Truxinic acid

Last updated
Truxinic acid
Truxinic acid skeletal.svg
Names
IUPAC name
3,4-Diphenyl-1,2-cyclobutanedicarboxylic acid
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChemSpider
PubChem CID
Properties
C18H16O4
Molar mass 296.322 g·mol−1
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

Truxinic acids are any of several stereoisomeric cyclic dicarboxylic acids with the formula (C6H5)2C4H4(COOH)2, found in various plants. [1] [2] They are obtained by a photochemical cycloaddition from cinnamic acid, [3] where the two trans alkenes react head-to-head.

Contents

Isomers

Ten stereoisomers are possible. [4] [5]

Truxillic and truxinic acid stereo.svg
Truxinic acid isomers
Isomerabcdef
ω-truxinic acidC6H5HCOOHHCOOHH
β-truxinic acidC6H5HHCOOHHCOOH
neo-truxinic acidC6H5HCOOHHHCOOH
ζ-truxinic acidHC6H5COOHHCOOHH
μ-truxinic acidHC6H5HCOOHCOOHH
δ-truxinic acidHC6H5COOHHHCOOH

See also

Related Research Articles

Benzoic acid Chemical compound

Benzoic acid is a white (or colorless) solid with the formula C6H5CO2H. It is the simplest aromatic carboxylic acid. The name is derived from gum benzoin, which was for a long time its only source. Benzoic acid occurs naturally in many plants and serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of many secondary metabolites. Salts of benzoic acid are used as food preservatives. Benzoic acid is an important precursor for the industrial synthesis of many other organic substances. The salts and esters of benzoic acid are known as benzoates.

Purine chemical compound

Purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound that consists of two rings in their structure. It is water-soluble. Purine also gives its name to the wider class of molecules, purines, which include substituted purines and their tautomers. They are the most widely occurring nitrogen-containing heterocycles in nature.

Photochemistry Sub-discipline of chemistry

Photochemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the chemical effects of light. Generally, this term is used to describe a chemical reaction caused by absorption of ultraviolet, visible light (400–750 nm) or infrared radiation (750–2500 nm).

Cinnamaldehyde chemical compound

Cinnamaldehyde is an organic compound with the formula C6H5CH=CHCHO. Occurring naturally as predominantly the trans (E) isomer, it gives cinnamon its flavor and odor. It is a phenylpropanoid that is naturally synthesized by the shikimate pathway. This pale yellow, viscous liquid occurs in the bark of cinnamon trees and other species of the genus Cinnamomum. The essential oil of cinnamon bark is about 90% cinnamaldehyde.

Phenanthrene Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon composed of three fused benzene rings

Phenanthrene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon composed of three fused benzene rings. The name 'phenanthrene' is a composite of phenyl and anthracene. In its pure form, it is found in cigarette smoke and is a known irritant, photosensitizing skin to light. It appears as a colorless, crystal-like solid but can also look yellow.

Cinnamic acid chemical compound

Cinnamic acid is an organic compound with the formula C6H5CH=CHCOOH. It is a white crystalline compound that is slightly soluble in water, and freely soluble in many organic solvents. Classified as an unsaturated carboxylic acid, it occurs naturally in a number of plants. It exists as both a cis and a trans isomer, although the latter is more common.

In organic chemistry, an electrocyclic reaction is a type of pericyclic rearrangement where the net result is one pi bond being converted into one sigma bond or vice versa. These reactions are usually categorized by the following criteria:

A cycloaddition is a chemical reaction, in which "two or more unsaturated molecules combine with the formation of a cyclic adduct in which there is a net reduction of the bond multiplicity." The resulting reaction is a cyclization reaction. Many but not all cycloadditions are concerted and thus pericyclic. Nonconcerted cycloadditions are not pericyclic. As a class of addition reaction, cycloadditions permit carbon–carbon bond formation without the use of a nucleophile or electrophile.

The Perkin reaction is an organic reaction developed by English chemist William Henry Perkin that is used to make cinnamic acids. It gives an α,β-unsaturated aromatic acid by the aldol condensation of an aromatic aldehyde and an acid anhydride, in the presence of an alkali salt of the acid. The alkali salt acts as a base catalyst, and other bases can be used instead.

The Michael reaction or Michael addition is the nucleophilic addition of a carbanion or another nucleophile to an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compound containing an electron withdrawing group. It belongs to the larger class of conjugate additions. This is one of the most useful methods for the mild formation of C–C bonds. Many asymmetric variants exist.

Curtius rearrangement chemical reaction

The Curtius rearrangement, first defined by Theodor Curtius in 1885, is the thermal decomposition of an acyl azide to an isocyanate with loss of nitrogen gas. The isocyanate then undergoes attack by a variety of nucleophiles such as water, alcohols and amines, to yield a primary amine, carbamate or urea derivative respectively. Several reviews have been published.

Dibenzylideneacetone chemical compound

Dibenzylideneacetone or dibenzalacetone, often abbreviated dba, is an organic compound with the formula C17H14O. It is a pale-yellow solid insoluble in water, but soluble in ethanol. Dibenzylideneacetone is used as a component in sunscreens and as a ligand in organometallic chemistry.

Lead(IV) acetate chemical compound

Lead(IV) acetate or lead tetraacetate is a chemical compound with chemical formula Pb(C2H3O2)4. It is a colorless solid that is soluble in nonpolar organic solvents, indicative that it is not a salt. It is degraded by moisture and is typically stored with additional acetic acid. The compound is used in organic synthesis.

Organic photochemistry encompasses organic reactions take are induced by the action of light. The absorption of ultraviolet light by organic molecules often leads to reactions. In the earliest days, sunlight was employed, while in more modern times ultraviolet lamps are employed. Organic photochemistry has proven to be a very useful synthetic tool. Complex organic products can be obtained simply.

The Barton reaction, also known as the Barton nitrite ester reaction, is a photochemical reaction that involves the photolysis of an alkyl nitrite to form a δ-nitroso alcohol.

Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase class of enzymes

Phenylalanine ammonia lyase is an enzyme that catalyzes a reaction converting L-phenylalanine to ammonia and trans-cinnamic acid. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) is the first and committed step in the phenyl propanoid pathway and is therefore involved in the biosynthesis of the polyphenol compounds such as flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, and lignin in plants. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase is found widely in plants, as well as some bacteria, yeast, and fungi, with isoenzymes existing within many different species. It has a molecular mass in the range of 270–330 kDa. The activity of PAL is induced dramatically in response to various stimuli such as tissue wounding, pathogenic attack, light, low temperatures, and hormones. PAL has recently been studied for possible therapeutic benefits in humans afflicted with phenylketonuria. It has also been used in the generation of L-phenylalanine as precursor of the sweetener aspartame.

Benzaldehyde (C6H5CHO) is an organic compound consisting of a benzene ring with a formyl substituent. It is the simplest aromatic aldehyde and one of the most industrially useful.

Angelicin chemical compound

Angelicin is the parent compound in a family of naturally occurring organic compounds known as the angular furanocoumarins. Structurally, it can be considered as benzapyra-2-one fused with a furan moiety in the 7,8-position. Angelicin is commonly found in certain Apiaceae and Fabaceae plant species such as Bituminaria bituminosa. It has a skin permeability coefficient (LogKp) of -2.46. The maximum absorption is observed at 300 nm. The 1HNMR spectrum is available; the infrared and mass spectra of angelicin can be found in this database. The sublimation of angelicin occurs at 120 °C and the pressure of 0.13 Pa. Angelicin is a coumarine.

Truxillic acid chemical compound

Truxillic acids are any of several crystalline stereoisomeric cyclic dicarboxylic acids with the formula (C6H5C2H2(CO2H)2. They are colorless solids. These compounds are obtained by the [2 + 2] photocycloadditions of cinnamic acid where the two trans alkenes react head-to-tail. The isolated stereoisomers are called truxillic acids. The preparation of truxillic acids provided an early example of organic photochemistry.

Photogeochemistry

Photogeochemistry merges photochemistry and geochemistry into the study of light-induced chemical reactions that occur or may occur among natural components of Earth's surface. The first comprehensive review on the subject was published in 2017 by the chemist and soil scientist Timothy A Doane, but the term photogeochemistry appeared a few years earlier as a keyword in studies that described the role of light-induced mineral transformations in shaping the biogeochemistry of Earth; this indeed describes the core of photogeochemical study, although other facets may be admitted into the definition.

References

  1. Liebermann (1888). "Cinnamic acid polymers obtained from the minor alkaloids of cocaine" (PDF). Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft. 21: 3372–3376. doi:10.1002/cber.188802102223.
  2. Krauze-Baranowska, Miroslawa (2002). "Truxillic and truxinic acids-occurrence in plant kingdom". Acta poliniae Pharmaceutica-Drug research. 59 (5): 403–410.
  3. Hein, Sara M. (2006). "An Exploration of a Photochemical Pericyclic Reaction Using NMR Data". Journal of Chemical Education. 83: 940–942. doi:10.1021/ed083p940.
  4. Agarwai, O. P. (2011). Organic Chemistry Reactions and Reagents. Krishna Prakashan Media. ISBN   8187224657.
  5. M. Freedmana, Y. Mohadgera, J. Rennerta, S. Solowaya, I. Waltchera (1969). "β- and δ-truxinic acids". Organic Preparations and Procedures. 1 (4): 267–269. doi:10.1080/00304946909458397.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)