Troop engagements of the American Civil War, 1863

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Battle of Chancellorsville by Kurz and Allison (depicting the wounding of Confederate Lt. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson on May 2, 1863) Battle of Chancellorsville.png
Battle of Chancellorsville by Kurz and Allison (depicting the wounding of Confederate Lt. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson on May 2, 1863)

The following engagements took place in the year 1863 during the American Civil War. During the year, Union forces captured the Confederate cities of Vicksburg and Port Hudson, giving them complete control over the Mississippi River, while forcing Confederates out of the North following the Battle of Gettysburg.

Contents

History

In the Eastern theater, the Union Army of the Potomac, commanded by Major General Joseph Hooker, attacked the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia commanded by General Robert E. Lee in the Battle of Chancellorsville. Hooker planned to moved most of his army around to the Confederates's rear before Lee could react and force Lee to retreat but the Union army was slowed and then stopped by a small Confederate force, which was reinforced by the rest of the Confederate army. Lee then sent a flanking column led by Thomas J. Jackson around Hooker's left, which attacked a few hours before sunset on May 2; this attack and further Confederate attacks the following day forced Hooker to retreat on May 6. During the battle, Jackson was wounded by friendly fire and died several days later. [1] Lee reorganized his army following the campaign and launched an invasion of Union territory in June, moving through the Shenandoah Valley into Pennsylvania; Hooker was relieved of command on June 29, due to continuous disputes with the government over the garrison of Harpers Ferry, and replaced by Major General George Meade. During the Battle of Gettysburg from July 1 to July 3, Meade successfully held off Lee's attacks while inflicting heavy casualties in return. Lee was forced to retreat back to Virginia; Meade followed in close pursuit but was unable to find an opportunity to completely crush the Confederate army. [2] In October, Lee attempted to isolate and destroy Meade during the Bristoe Campaign but failed in an attack on Union positions at the Battle of Bristoe Station on October 14. Pressed by Union authorities, Meade also tried to attack Lee's positions along the Mine Run; however, Lee was able to establish a fortified defensive line across the Union line of advance. Meade judged the Confederate position too strong to attack and retreated. [3]

Siege of Vicksburg, by Kurz and Allison. Battle of Vicksburg, Kurz and Allison.png
Siege of Vicksburg, by Kurz and Allison.

In the Western Theater, simultaneous Union offensives from northern Mississippi and eastern Louisiana resulted in the sieges of Vicksburg and Port Hudson, both along the Mississippi River. Ulysses S. Grant started the Vicksburg campaign near the end of April when he crossed the Mississippi River near Bruinsburg Landing, south of Grand Gulf. He then marched inland and captured the Mississippi state capital of Jackson before turning east to Vicksburg; this isolated the Confederate garrison from Confederate supplies and reinforcements. After a six-week siege, the Confederate garrison surrendered on July 4, followed by the surrender of Port Hudson on July 9; this resulted in the complete Union control of the Mississippi River and made Grant a hero in the North. [4] In central Tennessee, the Union Army of the Cumberland commanded by Major General William S. Rosecrans maneuvered the Confederate Army of Tennessee, commanded by General Braxton Bragg, towards Chattanooga, Tennessee during the Tullahoma Campaign from late June to early July. In early September, Rosecrans launched another offensive which resulted in the capture of Chattanooga, an important Confederate rail center; however, a few weeks later Bragg, reinforced with James Longstreet's corps from the Army of Northern Virginia, attacked Rosecrans near the Chickamauga Creek and routed much of the Union army, forcing it to retreat back to Chattanooga. Stubborn resistance from the troops of George H. Thomas prevented the Confederates from launching an immediate pursuit. [5] Bragg settled his army into a siege of Chattanooga, almost completely cutting off all supplies to the Union army. Soon, dissension and arguments began to create tension in the Confederate army's high command; this resulted in Longstreet being sent to eastern Tennessee and a reorganization of the army in an attempt by Bragg to rid the army of his critics. Grant, promoted to command of the Military Division of the Mississippi, took command of the Union forces near the city, which was reinforced by the Army of the Tennessee and a detachment from the Army of the Potomac. During the three days from November 23 to the 26, Grant launched a series of attacks on the Confederate positions and was able to drive off Bragg's army. A rear guard action by Patrick Cleaburne at Ringgold Gap halted the Union pursuit long enough for Bragg to reach safety. A few weeks after the battle, Bragg was relieved of command by his own request. [6]

C.S. Bayou City captures the USS Harriet Lane during the Battle of Galveston CSBayouCity-capturesLane.jpg
C.S. Bayou City captures the USS Harriet Lane during the Battle of Galveston

In the Trans-Mississippi Theater, only small battles and skirmishes took place. On January 1, Confederate forces led by Major General John B. Magruder recaptured the port city of Galveston, the only port city which the Confederates were able to recapture during the war. In order to cut off the Trans-Mississippi supply lines to Port Hudson, Major General Nathaniel P. Banks moved up the Bayou Teche in Louisiana during April. For the remainder of the summer, Confederate commander Major General Richard Taylor attempted to cut off Banks' supply lines to New Orleans but failed. In September, Union forces tried to invade eastern Texas to counteract the French invasion of Mexico but were defeated at Sabine Pass, losing two gunboats and 350 men while the Confederates suffered no casualties. [7]

Engagements

DateEngagementMilitary unitsLosses
January 1 Galveston II, TexasConfederate District of Texas, Union garrisonConfederate 50, Union 600 [8]
January 8 Springfield II, MissouriConfederate cavalry from District of Arkansas, Union garrisonConfederate 240, Union 163 [9]
January 9–10 Arkansas Post, ArkansasConfederate Army of the Lower Arkansas and White Rivers, Union Army of the Mississippi and Mississippi Squadron Confederate 5,004, Union 1,092 [10]
January 9–11 Hartville, MissouriConfederate cavalry, Union garrisonConfederate 329, Union 78 [11]
January 27 – March 3 Battle of Fort McAllister (1863), GeorgiaConfederate garrison, Union squadron from South Atlantic Blockading Squadron Confederate one, Union none [12]
January 29 Bear River, IdahoUnion infantry, Shoshoni tribe Union 64, Shoshoni 250 [13]
February 3 Dover, TennesseeConfederate cavalry from Army of Tennessee, Union garrisonConfederate 855, Union 110 [14]
March 4–5 Thompson's Station, TennesseeConfederate cavalry, Union infantryConfederate 357, Union 1,600 [15]
March 13–15 Fort Anderson, North CarolinaConfederate Department of North Carolina, Union garrison7 total [16]
March 17 Kelly's Ford, VirginiaCavalry from Confederate Army of Northern Virginia and Union Army of the Potomac Confederate 80, Union 99 [17]
March 20 Vaught's Hill, TennesseeConfederate and Union cavalryConfederate 150, Union 38 [18]
March 25 Brentwood, TennesseeConfederate cavalry division, Union garrisonConfederate 3, Union 529 [19]
March 30 – April 20 Washington, North CarolinaConfederate Department of North Carolina, Union garrison100 total [20]
April 7 Charleston Harbor I, South CarolinaConfederate garrison of Fort Sumter, Union South Atlantic Blockading SquadronConfederate 14, Union 22 [21]
April 10 Franklin I, TennesseeConfederate and Union cavalryConfederate 137, Union 100 [22]
April 12–13 Fort Bisland, LouisianaConfederate District of West Louisiana, Union XIX Corps Confederate 450, Union 224 [23]
April 13–15 Suffolk I, VirginiaConfederate First Corps, Army of Northern Virginia, Union Department of Virginiaunknown [24]
April 14 Irish Bend, LouisianaConfederate District of West Louisiana, Union division from XIX CorpsConfederate unknown, Union 353 [25]
April 17 Vermillion Bayou, LouisianaConfederate District of West Louisiana, Union XIX Corpsunknown [26]
April 19 Suffolk II, VirginiaConfederate First Corps, Army of Northern Virginia, Union Department of Virginiaunknown [27]
April 26 Cape Girardeau, MissouriConfederate cavalry, Union garrisonConfederate 325, Union 12 [28]
April 29 Grand Gulf, MississippiConfederate batteries from Army of Vicksburg, Union Mississippi squadronConfederate unknown, Union 80 [29]
April 29 Snyder's Bluff, MississippiConfederate artillery, Union Mississippi squadronunknown [30]
April 30 Day's Gap, AlabamaConfederate and Union cavalryConfederate 65, Union 23 [31]
May 1 Port Gibson, MississippiConfederate Army of Vicksburg, Union Army of the Tennessee Confederate 787, Union 875 [32]
May 1–2 Chalk Bluff, ArkansasConfederate cavalry, Union infantryfewer than 100 [28]
May 1–6 Chancellorsville, VirginiaConfederate Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of the PotomacConfederate 13,460, Union 17,304 [33]
May 3 Fredericksburg II, VirginiaConfederate division from Second Corps, Army of Northern Virginia, Union VI Corps and division from II Corps, Army of the PotomacConfederate 475, Union 1,100 [34]
May 3–4 Salem Church, VirginiaConfederate Army of Northern Virginia, Union VI Corps and division from II Corps, Army of the PotomacConfederate 674, Union 1,523 [35]
May 12 Raymond, MississippiConfederate Army of Vicksburg, Union Army of the TennesseeConfederate 442, Union 514 [36]
May 14 Jackson, MississippiConfederate garrison, Union Army of the TennesseeConfederate 850, Union 286 [37]
May 16 Champion Hill, MississippiConfederate Army of Vicksburg, Union Army of the TennesseeConfederate 3,840, Union 2,441 [38]
May 17 Big Black River Bridge, MississippiConfederate Army of Vicksburg, Union Army of the TennesseeConfederate 1,741, Union 276 [39]
May 18 – July 4 Vicksburg, MississippiConfederate Army of Vicksburg, Union Army of the TennesseeConfederate 32,697 (29,495 surrendered), Union 4,835 [40]
May 21 Plains Store, LouisianaConfederate Department of Mississippi, Union Department of the Gulf Confederate 100, Union 150 [41]
May 22 – July 9 Port Hudson, LouisianaConfederate garrison, Union Department of the GulfConfederate 7,500, Union 10,000 [42]
June 7 Milliken's Bend, LouisianaConfederate division, Union garrisonConfederate 185, Union 652 [43]
June 9 Brandy Station, VirginiaCavalry corps from Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of the PotomacConfederate 515, Union 866 [44]
June 13–15 Winchester II, VirginiaConfederate Second Corps, Army of Northern Virginia, Union garrison from Middle Department Confederate 269, Union 4,443 [45]
June 17 Aldie, VirginiaCavalry from Confederate Army of Northern Virginia and Union Army of the PotomacConfederate 119, Union 300 [46]
June 19 Middleburg, VirginiaCavalry from Confederate Army of Northern Virginia and Union Army of the Potomacunknown [47]
June 19Ashby's Gap, VirginiaCavalry from Confederate Army of Northern Virginia and Union Army of the Potomacunknown [48]
June 20–21 LaFourche Crossing, LouisianaConfederate District of West Louisiana, Union garrisonConfederate 219, Union 49 [49]
June 21 Upperville, VirginiaCavalry from Confederate Army of Northern Virginia and Union Army of the Potomacunknown [50]
June 24–26 Hoover's Gap, TennesseeConfederate Army of Tennessee, Union Army of the Cumberland Confederate unknown, Union 583 [51]
June 28 Donaldsonville II, LouisianaConfederate District of West Louisiana, Union garrisonConfederate 301, Union 23 [52]
June 28Near Fort Rice, North DakotaParty of Sioux Indians, Union Department of the NorthwestSioux three, Union one [53]
June 29Oyster's Point (Camp Hill), PennsylvaniaConfederate cavalry brigade, Army of Northern Virginia, Union Department of the Susquehanna Confederate none, Union one wounded [54]
June 29–30 Goodrich's Landing, LouisianaConfederate cavalry, Union garrisonConfederate 6, Union 150 [55]
June 30 Hanover, PennsylvaniaCavalry from Confederate Army of Northern Virginia and Union Army of the PotomacConfederate 150, Union 200 [56]
June 30 Sporting Hill, PennsylvaniaConfederate cavalry brigade, Army of Northern Virginia, Union Department of the SusquehannaConfederate 35–45, Union unknown [57]
July 1–3 Gettysburg, PennsylvaniaConfederate Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of the PotomacConfederate 22,625, Union 22,813 [58]
July 1–2 Cabin Creek, OklahomaConfederate Cherokees and Texas cavalry, Union infantryConfederate 59, Union 21 [59]
July 1 Hunterstown, PennsylvaniaCavalry from Confederate Army of Northern Virginia and Union Army of the Potomacunknown [60]
July 3 Fairfield, PennsylvaniaConfederate cavalry brigade, Army of Northern Virginia, Union 6th U.S. Cavalry Regiment Confederate 44, Union 242 [61]
July 4 Helena, ArkansasConfederate District of Arkansas, Union garrisonConfederate 1,636, Union 239 [62]
July 6 Williamsport, MarylandCavalry from Confederate Army of Northern Virginia and Union Army of the PotomacConfederate 254, Union 400 [63]
July 7Funkstown, MarylandCavalry from Confederate Army of Northern Virginia and Union Army of the Potomacunknown [64]
July 8 Boonsboro, MarylandCavalry from Confederate Army of Northern Virginia and Union Army of the Potomac100 total [65]
July 9 Corydon, IndianaConfederate cavalry, Union militiaConfederate 51, Union 360 [66]
July 10 Funkstown, MarylandCavalry from Confederate Army of Northern Virginia and Union Army of the Potomac479 total [67]
July 10–11 Fort Wagner I, South CarolinaConfederate garrison of Fort Wagner, Union Department of the SouthConfederate 12, Union 339 [68]
July 12 Jackson, Mississippi Confederate Department of the West, Union Army of the TennesseeConfederate 50, Union 510 [69]
July 12–13 Kock's Plantation, LouisianaConfederate District of West Louisiana, Union Department of the GulfConfederate 33, Union 465 [70]
July 14 Hoke's Run or Falling Waters, Maryland Confederate division from Army of Northern Virginia, Union cavalry from Army of the Potomacunknown [71]
July 16 Grimball's Landing, South CarolinaConfederate Department of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, Union Department of the SouthConfederate 18, Union 46 [72]
July 17 Honey Springs, OklahomaConfederate division from Trans-Mississippi Department, Union Army of the Border Confederate 134, Union 77 [73]
July 18 Fort Wagner II, South CarolinaConfederate garrison of Fort Wagner, Union Department of the SouthConfederate 222, Union 1,515 [74]
July 19 Buffington Island, OhioConfederate cavalry, Union infantry and cavalryConfederate 900, Union 25 [66]
July 23 Manassas Gap, VirginiaConfederate Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of the Potomac440 total [75]
July 24 Big Mound, North DakotaUnion Department of the Northwest, Dakotas (Sisseton and Wahpeton tribes)Union 7, Dakotas 80 [76]
July 26 Salineville, OhioConfederate cavalry, Union cavalryConfederate 364, Union none [77]
July 26 Dead Buffalo, North DakotaUnion Department of the Northwest, Dakota (Sisseton and Yanktonais tribes) and Teton Lakota (Hunkpapa and Blackfeet tribes)Union 1, Dakotas and Lakotas 9 [76]
July 28 Stony Lake, North DakotaUnion Department of the Northwest, Dakotas and Lakotas tribesUnion none, Dakotas and Lakotas unknown [78]
August 17 – September 8 Fort Sumter II, South CarolinaConfederate garrison of Fort Sumter, Union Department of the Southunknown [79]
August 21 Lawrence, KansasConfederate guerrillas, Union civiliansConfederate none, Union 150 [80]
August 21 Chattanooga II, Tennessee Confederate Army of Tennessee, Union Army of the Cumberlandunknown [81]
September 1 Devil's Backbone, ArkansasConfederate and Union cavalryConfederate 17, Union 14 [82]
September 3–4 Whitestone Hill, North DakotaUnion Department of North Dakota, Dakota tribesUnion 60, Dakotas 350 [83]
September 5–8 Charleston Harbor II, South CarolinaConfederate garrison of Fort Wagner, Union Department of the SouthConfederate 100, Union 117 [84]
September 8 Sabine Pass II, Texas Confederate company of 1st Texas Heavy Artillery, Union gunboats from West Gulf Blockading Squadron Confederate none, Union 350 [85]
September 8Telford's Station, TennesseeConfederate Thomas' Legion, Union 100th Ohio Infantry unknown [86]
September 10 Bayou Fourche, ArkansasConfederate Marmaduke and Walker's cavalry divisions, Union Department of the Missouri Cavalry DivisionConfederate 64, Union 72 [87]
September 10–11 Davis' Cross Roads, GeorgiaConfederate Army of Tennessee, Union Army of the Cumberlandunknown [88]
September 19–20 Chickamauga, GeorgiaConfederate Army of Tennessee, Union Army of the CumberlandConfederate 18,454, Union 16,179 [89]
September 22 Blountville, Tennessee Confederate cavalry, Union Army of the OhioConfederate 165, Union 27 [90]
September 29 Stirling's Plantation, LouisianaConfederate District of West Louisiana, Union Department of the GulfConfederate 121, Union 515 [91]
October 6 Baxter Springs, KansasConfederate guerrillas, Union Department of Kansas Confederate 3, Union 70 [92]
October 10 Blue Springs, TennesseeConfederate cavalry, Union Army of the OhioConfederate 216, Union 100 [93]
October 11Henderson's Mill, TennesseeConfederate cavalry detachment from Department of Southwestern Virginia, Union 5th Indiana Cavalry unknown [94]
October 13 Auburn I, VirginiaConfederate Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of the Potomac50 total [95]
October 14 Auburn II, VirginiaConfederate Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of the Potomac115 total [96]
October 14 Bristoe Station, VirginiaConfederate Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of the PotomacConfederate 1,380, Union 540 [97]
October 16–18 Fort Brooke, FloridaConfederate garrison, Union East Gulf Blockading SquadronConfederate unknown, Union 16 [98]
October 19 Buckland Mills, VirginiaConfederate Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of the Potomac230 total [99]
October 24Washington, LouisianaConfederate District of West Louisiana, Union detachment from Army of the Gulfunknown [100]
October 25 Pine Bluff, ArkansasMarmaduke's Division (Confederate), Post of Pine Bluff (Union)Confederate 40, Union 56 [87]
October 28 29 Wauhatchie, TennesseeConfederate Army of Tennessee, Union Army of the CumberlandConfederate 356, Union 216 [101]
November 2 6 Brownsville, TexasConfederate District of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona, Union detachment from XIII Corps unknown [102]
November 3 Collierville, TennesseeConfederate and Union cavalryConfederate 95, Union 60 [103]
November 3 Bayou Bourbeau, LouisianaConfederate cavalry from District of West Louisiana, Union XIII Corps Confederate 125, Union 154 [104]
November 6 Droop Mountain, West VirginiaConfederate Department of Southwest Virginia, Union Department of West VirginiaConfederate 275, Union 140 [105]
November 7 Rappahannock Station, VirginiaConfederate Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of the PotomacConfederate 2,041, Union 461 [106]
November 16 Campbell's Station, TennesseeConfederate First Corps, Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of the Ohio Confederate 570, Union 400 [107]
November 23 25 Chattanooga III, Tennessee Confederate Army of Tennessee, Union Military Division of the Mississippi Confederate 6,667, Union 5,815 [108]
November 26 December 2 Mine Run, VirginiaConfederate Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of the PotomacConfederate 795, Union 1,633 [109]
November 27 Ringgold Gap, GeorgiaConfederate Army of Tennessee, Union Military Division of the MississippiConfederate 221, Union 507 [110]
November 29 Fort Sanders, TennesseeConfederate Army of Tennessee, Union Army of the OhioConfederate 800, Union 15 [111]
December 14 Bean's Station, TennesseeConfederate First Corps, Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of the OhioConfederate 222, Union 115 [112]
December 29 Mossy Creek, TennesseeConfederate First Corps, Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of the OhioConfederate unknown, Union 151 [113]

See also

Related Research Articles

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Turning point of the American Civil War

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Fight at Monterey Pass

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Chattanooga campaign

The Chattanooga campaign was a series of maneuvers and battles in October and November 1863, during the American Civil War. Following the defeat of Maj. Gen. William S. Rosecrans's Union Army of the Cumberland at the Battle of Chickamauga in September, the Confederate Army of Tennessee under Gen. Braxton Bragg besieged Rosecrans and his men by occupying key high terrain around Chattanooga, Tennessee. Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant was given command of Union forces in the West, now consolidated under the Division of the Mississippi. Significant reinforcements also began to arrive with him in Chattanooga from Mississippi and the Eastern Theater. On October 18, Grant removed Rosecrans from command of the Army of the Cumberland and replaced him with Major General George Henry Thomas.

Retreat from Gettysburg

The Confederate Army of Northern Virginia began its Retreat from Gettysburg on July 4, 1863. Following General Robert E. Lee's failure to defeat the Union Army at the Battle of Gettysburg, he ordered a retreat through Maryland and over the Potomac River to relative safety in Virginia. The Union Army of the Potomac, commanded by Maj. Gen. George G. Meade, was unable to maneuver quickly enough to launch a significant attack on the Confederates, who crossed the river on the night of July 13–14.

Battle of Fairfax Court House (June 1863)

The Battle of Fairfax Court House was fought during the Gettysburg Campaign of the American Civil War between two cavalry detachments from the Union Army of the Potomac, commanded by General Joseph Hooker, and the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, commanded by General Robert E. Lee.

Barrett's Missouri Battery was an artillery battery that served in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. After entering Confederate service on April 1, 1862, the unit was armed with two 6-pounder smoothboore cannons and two 12-pounder howitzers and was commanded by Captain Overton W. Barrett. It was present during the Siege of Corinth, but saw no action. During the Battle of Perryville in October 1862, Barrett's battery provided artillery support for a Confederate brigade. After spending the next several months moving around Tennessee, the battery supported a Confederate attack during the Battle of Stones River in December. The 1863 Chickamauga campaign brought light action for the unit, which also fought in the Battle of Missionary Ridge. When the Confederates retreated after the Missionary Ridge fighting, Barrett's battery was part of the Confederate rear guard at the Battle of Ringgold Gap, earning the praise of Patrick R. Cleburne. Rearmed with four 12-pounder howitzers, the unit was action in the 1864 Atlanta campaign as part of the Confederate reserve artillery, although two of the cannons were lost to attrition. On April 16, 1865, the battery ceased to exist when its flag, cannons, and most of its members were captured during the Battle of Columbus, Georgia. As of January 2021, its battle flag is part of the collection of the Missouri State Museum.

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