|Tonhalle St. Gallen|
The front of the concert hall
|Architectural style||Art Nouveau|
|Town or city||St. Gallen|
Tonhalle St. Gallen is a concert hall in St. Gallen, Switzerland. It is a cultural centre, a venue for concerts, banquets and meetings. It is the home of the St. Gallen Symphony Orchestra.
St. Gallen or traditionally St Gall, in German sometimes Sankt Gallen is a Swiss town and the capital of the canton of St. Gallen. It evolved from the hermitage of Saint Gall, founded in the 7th century. Today, it is a large urban agglomeration and represents the center of eastern Switzerland. Its economy consists mainly of the service sector. Internationally, the town is known as the home of the University of St. Gallen.
The concert hall was built between 1906 and 1909, in Art Nouveau style. The innovative construction used a reinforced concrete frame designed by Robert Maillart.
Art Nouveau is an international style of art, architecture and applied art, especially the decorative arts, that was most popular between 1890 and 1910. A reaction to the academic art of the 19th century, it was inspired by natural forms and structures, particularly the curved lines of plants and flowers.
Reinforced concrete (RC) (also called reinforced cement concrete or RCC) is a composite material in which concrete's relatively low tensile strength and ductility are counteracted by the inclusion of reinforcement having higher tensile strength or ductility. The reinforcement is usually, though not necessarily, steel reinforcing bars (rebar) and is usually embedded passively in the concrete before the concrete sets. Reinforcing schemes are generally designed to resist tensile stresses in particular regions of the concrete that might cause unacceptable cracking and/or structural failure. Modern reinforced concrete can contain varied reinforcing materials made of steel, polymers or alternate composite material in conjunction with rebar or not. Reinforced concrete may also be permanently stressed, so as to improve the behaviour of the final structure under working loads. In the United States, the most common methods of doing this are known as pre-tensioning and post-tensioning.
Robert Maillart was a Swiss civil engineer who revolutionized the use of structural reinforced concrete with such designs as the three-hinged arch and the deck-stiffened arch for bridges, and the beamless floor slab and mushroom ceiling for industrial buildings. His Salginatobel (1929–1930) and Schwandbach (1933) bridges changed the aesthetics and engineering of bridge construction dramatically and influenced decades of architects and engineers after him. In 1991 the Salginatobel Bridge was declared an International Historic Civil Engineering Landmark by the American Society of Civil Engineers.
Early concerts were given by guest orchestras, with conductors Artur Nikisch, Richard Strauss, Felix Weingartner and Arturo Toscanini. Othmar Schoeck was the conductor of symphony concerts from 1917 to 1944.
Richard Georg Strauss was a leading German composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras. He is known for his operas, which include Der Rosenkavalier, Elektra, Die Frau ohne Schatten and Salome; his Lieder, especially his Four Last Songs; his tone poems, including Don Juan, Death and Transfiguration, Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks, Also sprach Zarathustra, Ein Heldenleben, Symphonia Domestica, and An Alpine Symphony; and other instrumental works such as Metamorphosen and his Oboe Concerto. Strauss was also a prominent conductor in Western Europe and the Americas, enjoying quasi-celebrity status as his compositions became standards of orchestral and operatic repertoire.
Paul Felix Weingartner, Edler von Münzberg was an Austrian conductor, composer and pianist.
Arturo Toscanini was an Italian conductor. He was one of the most acclaimed musicians of the late 19th and of the 20th century, renowned for his intensity, his perfectionism, his ear for orchestral detail and sonority, and his eidetic memory. He was at various times the music director of La Scala in Milan, the Metropolitan Opera in New York, and the New York Philharmonic. Later in his career he was appointed the first music director of the NBC Symphony Orchestra (1937–54), and this led to his becoming a household name through his radio and television broadcasts and many recordings of the operatic and symphonic repertoire. Toscanini had absolute pitch.
The building was renovated in the early 1990s, with a larger stage and improved facilities for conductor and artists, and reopened in May 1993.
The London Symphony Orchestra (LSO), founded in 1904, is the oldest of London's symphony orchestras. It was set up by a group of players who left Henry Wood's Queen's Hall Orchestra because of a new rule requiring players to give the orchestra their exclusive services. The LSO itself later introduced a similar rule for its members. From the outset the LSO was organised on co-operative lines, with all players sharing the profits at the end of each season. This practice continued for the orchestra's first four decades.
David Zinman is an American conductor and violinist.
Othmar Schoeck was a Swiss composer and conductor.
The Tonhalle-Orchester Zürich is a Swiss symphony orchestra based in Zürich. Its principal residence is the Neue Tonhalle.
Penthesilea is a one-act opera by Othmar Schoeck, to a German-language libretto by the composer, after the work of the same name by Heinrich von Kleist. It was first performed at the Staatsoper in Dresden, Germany on 8 January 1927.
The Munich Philharmonic is a German symphony orchestra located in the city of Munich. It is one of Munich's four principal orchestras, along with the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra, the Munich Radio Orchestra and the Bavarian State Orchestra. Since 1985, the orchestra has been housed in the Gasteig Culture Centre.
The Symphony Orchestra of India is a symphony orchestra based in Mumbai, India. It was founded in 2006 by the National Centre for the Performing Arts (NCPA), Mumbai, which is also its home.
The KBS Symphony Orchestra is one of the most famous symphony orchestras in South Korea. It was founded in 1956 as the radio orchestra of the Korean Broadcasting System (KBS).
Andrew von Oeyen is an American concert pianist.
Michael Sanderling is a German conductor and violoncellist.
Werner Reinhart was a Swiss merchant, philanthropist, amateur clarinetist, and patron of composers and writers, particularly Igor Stravinsky and Rainer Maria Rilke. Reinhart knew and corresponded with many of the great names of the early-mid 20th century in the European artistic and musical world, and his Villa Rychenberg in Winterthur became an international meeting point for musicians and writers.
Philippe Bach is a Swiss conductor and current music director of Meiningen's Hofkapelle and Theatre.
Ursula Bagdasarjanz is a Swiss violinist.
Klaus Mertens is a German bass and bass-baritone singer who is known especially for his interpretation of the complete works of Johann Sebastian Bach for bass voice.
The Sinfonieorchester Basel is a symphony orchestra based in Basel, Switzerland. Its principal concert venue is the Musiksaal of the Stadtcasino. In addition, the orchestra accompanies ballet and opera productions in the Theater Basel.
Fabian Müller is a Swiss composer.
The Nuremberg Symphony Orchestra is a German orchestra based in Nuremberg. Its principal concert venue is the Meistersingerhalle.
Nathan Berg is an internationally recognized "first class" operatic bass-baritone. He is a Grammy award winner, and four-time Grammy nominated, a Juno award winner and 2014 Juno Awards nominee
Christoph Croisé is a French-German-Swiss cellist.
Ilona Durigo was a Hungarian classical contralto and an academic voice teacher. She appeared internationally, mostly in concert, singing Lieder and oratorios. She is known for singing Lieder that Othmar Schoeck composed for her, and is regarded as one of the leading concert contraltos of her era.
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