Toreva block

Last updated
A trail cuts across a large Toreva block bench several hundred feet below the level of the parent cliff in White Rock Canyon. The weaker base is the Tesuque Formation, the stronger overburden is the Cerros del Rio basalt, and the eroding agent is the Rio Grande. Toreva block bench in White Rock Canyon.jpg
A trail cuts across a large Toreva block bench several hundred feet below the level of the parent cliff in White Rock Canyon. The weaker base is the Tesuque Formation, the stronger overburden is the Cerros del Rio basalt, and the eroding agent is the Rio Grande.

A Toreva block landslide is a distinctive landslide type which may occur when a stronger material such as sandstone or limestone overlies a weaker material such as shale and an eroding agent undercuts the weaker lower layer. The type was first recognized by Parry Reiche in 1937, and takes its name from Toreva, Arizona. Toreva blocks exhibit a characteristic backward rotation toward the parent cliff.

The existence of Toreva blocks may be used to infer a warmer or wetter earlier climate, e.g. toreva blocks in the Transantarctic Mountains.

Related Research Articles

Landslide Type of natural disasters involving ground movements, often caused by slope instability triggered by specific event

The term landslide or less frequently, landslip, refers to several forms of mass wasting that may include a wide range of ground movements, such as rockfalls, deep-seated slope failures, mudflows, and debris flows. However, influential narrower definitions restrict landslides to slumps and translational slides in rock and regolith, not involving fluidisation. This excludes falls, topples, lateral spreads, and mass flows from the definition.

Slump (geology) Short distance movement of coherent earth down a slope

A slump is a form of mass wasting that occurs when a coherent mass of loosely consolidated materials or a rock layer moves a short distance down a slope. Movement is characterized by sliding along a concave-upward or planar surface. Causes of slumping include earthquake shocks, thorough wetting, freezing and thawing, undercutting, and loading of a slope.

Reedy Glacier

The Reedy Glacier is a major glacier in Antarctica, over 160 km (100 mi) long and from 10 to 19 km wide, descending from the polar plateau to the Ross Ice Shelf between the Michigan Plateau and Wisconsin Range, and marking the limits of the Queen Maud Mountains on the west and the Horlick Mountains on the east.

Hatherton Glacier

Hatherton Glacier is a large glacier flowing from the Antarctic polar plateau generally eastward along the south side of the Darwin Mountains and entering Darwin Glacier at Junction Spur. It was mapped by the Darwin Glacier Party of the Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition (1956–58), and was named for Trevor Hatherton, Scientific Officer in Charge of Antarctic Activities at the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Wellington, New Zealand.


Socompa is a large stratovolcano at the border of Argentina and Chile. Part of the Chilean and Argentine Andean Volcanic Belt (AVB), it is part of the Central Volcanic Zone, one of the various segments of the AVB. This part of the Andean volcanic arc begins in Peru and runs first through Bolivia and Chile, and then through Argentina and Chile, and contains about 44 active volcanoes. Socompa lies close to the pass of the same name, where the Salta-Antofagasta railway crosses the border.


A rockslide is a type of landslide caused by rock failure in which part of the bedding plane of failure passes through compacted rock and material collapses en masse and not in individual blocks. Note that a rockslide is similar to an avalanche because they are both slides of debris that can bury a piece of land. While a landslide occurs when loose dirt or sediment falls down a slope, a rockslide occurs only when solid rocks are transported down slope. The rocks tumble downhill, loosening other rocks on their way and smashing everything in their path. Fast-flowing rock slides or debris slides behave similarly to snow avalanches, and are often referred to as rock avalanches or debris avalanches.

West Antarctica

West Antarctica, or Lesser Antarctica, one of the two major regions of Antarctica, is the part of that continent that lies within the Western Hemisphere, and includes the Antarctic Peninsula. It is separated from East Antarctica by the Transantarctic Mountains and is covered by the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. It lies between the Ross Sea, and the Weddell Sea. It may be considered a giant peninsula, stretching from the South Pole towards the tip of South America.


A mudflow or mud flow is a form of mass wasting involving "very rapid to extremely rapid surging flow" of debris that has become partially or fully liquified by the addition of significant amounts of water to the source material.

East Antarctica

East Antarctica, also called Greater Antarctica, constitutes the majority (two-thirds) of the Antarctic continent, lying on the Indian Ocean side of the continent, separated from West Antarctica by the Transantarctic Mountains. It lies almost entirely within the Eastern Hemisphere and its name has been accepted for more than a century. It is generally higher than West Antarctica and includes the Gamburtsev Mountain Range in the centre.

Bukit Antarabangsa is a hillside township located in Ulu Klang, Ampang District, Selangor, Malaysia. The area is well known for being an affluent residential suburb occupied by occasional celebrities and political figures alike.

Geology of Antarctica Geologic composition of Antarctica

The geology of Antarctica covers the geological development of the continent through the Archean, Proterozoic and Phanerozoic eons.


Dracovenator is a genus of dilophosaurid theropod dinosaur that lived approximately 201 to 199 million years ago during the early part of the Jurassic Period in what is now South Africa. Dracovenator was a medium-sized, moderately-built, ground-dwelling, bipedal carnivore, that could grow up to an estimated 7 m (23.0 ft) long. Its type specimen was based on only a partial skull that was recovered.

There have been known various classifications of landslides. Broad definitions include forms of mass movement that narrower definitions exclude. For example, the McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology distinguishes the following types of landslides:


Dilophosauridae is a family of medium to large sized theropod dinosaurs. The name Dilophosauridae is derived from Greek, with “di-” meaning “two,” “lophos” meaning “crest,” “sauros” meaning “lizard,” and “-idae” meaning “family”. While the name suggests that all dilophosaurids have two crests, this is not applicable to all dilophosaurids. The Dilophosauridae is anchored by its type genus, Dilophosaurus, and therefore the name comes from the distinctive two crests of the genus.

Scott Glacier (Transantarctic Mountains)

The Scott Glacier is a major glacier, 120 miles (190 km) long, that drains the East Antarctic Ice Sheet through the Queen Maud Mountains to the Ross Ice Shelf. The Scott Glacier is one of a series of major glaciers flowing across the Transantarctic Mountains, with the Amundsen Glacier to the west and the Leverett and Reedy glaciers to the east.


Glacialisaurus is a genus of massospondylid sauropodomorph dinosaur. It lived during the Early Jurassic period in what is now central Transantarctic Mountains of Antarctica. It is known from the holotype FMNH PR1823, a partial hind limb (foot) and from the referred material FMNH PR1822, a left femur.

Submarine landslide Landslides that transport sediment across the continental shelf and into the deep ocean

Submarine landslides are marine landslides that transport sediment across the continental shelf and into the deep ocean. A submarine landslide is initiated when the downwards driving stress exceeds the resisting stress of the seafloor slope material causing movements along one or more concave to planar rupture surfaces. Submarine landslides take place in a variety of different settings including planes as low as 1° and can cause significant damage to both life and property. Recent advances have been made in understanding the nature and processes of submarine landslides through the use of sidescan sonar and other seafloor mapping technology.

SWEAT (hypothesis)

SWEAT stands for southwestern United States and East Antarctica, which theorizes that the Southwestern United States was at one time connected to East Antarctica. A hypothesis for a late Precambrian fit of western North America with the Australia-Antarctic shield region permits the extension of many features through Antarctica and into other parts of Gondwana, specifically, the Grenville orogen may extend around the coast of East Antarctica into India and Australia. The ophiolitic belt of the latter may extend into East Antarctica. The Wopmay orogen of northwest Canada may extend through eastern Australia into Antarctica and thence beneath the ice to connect with the Yavapai-Mazatzal orogens of the southwestern United States. Counterparts of the Precambrian-Paleozoic sedimentary rocks along the U.S. Cordilleran miogeocline may be present in the Transantarctic Mountains. Orogenic belt boundaries provide useful piercing points for Precambrian continental reconstructions. The model implies that Gondwana and Laurentia drifted away from each other on one margin and collided some 300 million years later on their opposite margins to form the Appalachians.

Euboea Montes

Euboea Montes is a mountain on Io, a moon of Jupiter. Its coordinates are at 48.89°S 338.77°W. It is about 10.5±1 km high, and was formed by tilting of a crustal block, with subsequent modification by a very large landslide.

Tata Sabaya

Tata Sabaya is a 5,430-metre (17,810 ft) high volcano in Bolivia. It is part of the Central Volcanic Zone, one of several volcanic belts in the Andes which are separated by gaps without volcanic activity. This section of the Andes was volcanically active since the Jurassic, with an episode of strong ignimbritic volcanism occurring during the Miocene. Tata Sabaya lies in a thinly populated region north of the Salar de Coipasa salt pan.


Reiche, Parry. "The Toreva block, a distinctive landslide type". Journal of Geology. 45 (5): 538–548. doi:10.1086/624563.