|UN Security Council |
Location of Rhodesia
|Date||14 March 1978|
|10 voted for|
None voted against
|Security Council composition|
In United Nations Security Council Resolution 423, adopted on March 14, 1978, after recalling its resolutions on Southern Rhodesia, particularly 415 (1977), the Council condemned attempts by the "illegal racist regime" in Southern Rhodesia to retain power and prevent the independence of Zimbabwe. It also criticised the country's executions of political prisoners and actions against neighbouring countries.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked with maintaining international peace and security, developing friendly relations among nations, achieving international co-operation, and being a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. It was established after World War II, with the aim of preventing future wars, and succeeded the ineffective League of Nations. Its headquarters, which are subject to extraterritoriality, are in Manhattan, New York City, and it has other main offices in Geneva, Nairobi, Vienna and The Hague. The organization is financed by assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid, promoting sustainable development, and upholding international law. The UN is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; there are now 193.
The Colony of Southern Rhodesia was a self-governing British Crown colony in southern Africa. It was the predecessor state of what is now Zimbabwe.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 415, adopted on September 29, 1977, noted a letter and an invitation from the United Kingdom to the President of the Security Council to appoint a representative to "enter into discussions with the British Resident Commissioner designate and with all the parties concerning the military and associated arrangements that are considered necessary to effect the transition to majority rule". The Council requested the Secretary-General appoint such representatives, further requested the Secretary-General to transmit a report on the results of the discussions back as soon as possible and finally called on all parties to co-operate with the representative.
The Council declared that any settlement by the regime in Southern Rhodesia would be unlawful and asked other member states not to offer recognition to it. It also called on the "illegal regime" to transfer power and hold free and fair elections, requiring the government of the United Kingdom to take all measures necessary to bring about an end to the regime.
The Internal Settlement was an agreement which was signed on 3 March 1978 between Prime Minister of Rhodesia Ian Smith and the moderate African nationalist leaders comprising Bishop Abel Muzorewa, Ndabaningi Sithole and Senator Chief Jeremiah Chirau. After almost 15 years of the Rhodesian Bush War, and under pressure from the sanctions placed on Rhodesia by the international community, and political pressure from South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States, the Rhodesian government met with some of the internally based moderate African nationalist leaders in order to reach an agreement on the political future for the country.
The Government of the United Kingdom, formally referred to as Her Majesty's Government, is the central government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. It is also commonly referred to as simply the UK Government or the British Government.
The resolution then called on all parties concerned to enter into negotiations to achieve genuine decolonisation of the territory. Finally, Resolution 423 called on the Secretary-General to monitor the situation and report back no later than April 15, 1978.
The secretary-general of the United Nations is the head of the United Nations Secretariat, one of the six principal organs of the United Nations. The secretary-general serves as the chief administrative officer of the United Nations. The role of the United Nations Secretariat, and of the secretary-general in particular, is laid out by Chapter XV of the United Nations Charter.
The resolution was adopted by 10 votes to none; Canada, France, West Germany, the United Kingdom, and United States abstained.
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Its southern border with the United States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world's longest bi-national land border. Canada's capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
France, officially the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million. France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
West Germany was the informal name for the Federal Republic of Germany, a country in Central Europe, in the period between its formation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990. During this Cold War period, the western portion of Germany was part of the Western Bloc. The Federal Republic was created during the Allied occupation of Germany after World War II, established from eleven states formed in the three Allied zones of occupation held by the United States, the United Kingdom and France. Its (provisional) capital was the city of Bonn. The Cold War era West Germany is unofficially historically designated the Bonn Republic.
The Rhodesian Bush War—also called the Second Chimurenga and the Zimbabwe War of Liberation—was a civil conflict from July 1964 to December 1979 in the unrecognised country of Rhodesia . The conflict pitted three forces against one another: the Rhodesian government, led by Ian Smith ; the Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army, the military wing of Robert Mugabe's Zimbabwe African National Union; and the Zimbabwe People's Revolutionary Army of Joshua Nkomo's Zimbabwe African People's Union.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 216 was adopted by the United Nations Security Council on 12 November 1965, the day after the British Dependency of Southern Rhodesia's Unilateral Declaration of Independence from the British Empire as the state of Rhodesia. The vote was ten to none, with one member, France, abstaining.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 202, adopted on May 6, 1965, after reaffirming motions from the General Assembly, the Council requested that no member state accept a Unilateral Declaration of Independence from Southern Rhodesia and that the United Kingdom take all measures necessary to prevent it. The resolution also called on all political prisoners to be released and for the freedom of political parties to operate. The Council requested that the UK work toward and equitable constitution and for the future independence of a majority-ruled Southern Rhodesia.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 221, adopted on April 9, 1966, after recalling previous resolutions on the topic, the Council was gravely concerned that Southern Rhodesia might receive a large supply of oil as the Joanna V, an oil tanker, had already arrived at Beira.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 253, adopted unanimously on May 29, 1968, after reaffirming previous resolutions, the Council noted with concern that the measures taken so far have failed to bring the rebellion in Southern Rhodesia to an end and condemned the recent "inhuman executions carried out by the illegal regime in Southern Rhodesia which have flagrantly affronted the conscience of mankind". After further condemning the regime and calling upon the United Kingdom to end the rebellion in Southern Rhodesia the Council decided that all member states would:
United Nations Security Council Resolution 277, adopted on March 18, 1970, concerned the state of Southern Rhodesia, now known as Zimbabwe. The Council reaffirmed its previous resolutions and noted with grave concern that efforts thus far to bring the rebellion to the end had failed, some countries had not been obeying the Council's resolutions and that the situation in Southern Rhodesia continued to deteriorate as a result of the regime's new measures.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 288, adopted unanimously on November 17, 1970, after reaffirming previous resolutions on the topic, the Council called upon the United Kingdom, as the legal administering Power of Southern Rhodesia, to bring an end to the illegal rebellion. The Council decided that the present sanctions against Rhodesia would remain in place and urged all states to implement all pertinent resolutions and not to grant any form of recognition to the regime.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 328, adopted on March 10, 1973, after receiving a report from the Special Mission established under resolution 326 and reaffirming previous statements the Council encouraged the United Kingdom, as the administering power, to convene a national constitutional conference where the "genuine representatives of the people of Zimbabwe" could work out a settlement relating to the future of the country.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 333, adopted on May 22, 1973, after reiterating previous statements and admitting that previous measures had yet failed to bring about the end of the "illegal regime in Southern Rhodesia" the Council condemned South Africa and Portugal for failing to co-operate with the implementation of sanctions and requested that urgent action be taken to implement them. The Council then requested that states with legislation permitting importation from Rhodesia repeal it immediately and called upon states to enact and enforce legislation against any person who tries to evade of commit a breach of sanctions by:
United Nations Security Council Resolution 386, adopted unanimously on March 17, 1976, noted statements made by the President and Minister for Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of Mozambique and also expressed its concern regarding the situation created by the provocative, aggressive acts committed by the illegal minority regime in Rhodesia. The Council reaffirmed their earlier work regarding Rhodesia, including their resolutions imposing sanctions on that country and noted their appreciation with Mozambique's co-operation with that plan. The Resolution then condemns Rhodesia's aggressive acts, including military incursions, against Mozambique and noted the urgent and special economic need of Mozambique who arose from its implementation of resolution 253.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 403, adopted on January 14, 1977, after hearing representations from the Minister of External Affairs of Botswana, condemned attacks by the "illegal minority regime" in Southern Rhodesia. The resolution recalled previous resolutions on the topic, including the right to self-determination of the people of Southern Rhodesia.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 406, adopted on May 25, 1977, after reaffirming resolutions 403 (1977), 232 (1966) and 258 (1965) and reading a report from the Mission in Botswana, the Council expressed its full support to the Government of Botswana against continued attacks and provocations by the "illegal racist regime" in Southern Rhodesia.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 411, adopted unanimously on June 30, 1977, noted statements made by officials of the People's Republic of Mozambique and also expressed its concern regarding the situation created by the provocative, aggressive acts committed by the illegal minority regime in Rhodesia. The Council reaffirmed their earlier work regarding Rhodesia, including their resolutions imposing sanctions on that country and noted their appreciation with Mozambique's co-operation with that plan. The Resolution then condemns Rhodesia's aggressive acts, including military incursions, against Mozambique and noted the urgent and special economic need of Mozambique who arose from its implementation of resolution 253.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 424 was adopted unanimously on March 17, 1978; after hearing representations from Zambia, the Council expressed concern at unprovoked attacks against the country by the "illegal racist regime" in Southern Rhodesia, which resulted in deaths and destruction of property in Zambia. The Rhodesian Security Forces maintained that they had been attacking guerrilla bases in the country.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 437, adopted on October 10, 1978, after recalling Resolution 253 (1968) which prevented Member States from allowing those connected to the regime in Southern Rhodesia to enter their territory, the Council noted with regret the decision by the United States to allow Ian Smith other members of the "illegal regime" to enter the country. Therefore, the resolution considered this action to be in violation of Resolution 253.
United Nations Security Council resolution 445, adopted on 8 March 1979, after recalling resolutions 253 (1968), 403 (1977), 411 (1977), 423 (1978), 424 (1978) and 437 (1978), and hearing representations from various countries, the Council expressed its concern about the military operations undertaken by the "illegal regime" against countries both bordering and non-contiguous with Southern Rhodesia. The Council was also indignant at the execution and sentences against persons under repressive laws.
United Nations Security Council resolution 448, adopted on 30 April 1979, after recalling resolutions 253 (1968), 403 (1977), 411 (1977), 423 (1978), 424 (1978), 437 (1978) and 445 (1979), the Council declared that the recent "sham" elections held in Southern Rhodesia by the "illegal racist regime" were illegal and the results thereof would be null and void.
United Nations Security Council resolution 455, adopted on 23 November 1979, after taking note of representations from Zambia and recalling Resolution 424 (1978), the Council expressed concern and condemned the "illegal racist regime" in Southern Rhodesia for its "sustained pattern of violations aimed at destroying the economic infrastructure" of Zambia and causing a number of deaths.
United Nations Security Council resolution 460, adopted on 21 December 1979, after taking note of the Lancaster House Agreement, the Council decided to terminate measures taken against Southern Rhodesia in resolutions 232 (1966) and 253 (1968) and any subsequent resolutions. The resolution deplored the "loss of life, waste and suffering" over the past 14 years caused by the rebellion in Southern Rhodesia.
United Nations Security Council resolution 463, adopted on 2 February 1980, after considering the latest developments in Southern Rhodesia and Resolution 460 (1979) in which it was noted that an agreement had produced a Constitution for a free and independent Zimbabwe and majority rule, the Council called on all parties to comply with the Lancaster House Agreement and the administering power, the United Kingdom, to fully implement the agreement.