| IUPAC name |
|Other names |
2,3-Epoxycolumbin; Jateorin; 5-(furan-3-yl)-12-hydroxy-3,11-dimethyl-6,14,16-trioxapentacyclo[10.3.2.02,11.03,8.013,15]heptadecane-7,17-dione
3D model (JSmol)
|Molar mass||374.389 g·mol−1|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Tinosporide is a chemical compound classified as a diterpenoid and a furanolactone. It was first isolated from the plant Tinospora cordifolia , from which it derives its name. [ citation needed ]It has since been found in other plants of the genus Tinospora , such as Tinospora glabra .
Because Tinospora cordifolia has been used in traditional herbal medicine, there has been research directed at exploring the potential pharmacology of tinosporide and related compounds.
Other diterpenoid furanolactones with a similar structure include columbin, palmarin, and chasmanthin.
Aconitine is an alkaloid toxin produced by various plant species belonging to the genus Aconitum, known also commonly by the names wolfsbane and monkshood. Monkshood is notorious for its toxic properties.
Salvinorin A is the main active psychotropic molecule in Salvia divinorum. Salvinorin A is considered a dissociative hallucinogen.
The terpenoids, also known as isoprenoids, are a class of naturally occurring organic chemicals derived from the 5-carbon compound isoprene and its derivatives called terpenes, diterpenes, etc. While sometimes used interchangeably with "terpenes", terpenoids contain additional functional groups, usually containing oxygen. When combined with the hydrocarbon terpenes, terpenoids comprise about 80,000 compounds. They are the largest class of plant secondary metabolites, representing about 60% of known natural products. Many terpenoids have substantial pharmacological bioactivity and are therefore of interest to medicinal chemists.
Terpenes are a class of natural products consisting of compounds with the formula (C5H8)n for n ≥ 2. Comprising more than 30,000 compounds, these unsaturated hydrocarbons are produced predominantly by plants, particularly conifers. Terpenes are further classified by the number of carbons: monoterpenes (C10), sesquiterpenes (C15), diterpenes (C20), as examples. The terpene alpha-pinene is a major component of the common solvent, turpentine.
In the fields of medicine, biotechnology and pharmacology, drug discovery is the process by which new candidate medications are discovered.
Salvinorins are a group of natural chemical compounds and their structural analogs. Several salvinorins have been isolated from Salvia divinorum. They are classified as diterpenoid furanolactones. Salvinorin A is a hallucinogen with dissociative effects.
Diterpenes are a class of terpenes composed of four isoprene units, often with the molecular formula C20H32. They are biosynthesized by plants, animals and fungi via the HMG-CoA reductase pathway, with geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate being a primary intermediate. Diterpenes form the basis for biologically important compounds such as retinol, retinal, and phytol. They are known to be antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory.
Phytochemistry is the study of phytochemicals, which are chemicals derived from plants. Phytochemists strive to describe the structures of the large number of secondary metabolites found in plants, the functions of these compounds in human and plant biology, and the biosynthesis of these compounds. Plants synthesize phytochemicals for many reasons, including to protect themselves against insect attacks and plant diseases. The compounds found in plants are of many kinds, but most can be grouped into four major biosynthetic classes: alkaloids, phenylpropanoids, polyketides, and terpenoids.
A furanolactone is a heterocyclic chemical compound that contains both lactone and furan rings in its chemical structure.
Phytoecdysteroids are plant-derived ecdysteroids. Phytoecdysteroids are a class of chemicals that plants synthesize for defense against phytophagous insects. These compounds are mimics of hormones used by arthropods in the molting process known as ecdysis. When insects eat the plants with these chemicals they may prematurely molt, lose weight, or suffer other metabolic damage and die.
Tinospora cordifolia is a herbaceous vine of the family Menispermaceae indigenous to tropical regions of the Indian subcontinent. It has been used in Ayurveda to treat various disorders, but in spite of clinical investigation, the effectiveness of such treatments remain uncertain.
Ferruginol is a natural phenol with a terpenoid substructure. Specifically, it is a diterpene of the abietane chemical class, meaning it is characterized by three fused six-membered rings and alkyl functional groups. Ferruginol was first identified in 1939 by Brandt and Neubauer as the main component in the resin of the Miro tree and has since been isolated from other conifer species in the families Cupressaceae and Podocarpaceae. As a biomarker, the presence of ferruginol in fossils, mainly resin, is used to describe the density of these conifers in that particular biosphere throughout time.
Clerodane diterpenes, sometimes referred to as clerodane diterpenoids, are a large group of secondary metabolites that have been isolated from several hundreds of different plant species, as well as fungi, bacteria and marine sponges. They are bicyclic terpenes that contain 20 carbons and a decalin core.
Palmatine is a protoberberine alkaloid found in several plants including Phellodendron amurense, Coptis Chinensis and Corydalis yanhusuo, Tinospora cordifolia, Tinospora sagittata, Phellodendron amurense, Stephania yunnanensis.
Abietane is a diterpene that forms the structural basis for a variety of natural chemical compounds such as abietic acid, carnosic acid, and ferruginol which are collectively known as abietanes or abietane diterpenes.
Bakuchiol is a meroterpene in the class terpenophenol.
Excoecaria agallocha, a mangrove species, belongs to the genus Excoecaria of the family Euphorbiaceae. The species has many common names, including blind-your-eye mangrove, blinding tree, buta buta tree, milky mangrove, poisonfish tree, and river poison tree. Most of the names refer to its toxic properties or its propensity to cause blindness when its latex comes into contact with the eyes.
Tinospora is a genus of succulent woody climbing shrubs. Thirty-four species are currently recognized. Species generally send down long aerial roots from host trees. They have corky or papery bark. They are found in tropical and sub-tropical parts of Asia, Africa and Australia. The most common species are T. cordifolia and T. crispa.
A-230 is an organophosphate nerve agent. It was developed in the Soviet Union under the FOLIANT program and is one of the group of compounds referred to as Novichok agents that were revealed by Vil Mirzayanov. A-230 is possibly the most potent nerve agent for which specific toxicity figures have been published, with a human lethal dose estimated to be less than 0.1 mg. However it was felt to be less suitable for weaponisation than other agents such as A-232 and A-234, due to issues with the liquid agent exhibiting low volatility and solidifying at low temperatures, as well as poor stability in the presence of water.
Sugiol is a phenolic abietane derivative of ferruginol and can be used as a biomarker for specific families of conifers. The presence of sugiol can be used to identify the Cupressaceae s.1., podocarpaceae, and Araucaraiaceae families of conifers. The polar terpenoids are among the most resistant molecules to degradation besides n-alkanes and fatty acids, affording them high viability as biomarkers due to their longevity in the sedimentary record. Significant amounts of sugiol has been detected in fossil wood dated to the Eocene and Miocene periods, as well as a sample of Protopodocarpoxylon dated to the middle Jurassic.