|Type locality of T. inexpectatovus|
|Genus:|| Titaniloricus |
Titaniloricus is a genus of small marine animal in the phylum Loricifera. It contains a single species, Titaniloricus inexpectatovus, described by Gunnar Gad in 2005.It has been collected from the abyssal plain in Angolan waters of the Atlantic Ocean.
In biology, a phylum is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class. Traditionally, in botany the term division has been used instead of phylum, although the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants accepts the terms as equivalent. Depending on definitions, the animal kingdom Animalia or Metazoa contains approximately 35 phyla, the plant kingdom Plantae contains about 14, and the fungus kingdom Fungi contains about 8 phyla. Current research in phylogenetics is uncovering the relationships between phyla, which are contained in larger clades, like Ecdysozoa and Embryophyta.
Loricifera is a phylum of very small to microscopic marine cycloneuralian sediment-dwelling animals with 37 described species, in nine genera. Aside from these described species, there are approximately 100 more that have been collected and not yet described. Their sizes range from 100 µm to ca. 1 mm. They are characterised by a protective outer case called a lorica and their habitat, which is in the spaces between marine gravel to which they attach themselves. The phylum was discovered in 1983 by Roberto Ramos, in Roscoff, France. They are among the most recently discovered groups of Metazoans. They attach themselves quite firmly to the substrate, and hence remained undiscovered for so long. The first specimen was collected in the 1970s, and later described in 1983. They are found at all depths, in different sediment types, and in all latitudes.
Angola, officially the Republic of Angola, is a west-coast country of south-central Africa. It is the seventh-largest country in Africa, bordered by Namibia to the south, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Zambia to the east, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. Angola has an exclave province, the province of Cabinda that borders the Republic of the Congo and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The capital and largest city of Angola is Luanda.
The generic name is derived from the Latin words titanis (meaning giant) and titanes (rare), in reference to the relatively large size of the larvae in this genus compared to other Loricifera, and their rarity (the taxon is not known from elsewhere than its type locality). The specific name is derived from the Latin inexspectatus (surprise) and ovum (egg), as the larvae are like chocolate eggs that contain small surprises.
In zoological nomenclature, the specific name is the second part within the scientific name of a species. The first part of the name of a species is the name of the genus or the generic name. The rules and regulations governing the giving of a new species name are explained in the article species description.
The type series consists mostly of sixth instar Higgins-larvae. These have are relatively large and have a stubby body. The introvert is retracted, the thorax is long and extendable, with many foldable cuticular plates. The lorica is rounded and barrel-like. When the body is fully extended, the animal is expected to measure more than 800 μm.
An instar is a developmental stage of arthropods, such as insects, between each moult (ecdysis), until sexual maturity is reached. Arthropods must shed the exoskeleton in order to grow or assume a new form. Differences between instars can often be seen in altered body proportions, colors, patterns, changes in the number of body segments or head width. After moulting, i.e. shedding their exoskeleton, the juvenile arthropods continue in their life cycle until they either pupate or moult again. The instar period of growth is fixed; however, in some insects, like the salvinia stem-borer moth, the number of instars depends on early larval nutrition. Some arthropods can continue to moult after sexual maturity, but the stages between these subsequent moults are generally not called instars.
First instar Higgins-larvae, resembling sixth instar Higgins-larvae but smaller, were found inside the holotype. Also a paedogenetic seventh instar larva, with simplified body, was found inside a sixth instar Higgins-larva.
One adult specimen is tentatively ascribed to this species. The lorica is 140 μm in length and 80 μm in width. The total length is assumed to be about 230 μm, that is, less than the sixth instar Higgins-larva.
The type series was collected with a multi-corer from stations at 5,389–5,427 m (17,680–17,805 ft) depth. The samples represent the upper 5 cm of the bottom substrate, well-oxygenated mud.
A larva is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults. Animals with indirect development such as insects, amphibians, or cnidarians typically have a larval phase of their life cycle.
The Luna moth is a Nearctic moth in the family Saturniidae, subfamily Saturniinae, a group commonly known as giant silk moths. It has lime-green colored wings and a white body. The larvae (caterpillars) are also green. Typically, it has a wingspan of roughly 114 mm (4.5 in), but can exceed 178 mm (7.0 in), making it one of the larger moths in North America. Across Canada, it has one generation per year, with the winged adults appearing in late May or early June, whereas farther south it will have two or even three generations per year, the first appearance as early as March in southern parts of the United States.
Botflies, also known as warble flies, heel flies and gadflies, are a family of flies technically known as Oestridae. Their larvae are internal parasites of mammals, some species growing in the host's flesh and others within the gut. The Dermatobia hominis is the only species of botfly known to parasitize humans routinely, though other species of flies cause myiasis in humans.
Elasmucha grisea, common name parent bug, is a species of shield bugs or stink bugs belonging to the family Acanthosomatidae. The term parent bugs includes also the other species of the genus Elasmucha and some species of the family Acanthosomatidae.
A veliger is the planktonic larva of many kinds of sea snails and freshwater snails, as well as most bivalve molluscs (clams) and tusk shells.
A planidium is a specialized form of first-instar insect larva, seen in a few families of insect species that have parasitoidal ways of life. Planidial instars generally are flattened, highly sclerotized, have functional legs or other means of locomotion, and are quite mobile. In some species planidia have eyes, in others not. The function of the planidial stage is to find a host on which the later larval instars may feed, generally until the insect pupates.
The giant swallowtail is the largest butterfly in North America. It is abundant through many parts of North America and ranges south as far as Colombia and Venezuela. Though it is often valued in gardens for its striking appearance, its larval stage can be a serious pest to citrus farms, which has earned its caterpillars the names orange dog or orange puppy. The giant swallowtail caterpillars possess remarkable camouflage from predators by closely resembling bird droppings. They use this, along with their osmeteria, to defend against predators such as wasps, flies, and vertebrates.
Caligo eurilochus, the forest giant owl, is an owl butterfly ranging from Mexico, through Central America, to the Amazon River basin in South America. The type locality is Suriname.
Papilio anactus, the dainty swallowtail, dingy swallowtail or small citrus butterfly is a medium-sized butterfly from the family Papilionidae, that is endemic to Australia.
Arsenura armida, the giant silk moth, is a moth of the family Saturniidae. It is found mainly in South and Central America, from Mexico to Bolivia, and Ecuador to south-eastern Brazil. It was first described by Pieter Cramer in 1779.
Psychropotes longicauda is a species of sea cucumber in the family Psychropotidae. It inhabits the deep sea where the adult is found on the seabed. The larva is pelagic and has an appendage shaped like a sail on its back which may enable it to move through the water.
Cicindela dorsalis is a species of tiger beetle.
Lymantria dispar dispar, commonly known as the gypsy moth, European gypsy moth, or North American gypsy moth, is a moth in the family Erebidae that is of Eurasian origin. It has a range which covers Europe, Africa, and North America.
Spinivalva is a genus of moths in the family Gracillariidae. It contains only one species, Spinivalva gaucha, which is found in Brazil.
Pliciloricus enigmaticus is a marine Loriciferan species of genus Pliciloricus described by Higgins & Kristensen 1986.
Pliciloricidae are a family of marine organisms in the phylum Loricifera. It contains 22 species in 3 genera.
Rugiloricus is a genus of marine organisms of the phylum Loricifera and the family Pliciloricidae, described by Higgins & Kristensen in 1986.
Armorloricus is a genus of nanaloricate loriciferans, small to microscopic marine sediment-dwelling animals.
Jeanne Renaud-Mornant, Born Jeanne Renaud, Jeanne Renaud-Debyser before her second marriage was a French biologist specialising in meiofauna.