Tobacco streak virus

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Tobacco streak virus
Virus classification Red Pencil Icon.png
(unranked): Virus
Realm: Riboviria
Kingdom: Orthornavirae
Phylum: Kitrinoviricota
Class: Alsuviricetes
Order: Martellivirales
Family: Bromoviridae
Genus: Ilarvirus
Species:
Tobacco streak virus
Synonyms

asparagus stunt virus
Datura quercina virus
strawberry necrotic shock virus

Contents

Symptoms of TSV on cranberry. Scarring Cranberry.jpg
Symptoms of TSV on cranberry.

Tobacco streak virus (TSV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Bromoviridae , in the genus Ilarvirus . It has a wide host range, with at least 200 susceptible species. [1] TSV is generally more problematic in the tropics or warmer climates. TSV does not generally lead to epidemics, with the exception of sunflowers in India and Australia, and peanuts in India. [2]

Host and symptoms

TSV has been reported worldwide in North and South America, Europe, India, Japan, Australia, New Zealand and South America. [3] TSV has a wide host range including both monocots and dicots. Economically important crop hosts include peanuts, sunflower, soybean, cranberry, cotton, chickpea and mung beans. [4] As with many plant viruses, diagnosis is very difficult because TSV has very wide host range and has different effects depending on the host being infected. Symptoms of TSV may include black streaks on stems and leaves, stunted growth, chlorosis, leaf mosaic, lodging, and deformed growing tips, to name a few. [5] On tobacco plants, TSV causes chlorosis, with a unique pattern of white or dark necrotic leaf tissue close to the veins of the leaf. As its name implies, necrotic streaks are found on leaf veins of infected plants. Symptoms are strongly influenced by temperature. For example, plants experiencing a temperature of 20° Celsius will develop small necrotic spots while at temperatures above 30° Celsius, necrotic spots will become large necrotic arcs. [4] Symptoms are not sufficient to correctly identify TSV - serology and PCR techniques are required. [4]

Disease cycle

TSV purified from infected plants consists of a ss-RNA genome encapsulated by spheroid particles made up of coat protein subunits. [4] The coat protein subunits play a key role in the life cycle of the virus. Once the virus has penetrated into the host cells, it uncoats and releases its viral genomic RNA into the cytoplasm and expressed proteins replicate. After replication, the dsRNA genome is synthesized from genomic ssRNA. [6] Subgenomic RNA4 is translated producing capsid proteins and the new virus particles are assembled. [6] The coat protein of TSV plays an important role in its life cycle. It protects the viral genome and plays a role in cell to cell movement. [4] Once the virus becomes systemic, it can be transmitted by vectors. TSV requires a living plant to survive for a period of time. The virus may be transmitted by thrips vector, mechanical damage, pollen or dodder.

Environment

Severe outbreaks of TSV typically occur under climatic conditions that allow large thrips populations to develop and when large quantities of pollen are being produced by the host plant. These conditions generally occur in warmer months but are dependent on rainfall and weeds in the field. [7]

Modes of Transmission:

Management

Control for TSV is difficult, and there are no chemical controls available for the virus. The best management practices are to maintain good sanitation, purchase certified seed, control insects that serve as vectors, and provide barrier crops. [10]

Sanitation: Remove plant debris after harvest or any plant material that may serve as a source of inoculum. Due to its wide host range, TSV may also infect many weed species, so keeping fields free of weeds is a good control strategy.

Chemical Control: Preventative control of disease dispersal may be possible if insecticide is sprayed for the trips vector. Barrier Crops: One common form of management for viruses is to plant a desirable host for thrips around the cropping system. The thrips will insert their stylet and “clean” off any virus on their stylet before moving to the target crop.

Barrier Crops: One common form of management for viruses is to plant a desirable host for thrips around the cropping system. The thrips will insert their stylet and “clean” off any virus on their stylet before moving to the target crop. [11]

Related Research Articles

Plant virus Virus that affects plants

Plant viruses are viruses that affect plants. Like all other viruses, plant viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that do not have the molecular machinery to replicate without a host. Plant viruses can be pathogenic to higher plants.

<i>Nepovirus</i> Genus of viruses

Nepovirus is a genus of viruses in the order Picornavirales, in the family Secoviridae, in the subfamily Comovirinae. Plants serve as natural hosts. There are 40 species in this genus. Nepoviruses, unlike the other two genera in the subfamily Comovirinae, are transmitted by nematodes.

<i>Alfalfa mosaic virus</i> Species of virus

Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), also known as Lucerne mosaic virus or Potato calico virus, is a worldwide distributed phytopathogen that can lead to necrosis and yellow mosaics on a large variety of plant species, including commercially important crops. It is the only Alfamovirus of the family Bromoviridae. In 1931 Weimer J.L. was the first to report AMV in alfalfa. Transmission of the virus occurs mainly by some aphids, by seeds or by pollen to the seed.

Bean pod mottle virus, or BPMV, is a species of plant pathogenic virus in the family Secoviridae. It is known to infect soybean crops.

<i>Cucumber mosaic virus</i> Species of virus

Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is a plant pathogenic virus in the family Bromoviridae. This virus has a worldwide distribution and a very wide host range. In fact it has the reputation of having the widest host range of any known plant virus. It can be transmitted from plant to plant both mechanically by sap and by aphids in a stylet-borne fashion. It can also be transmitted in seeds and by the parasitic weeds, Cuscuta sp. (dodder).

<i>Impatiens necrotic spot orthotospovirus</i> Species of virus

Impatiens necrotic spot orthotospovirus(INSV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the order Bunyavirales. It was originally believed to be another strain of Tomato spotted wilt virus, but genetic investigations revealed them to be separate viruses. It is a negative-strand RNA virus which has a tripartite genome. It is largely spread by the insect vector of the western flower thrips. The virus infects more than 648 species of plants including important horticultural and agricultural species such as fuchsia, tomato, orchids, and lettuce. As the name implies, the main symptom on plants is necrotic spots that appear on the leaves. The INSV virus infects by injecting the RNA the virus contains into the cell which then starts using the cell resources to transcribe what the virus RNA states. Viral infection can often result in the death of the plant. The disease is mainly controlled by the elimination of the western flower thrip vector and by destroying any infected plant material.

<i>Pepper mild mottle virus</i> Species of virus

Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) is a plant pathogenic virus that occurs worldwide on species of field grown bell, hot and ornamental pepper species. It is caused by members of the plant virus genus Tobamovirus- otherwise known as the tobacco mosaic virus family. Tobamovirus are viruses that contain positive sense RNA genomes that infect plants. Symptoms of the disease vary depending on the cultivar. Typical symptoms include the chlorosis of leaves, stunting, and distorted and lumpy fruiting structures. The virus is spread by mechanical transmission and infected seeds. Avoidance is the best means of controlling the disease because once a plant is infected it cannot be treated. Only seeds that have been tested and treated for the pathogen should be planted.

Potato virus Y (PVY) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Potyviridae, and one of the most important plant viruses affecting potato production.

<i>Prunus necrotic ringspot virus</i> Species of virus

Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) is a plant pathogenic virus causing ring spot diseases affecting species of the genus Prunus, as well as other species such as rose and hops. PNRSV is found worldwide due to easy transmission through plant propagation methods and infected seed. The virus is in the family Bromoviridae and genus Ilarvirus. Synonyms of PNRSV include European plum line pattern virus, hop B virus, hop C virus, plum line pattern virus, sour cherry necrotic ringspot virus, and peach ringspot virus.

<i>Tobacco ringspot virus</i> Species of virus

Tobacco ringspot virus is a plant pathogenic virus in the plant virus family Secoviridae. It is the type species of the genus Nepovirus. Nepoviruses are transmitted between plants by nematodes, thrips, mites, grasshoppers, and flea beetles. TRSV is also easily transmitted by sap inoculation and transmission in seeds has been reported. In recent cases it has also been shown to appear in bees, but no transmission to plants from bees has been noted.

Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is a DNA virus from the genus Begomovirus and the family Geminiviridae. TYLCV causes the most destructive disease of tomato, and it can be found in tropical and subtropical regions causing severe economic losses. This virus is transmitted by an insect vector from the family Aleyrodidae and order Hemiptera, the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, commonly known as the silverleaf whitefly or the sweet potato whitefly. The primary host for TYLCV is the tomato plant, and other plant hosts where TYLCV infection has been found include eggplants, potatoes, tobacco, beans, and peppers. Due to the rapid spread of TYLCV in the last few decades, there is an increased focus in research trying to understand and control this damaging pathogen. Some interesting findings include virus being sexually transmitted from infected males to non-infected females, and an evidence that TYLCV is transovarially transmitted to offspring for two generations.

<i>Soybean mosaic virus</i> Worldwide disease, among the worst

Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is a member of the plant virus genus Potyvirus. It infects mainly plants belonging to the family Fabaceae but has also been found infecting other economically important crops. SMV is the cause of soybean mosaic disease that occurs in all the soybean productions areas of the world. Soybean is one of the most important sources of edible oil and proteins and pathogenic infections are responsible for annual yield losses of about $4 billion in the United States. Among these pathogens, SMV is the most important and prevalent viral pathogen in soybean production worldwide. It causes yield reductions of about 8% to 35% but losses as high as 94% have been reported.

<i>Strawberry vein banding virus</i> Species of virus

Strawberry vein banding virus (SVBV) is a plant pathogenic virus and a member of the family Caulimoviridae.

<i>Ilarvirus</i> Genus of viruses

Ilarvirus is a genus of positive-strand RNA viruses in the family Bromoviridae. Plants serve as natural hosts. There are 22 species in this genus.

<i>Orthotospovirus</i> Genus of viruses

Orthotospovirus is a genus of negative-strand RNA viruses, in the family Tospoviridae of the order Bunyavirales, which infects plants. Tospoviruses take their name from the species Tomato spotted wilt orthotospovirus (TSWV) which was discovered in Australia in 1919. TSWV remained the only member of the family until the early 1990s when genetic characterisation of plant viruses became more common. There are now at least twenty species in the genus with more being discovered on a regular basis. Member viruses infect over eight hundred plant species from 82 different families.

Idaeovirus is a genus of positive-sense ssRNA viruses that contains two species: Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) and Privet idaeovirus. RBDV has two host-dependent clades: one for raspberries; the other for grapevines. Infections are a significant agricultural burden, resulting in decreased yield and quality of crops. RBDV has a synergistic relation with Raspberry leaf mottle virus, with co-infection greatly amplifying the concentration of virions in infected plants. The virus is transmitted via pollination with RBDV-infected pollen grains that first infect the stigma before causing systemic infection.

Soybean vein necrosis orthotospovirus is a plant pathogenic virus of soybeans. SVNV is a relatively new virus, which was discovered in Tennessee in 2008 and has recently been found in many US states from the Southeast and East coast to some western states including CA. This pathogen initially causes intraveinal chlorosis (yellowing) in leaves. This chlorosis then spreads throughout the leaf and eventually these chlorotic areas can become necrotic. It is a member of the order Bunyavirales, family Tospoviridae and genus Orthotospovirus, which is the only genus within this virus family that infects plants. Like other members of Bunyavirales, this virus is enveloped and has a negative sense single-stranded RNA (−ssRNA) genome composed of three genomic segments. It encodes proteins on the M and S segments in an ambisense manner.

Cassava brown streak virus is a species of positive-strand RNA viruses in the genus Ipomovirus and family Potyviridae which infects plants. Member viruses are unique in their induction of pinwheel, or scroll-shaped inclusion bodies in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Cylindrical inclusion bodies include aggregations of virus-encoded helicase proteins. These inclusion bodies are thought to be sites of viral replication and assembly, making then an important factor in the viral lifecycle. Viruses from both the species Cassava brown streak virus and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV), lead to the development of Cassava Brown Streak Disease (CBSD) within cassava plants.

The cardamom mosaic virus (CdMV) is a mosaic virus that affects the production of green cardamom. It is a member of the genus Macluravirus, and is transmitted through aphids and infected rhizomes, the former in a non-persistent manner.

Carrot virus Y (CarVY) is a (+)ss-RNA virus that affects crops of the carrot family (Apiaceae), such as carrots, anise, chervil, coriander, cumin, dill and parsnip. Carrots are the only known crop to be infected in the field. Infection by the virus leads to deformed roots and discolored or mottled leaves. The virus is spread through insect vectors, and is currently only found in Australia.

References

  1. Lima, Tatiana. "Viral Diseases" (PDF). Tatiana Lima & Fernanda Viana, Souza Cruz.
  2. "CABI - Invasive Species Compedium".
  3. Scott, S.W. (December 2001). "Tobacco streak virus". Descriptions of Plant Viruses. Clemson University, Department of Plant Pathology and Physiology. Retrieved 2017-12-14.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 Gulati A., Alapati K., Murthy A., Savithri HS., Murthy MR. (February 2016). "Structural studies on tobacco streak virus coat protein: Insights into the pleomorphic nature of ilarviruses". J Struct Biol. 193 (2): 95–105. doi:10.1016/j.jsb.2015.12.007. PMID   26706030.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  5. Tatiana Lima & Fernanda Viana. "Viral Diseases" (PDF).
  6. 1 2 "Ilarvirus". ViralZone.expasy.org. Retrieved 2017-12-14.
  7. Corporation, Grains Research and Development. "TOBACCO STREAK VIRUS IN GRAIN AND PULSE CROPS IN QUEENSLAND". Grains Research and Development Corporation. Retrieved 2017-12-14.
  8. Rabedeaux, P. F.; Gaska, J. M.; Kurtzweil, N. C.; Grau, C. R. (2005). "Seasonal Progression and Agronomic Impact ofTobacco streak viruson Soybean in Wisconsin". Plant Disease. 89 (4): 391–396. doi: 10.1094/pd-89-0391 . PMID   30795455.
  9. Antoniw, John. "Show DPV". www.dpvweb.net. Retrieved 2017-12-14.
  10. "Stop Tobacco Streak Virus From Taking Hold Of Your Vegetables". Growing Produce. 2014-12-25. Retrieved 2017-12-14.
  11. M. Sharman, J.E. Thomas, D.M. Persley (May 2015). "Natural host range, thrips and seed transmission of distinct Tobacco streak virus strains in Queensland, Australia". Annals of Applied Biology. 167 (2): 197–207. doi:10.1111/aab.12218.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)

Affected organisms