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Turha is a caste mainly found in Bihar, Jharkhand, East UP and Some parts of West Bengal. They worship Lord Shani dev. They claim to belong to Maharana pratap clan. Their main occupation is to sell and grow agricultural products like fish, fruits, and vegetables.
They are found mainly in Darbhanga and Muzaffarpur, Samastipur -(Dalsingsarai), Begusarai, East & West Champaran, Gopalganj, Siwan, Chapra, Vaishali, districts of Bihar, with a few also found in the neighbouring Terai region of Nepal, eastern U.P., West Bengal and western Bihar, and all over India. They speak Bajjika, Maithili, Bhojpuri and Hindi.
The Turha caste are divided into a number of lineages known as khandans. Marriages are forbidden within the khandan. The largest khandan is the Palak Turha. They use Sah, Sahu, shah, shaw Prasad, etc. as surnames.They reside all over India and some Turha also stay in Gulf countries and they do their business all over world.
The Patuas, are an artisan community found in the state of West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand and Odisha in India and parts of Bangladesh. Some Patuas are Hindus, while others are Muslims. Hindu Patuas are active in the Kalighat and Kumartuli regions of Calcutta, along with some other parts of West Bengal, where they are reduced in number. It is believed that most Patuas are actually converts from Hinduism to Islam. Today, they practice customs that are both Hindu and Islamic in nature. They may have also been Buddhist at various points in time. Today, however, the majority of them are impoverished Muslims who rely on patronage from mainly Hindus, but also increasingly from tourists who buy their painted scrolls, as Frank J. Korom has described and analysed in his book Village of Painters: Narrative Scrolls from West Bengal.
Patna, the capital of Bihar state, India, is one of the oldest continuously inhabited places in the world and the History of Patna spans at least three millennia. Patna has the distinction of being associated with the two most ancient religions of the world, namely, Buddhism and Jainism. The ancient city of Pataliputra was the capital of the Mauryan, Shunga, and Gupta Empires. It has been a part of the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal Empire, and has seen the rule of the Nawabs of Bengal, the East India Company and the British Raj. During British rule, the Patna University as well as several other educational institutions were established.Patna has been one of the nerve centers of First War of Independence, participated actively in India's Independence movement, and emerged in the post-independent India as the most populous city of East India after Kolkata.
Pradhan is a generally ministerial title of Sanskrit origin in cultures of Hindu tradition, mainly used in the Indian subcontinent. The Sanskrit pradhan translates to "major" or "prime"; however, the more modern Hindi definitions provided by the Oxford Hindi-English Dictionary also include "chief" and "leader". The precise interpretation can differ significantly by region. The style was abandoned by many Indian princely states during the Mughal era in favor of Persian styles such as Wasir and Diwan.
Bihari Muslims are people originating and tracing descent from the Indian state of Bihar who practice the religion of Islam.
The Khatik are an ethnic tribe found in the Indian subcontinent, mainly modern-day India, Pakistan and Nepal. The Hindu Khatik have scheduled caste status in India. They are one of the most widespread communities in modern South Asia. Indian Khatik have a population of approximately above 4.8 crore and are located mainly in New Delhi, Haryana, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh.
The Ghosi are a Muslim community found mainly in North India.
The Marasi are the genealogists and traditional singers and dancers of a number of communities. The word " mirasi" is derived from the Arabic word (ميراث) mirasi, which means inheritance or sometimes heritage.
The Bind' are a caste found in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Assam, West Bengal and Tripura. Bind are under the OBCs category of the central list. The government of India's draft defines them as a nomadic tribe in Tripura. The Assam government and MP government categorise them as a tribe. The nearest name which comes closer for them is Nishad. The Bind are originally from the Vindhya.
Kutch Gurjar Kshatriya are a minority Hindu and one of the Socially and Educationally Backward communities of Gujarat in India, who claim to be Kshatriyas. They are an artisan community related with Kadia works. They are also known as the Mistri or Mistris of Kutch.
Turaiha (Turai) is a fishing related Hindu caste, mostly found in Northern Indian states of United Province, Delhi, Bihar, Bengal and Maharashtra. Main population of Turaiha depends on rivers, fish ponds and lakes. In Rohilkhand they known as Turai, Turaha and Turahiya. As similar they found Agra, Gorakhpur, Padrauna (kushinagar) Meerut, Shahjahanpur, Moradabad, Oudh and Benares divisions of United Province.
Basak (Bosak) is a Hindu surname in the Bengal region, Bihar, Jharkhand and Assam. In West Bengal and Assam this surname is written as basak while in some districts of Bihar as basak or bosak. The name is also spelt Bysack or Basacks by different families. In Bengali and Assam they usually belong to caste Kshatriya and Vaishya, Tantubais, Karmakars, Bania (Bonia). In Bihar they are mainly concentrated in Katihar, Purnea and Kishanganj districts where they belong to the Chaupal caste. Chaupal caste is considered a scheduled caste under Government of Bihar and West Bengal and Bania (Bonia) caste is considered as scheduled caste under Government of Assam. The Basaks are the original inhabitants of Sutanuti where Job Charnock later founded the city of Calcutta. Basak from Kshanganj, Bihar is also from Nadia district of West Bengal.
Bengali Hindus are an ethnic, linguistic and religious population who make up the majority in the Indian states of West Bengal, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Tripura. In Bangladesh, they form the largest minority. They are mostly Shaktism adherents of Hinduism and are native to the Bengal region in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent. Bengali Hindus speak Bengali, which belongs to the Indo-Aryan language family and adhere to the Shakta and Vaishnava traditions of their native religion, Hinduism. There are significant numbers of Bengali-speaking Hindus in different Indian states.
The Tili is Hindu caste, found in the state of Bihar and West Bengal in India.
The Sadgop/Gope sub-caste is a Bengali Hindu Yadav caste, found in West Bengal, Odisha, Jharkhand and parts of Bihar in India.
The Kulhaiya is a Muslim community found in the northeastern part of the Indian state of Bihar as well as the terai region of south-east Nepal. The founding members of this community belonged to the Hadhrami-origin tribe of Yemen settled on the coast of Horn of Africa who came as mercenaries and sellsword to North-east Bihar via Sindh and Kutchh, on the invitation of the Bengal Sultanate for reinforcement of Purnea Division army bastion. The mercenaries started marrying local dalit women in large numbers as well as the womenfolks from Rajbongshi, Kayastha, and Yadav communities. In the later stages the Gurjara nomads of Kutchh and Gujarat, Jats of Sindh and Kurmis of present-day Uttar Pradesh who were renowned for their agricultural acumen were invited by local powerful vassals, with the permission of the Bengal Sultanate which had the marital relations with the Nawab of Junagadh, as the surplus pasture and arable lands were turning into barren wastelands due to incessant floods and subsistence agriculture practiced by indigenous locals. Together all of these migrant communities along with the local indigenous populace intermarried extensively amongst themselve, gradually evolving into a unique and intra-genetically diverse but single ethnicity, which over the time became structurally rigid and endogamous. With a distinct culture as well as a Maithili and Kutchhi-based lingua franca and eventual acceptance of Islam as the common religion, the community came to be known as 'Kulhaiya'.
The Abdal are a Muslim community found in North India. They are a sub-group within the Arabic old shekh community. They are related to the Abdal of Turkey, because some of them went to Iran in Khorasan, from there some went to Central Anatolia with the Seljuq dynasty.
The Bedia are a community of Bihar; they believe that they originally lived on Mohdipahar and have descended from the union of a Vedbansi prince with a Munda girl. The other view is that a section of the Kurmis were outcasts and came to be known as the Bedia or Wandering Kurmis.
The Rajbongshi is an ethnic group inhabiting parts of Assam, Meghalaya, northern West Bengal, Bihar and on the eastern parts of Nepal, Bhutan and northern Bangladesh.
Paswan, also known as Dusadh, are a Dalit community from eastern India. They are found mainly in the states of Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Jharkhand.
Budhpur is a village in the Manbazar I CD block in the Manbazar subdivision of the Purulia district in the state of West Bengal, India.