A toradar is an Indian matchlock dating from the 16th century. It was a preferred firearm in India well until the mid 19th-century because of its simple and cheap design.
When the Portuguese reached India in 1498, they brought with them firearms, among them the matchlock musket. Expert armorers were plentiful in India, and native craftsmen began to copy the weapons and adapting them for their own needs. Most of these craftsmen started to apply a style of decoration that normally would be applied to their traditional weapon. Soon a distinctive local style evolved, and the toradar was invented in the Indian subcontinent.
Toradar matchlock remained to be the preferred firearms mechanism well until about 1830. Part of the reason why the matchlocks were still more popular than the wheellocks and flintlocks was because the matchlocks were easier and cheaper to produce.Toradar was sometimes used as a hunting gun.
A toradar is basically an Indian matchlock. They were found mostly in the Mughal-influenced Northern and Central India. Two types of toradar exist: one has a very slim, from 3 feet (91 cm) to 6 feet (180 cm) long, straight stock with pentagonal-shaped section, and a light barrel; the other type is always between 5 feet (150 cm) to 6 feet (180 cm) long, has a curved stock with diamond-shaped section and a very heavy barrel, much enlarged at the breech. Both have the regular Indian type of lock, which is covered with a pan cover that usually swings on a pin. The iron side plates which reinforce each side of the stock extend for some distance on each side of the lock.
The barrel is usually fastened to the stock by wire band or leather thongs which frequently pass over silver saddles on the barrel. The rear sight of the first type have ogival shape, or an open V, while the second usually has a very large open rear sight. Both types' muzzles are generally fastened with moulded ring. The front sight are made very long so as to show above them. This front sights were often shaped into figurative forms e.g. the nose of a man, or shaped like tiger's head.Some toradar have square-shaped barrel, even with square bores. Both types generally have a clevis for a sling strap and some have two.
Compared with the European matchlocks, the stock of a toradar has a more simple shape than the fish-tail shaped butt of the European matchlock. The stock is also too small to be placed against the shoulder, so the Indian toradar were normally held beneath the arm.
A toradar used for sporting gun had painting of hunting figures, e.g. birds, other animals, and landscapes.
Decoration of a toradar reflects the local culture where the torador is created. For the toradar, craftsmen produced some very complex ornate art from ivory bone or precious metal inlays on the barrels and the stocks. 16th century paintings, especially in the paintings during Mughal emperor Akbar's time, depict a few soldiers using matchlocks. Akbar's reign saw the rise of the tufang .Up to the middle of the 18th century, the weapon was looked on with less favour than the bow and arrow. 17th century Mughal emperor Shah Jahan was depicted holding a matchlock with floral decoration. A toradar from 18th-century Mysore, in the southern Indian state of Karnataka is equisitely decorated with incised flowers and foliage. The decorations are entirely gilded. The incised side plates are made of iron. Animal figures are thoroughly represented in the toradar; the match holder of toradar usually has a serpentine naga-like shape, figures of tiger are impressed in the trigger of the Mysore toradar. A 19th-century toradar from Narwar has a tiger's head shaped around the muzzle.
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A long gun is a category of firearms with longer barrels than most other types. In small arms, a long gun is generally designed to be held by both hands and braced against the shoulder, in contrast to a handgun, which can be fired being held with a single hand. In the context of cannons and mounted firearms, an artillery long gun would be contrasted with a howitzer or carronade.
Flintlock is a general term for any firearm that uses a flint striking ignition mechanism. The term may also apply to a particular form of the mechanism itself, also known as the true flintlock, that was introduced in the early 17th century, and gradually replaced earlier firearm-ignition technologies, such as the matchlock, the wheellock, and the earlier flintlock mechanisms.
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The wall gun or wall piece was a type of smoothbore firearm used in the 16th through 18th centuries by defending forces to break the advance of enemy troops. Essentially, it was a scaled-up version of the army's standard infantry musket, operating under the same principles, but with a bore of up to one-inch (25.4 mm) calibre. These weapons filled a gap in firepower between the musket and the lightest artillery pieces, such as the swivel gun. This sort of weapon may also be found described as an amusette, rampart gun or Hackbut, a name originally given to early medieval hand cannon.
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Early modern warfare is the era of warfare following medieval warfare. It is associated with the start of the widespread use of gunpowder and the development of suitable weapons to use the explosive, including artillery and firearms; for this reason the era is also referred to as the age of gunpowder warfare. This entire period is contained within the Age of Sail, which characteristic dominated the era's naval tactics, including the use of gunpowder in naval artillery.
Iron sights are a system of shaped alignment markers used as a sighting device to assist in the aiming of a device such as a firearm, crossbow, or telescope, and exclude the use of optics as in reflector (reflex) sights, holographic sights, and telescopic sights.
The hand cannon, also known as the gonne or handgonne, is the first true firearm and the successor of the fire lance. It is the oldest type of small arms as well as the most mechanically simplistic form of metal barrel firearms. Unlike matchlock firearms it requires direct manual external ignition through a touch hole without any form of firing mechanism. It may also be considered a forerunner of the handgun. The hand cannon was widely used in China from the 13th century onward and later throughout Eurasia in the 14th century. In 15th century Europe, the hand cannon evolved to become the matchlock arquebus, which became the first firearm to have a trigger.
A handgun is a short-barrelled firearm that can be held and used with one hand. The two most common handgun sub-types in use today are revolvers and semi-automatic pistols, although other handguns like machine pistols and derringers also see infrequent usage.
Black powder was invented by Chinese during the 9th century; these inventions were later transmitted to the Middle East and Europe. The direct ancestor of the firearm is the fire lance. The prototype of the fire lance was invented in China during the 10th century and is the predecessor of all firearms.
The following are terms related to firearms and ammunition topics.
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