carbon with a diameter in the nanometer range (nanoscale). They are one of the allotropes of carbon.

The year 1991 in science and technology involved many significant events, some listed below.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sumio Iijima</span> Japanese nanotechnologist (born 1939)

Sumio Iijima is a Japanese physicist and inventor, often cited as the inventor of carbon nanotubes. Although carbon nanotubes had been observed prior to his "invention", Iijima's 1991 paper generated unprecedented interest in the carbon nanostructures and has since fueled intense research in the area of nanotechnology.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Graphene</span> Hexagonal lattice made of carbon atoms

Graphene is an allotrope of carbon consisting of a single layer of atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice nanostructure. The name is derived from "graphite" and the suffix -ene, reflecting the fact that the graphite allotrope of carbon contains numerous double bonds.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Carbon nanofiber</span>

Carbon nanofibers (CNFs), vapor grown carbon fibers (VGCFs), or vapor grown carbon nanofibers (VGCNFs) are cylindrical nanostructures with graphene layers arranged as stacked cones, cups or plates. Carbon nanofibers with graphene layers wrapped into perfect cylinders are called carbon nanotubes.

The history of nanotechnology traces the development of the concepts and experimental work falling under the broad category of nanotechnology. Although nanotechnology is a relatively recent development in scientific research, the development of its central concepts happened over a longer period of time. The emergence of nanotechnology in the 1980s was caused by the convergence of experimental advances such as the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope in 1981 and the discovery of fullerenes in 1985, with the elucidation and popularization of a conceptual framework for the goals of nanotechnology beginning with the 1986 publication of the book Engines of Creation. The field was subject to growing public awareness and controversy in the early 2000s, with prominent debates about both its potential implications as well as the feasibility of the applications envisioned by advocates of molecular nanotechnology, and with governments moving to promote and fund research into nanotechnology. The early 2000s also saw the beginnings of commercial applications of nanotechnology, although these were limited to bulk applications of nanomaterials rather than the transformative applications envisioned by the field.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Potential applications of carbon nanotubes</span>

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are cylinders of one or more layers of graphene (lattice). Diameters of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) are typically 0.8 to 2 nm and 5 to 20 nm, respectively, although MWNT diameters can exceed 100 nm. CNT lengths range from less than 100 nm to 0.5 m.

Molecular scale electronics, also called single-molecule electronics, is a branch of nanotechnology that uses single molecules, or nanoscale collections of single molecules, as electronic components. Because single molecules constitute the smallest stable structures imaginable, this miniaturization is the ultimate goal for shrinking electrical circuits.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Optical properties of carbon nanotubes</span> Optical properties of the material

The optical properties of carbon nanotubes are highly relevant for materials science. The way those materials interact with electromagnetic radiation is unique in many respects, as evidenced by their peculiar absorption, photoluminescence (fluorescence), and Raman spectra.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Covalent superconductor</span> Superconducting materials where the atoms are linked by covalent bonds

Covalent superconductors are superconducting materials where the atoms are linked by covalent bonds. The first such material was boron-doped synthetic diamond grown by the high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) method. The discovery had no practical importance, but surprised most scientists as superconductivity had not been observed in covalent semiconductors, including diamond and silicon.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Walter de Heer</span>

Walter Alexander "Walt" de Heer is a Dutch physicist and nanoscience researcher known for discoveries in the electronic shell structure of metal clusters, magnetism in transition metal clusters, field emission and ballistic conduction in carbon nanotubes, and graphene-based electronics.

A carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CNTFET) is a field-effect transistor that utilizes a single carbon nanotube (CNT) or an array of carbon nanotubes as the channel material, instead of bulk silicon, as in the traditional MOSFET structure. There have been major developments since CNTFETs were first demonstrated in 1998.

Bilayer graphene is a material consisting of two layers of graphene. One of the first reports of bilayer graphene was in the seminal 2004 Science paper by Geim and colleagues, in which they described devices "which contained just one, two, or three atomic layers"

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Single-walled carbon nanohorn</span>

Single-walled carbon nanohorn is the name given by Sumio Iijima and colleagues in 1999 to horn-shaped sheath aggregate of graphene sheets. Very similar structures had been observed in 1994 by Peter J.F. Harris, Edman Tsang, John Claridge and Malcolm Green. Ever since the discovery of the fullerene, the family of carbon nanostructures has been steadily expanded. Included in this family are single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, carbon onions and cones and, most recently, SWNHs. These SWNHs with about 40–50 nm in tubule length and about 2–3 nm in diameter are derived from SWNTs and ended by a five-pentagon conical cap with a cone opening angle of ~20o. Moreover, thousands of SWNHs associate with each other to form the ‘dahlia-like' and ‘bud-like’ structured aggregates which have an average diameter of about 80–100 nm. The former consists of tubules and graphene sheets protruding from its surface like petals of a dahlia, while the latter is composed of tubules developing inside the particle itself. Their unique structures with high surface area and microporosity make SWNHs become a promising material for gas adsorption, biosensing, drug delivery, gas storage and catalyst support for fuel cell. Single-walled carbon nanohorns are an example of the family of carbon nanocones.

Roger Bacon was an American physicist and inventor at the Parma Technical Center of National Carbon Company in suburban Cleveland, Ohio, where he invented graphite fibers in 1958.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chemiresistor</span>

A chemiresistor is a material that changes its electrical resistance in response to changes in the nearby chemical environment. Chemiresistors are a class of chemical sensors that rely on the direct chemical interaction between the sensing material and the analyte. The sensing material and the analyte can interact by covalent bonding, hydrogen bonding, or molecular recognition. Several different materials have chemiresistor properties: metal-oxide semiconductors, some conductive polymers, and nanomaterials like graphene, carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles. Typically these materials are used as partially selective sensors in devices like electronic tongues or electronic noses.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Carbon peapod</span> Hybrid nanomaterial

Carbon peapod is a hybrid nanomaterial consisting of spheroidal fullerenes encapsulated within a carbon nanotube. It is named due to their resemblance to the seedpod of the pea plant. Since the properties of carbon peapods differ from those of nanotubes and fullerenes, the carbon peapod can be recognized as a new type of a self-assembled graphitic structure. Possible applications of nano-peapods include nanoscale lasers, single electron transistors, spin-qubit arrays for quantum computing, nanopipettes, and data storage devices thanks to the memory effects and superconductivity of nano-peapods.

A rapidly increasing list of graphene production techniques have been developed to enable graphene's use in commercial applications.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Synthesis of carbon nanotubes</span> Class of manufacturing

Techniques have been developed to produce carbon nanotubes in sizable quantities, including arc discharge, laser ablation, high-pressure carbon monoxide disproportionation, and chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Most of these processes take place in a vacuum or with process gases. CVD growth of CNTs can occur in vacuum or at atmospheric pressure. Large quantities of nanotubes can be synthesized by these methods; advances in catalysis and continuous growth are making CNTs more commercially viable.

Vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays (VANTAs) are a unique microstructure consisting of carbon nanotubes oriented with their longitudinal axis perpendicular to a substrate surface. These VANTAs effectively preserve and often accentuate the unique anisotropic properties of individual carbon nanotubes and possess a morphology that may be precisely controlled. VANTAs are consequently widely useful in a range of current and potential device applications.


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