Vietnam Service Medal

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Vietnam Service Medal
Vietnam Service Medal, obverse.png
Awarded by Department of Defense
Type Campaign medal
EligibilityMembers of the U.S. Armed Forces
Awarded forService in geographical theater areas of Vietnam, Thailand, Laos, or Cambodia from 4 July 1965 through 28 March 1973 and the evacuation of Saigon (USN, USMC, and USAF) from 29–30 April 1975.
The Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal was issued for initial operations in South Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 July 1958 through 3 July 1965, and may be exchanged for the VSM.
Campaign(s) Vietnam War
StatusInactive
Statistics
Established8 July 1965 – Executive Order 11231
28 November 1967 – Amended, E.O. 11382
2 February 2003 – Amended, E.O. 13286
First awarded4 July 1965
Retroactive to 1 July 1958
Last awarded30 April 1975
Precedence
Next (higher) Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal
Next (lower) Southwest Asia Service Medal
Related Republic of Vietnam Campaign Medal
Vietnam Civilian Service Award
Merchant Marine Vietnam Service Medal
Vietnam Service Medal ribbon.svg

Vietnam Service Streamer vector.svg
Service ribbon and campaign streamer

The Vietnam Service Medal is a military award of the United States Armed Forces established on 8 July 1965 by order of President Lyndon B. Johnson. The medal is awarded to recognize service during the Vietnam War by all members of the United States Armed Forces provided they meet the award requirements.

Awards and decorations of the United States Armed Forces Military awards and decorations given to personnel and units of the United States armed forces

The United States Armed Forces awards and decorations are primarily the medals, service ribbons, and specific badges which recognize military service and personal accomplishments while a member of the U.S. Armed Forces. Such awards are a means to outwardly display the highlights of a service member's career.

The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America. It consists of the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, Air Force, and Coast Guard. The president of the United States is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces and forms military policy with the Department of Defense (DoD) and Department of Homeland Security (DHS), both federal executive departments, acting as the principal organs by which military policy is carried out. All five armed services are among the seven uniformed services of the United States.

Vietnam War 1955–1975 conflict in Vietnam

The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America or simply the American War, was a conflict in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was officially fought between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. North Vietnam was supported by the Soviet Union, China, and other communist allies; South Vietnam was supported by the United States, South Korea, the Philippines, Australia, Thailand and other anti-communist allies. The war, considered a Cold War-era proxy war by some, lasted 19 years, with direct U.S. involvement ending in 1973, and included the Laotian Civil War and the Cambodian Civil War, resulting in all three countries becoming communist in 1975.

Contents

The distinctive design has been attributed to both sculptor Thomas Hudson Jones, a former employee of the Army Institute of Heraldry [1] and Mercedes Lee who created the design. [2]

Thomas Hudson Jones American artist

Thomas Hudson Jones was a U.S. sculptor for the Army's Institute of Heraldry.

Award criteria

Ribbon with silver star, denoting service in 5 campaigns. Vietnam Service Medal ribbon, 5th award.svg
Ribbon with silver star, denoting service in 5 campaigns.

The Vietnam Service Medal (VSM) was awarded to all members of the United States Armed Forces serving in Vietnam and its contiguous waters or airspace thereover, after 3 July 1965 through 28 March 1973. Members of the United States Armed Forces in Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, or airspace thereover, during the same period and serving in direct support of operations in Vietnam are also eligible for the award. [3]

Thailand Constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia

Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a country at the centre of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces. At 513,120 km2 (198,120 sq mi) and over 68 million people, Thailand is the world's 50th-largest country by total area and the 21st-most-populous country. The capital and largest city is Bangkok, a special administrative area. Thailand is bordered to the north by Myanmar and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the west by the Andaman Sea and the southern extremity of Myanmar. Its maritime boundaries include Vietnam in the Gulf of Thailand to the southeast, and Indonesia and India on the Andaman Sea to the southwest. It is a unitary state. Although nominally the country is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, the most recent coup, in 2014, established a de facto military dictatorship under a junta.

Laos Socialist state in southeast Asia

Laos, officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic, commonly referred to by its colloquial name of Muang Lao, is a socialist state and the only landlocked country in Southeast Asia. Located at the heart of the Indochinese peninsula, Laos is bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southeast, and Thailand to the west and southwest.

Cambodia Southeast Asian sovereign state

Cambodia, officially the Kingdom of Cambodia, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is 181,035 square kilometres in area, bordered by Thailand to the northwest, Laos to the northeast, Vietnam to the east and the Gulf of Thailand to the southwest.

Requirements

Individuals must meet one of the following requirements: [4] [3] [2] [5] [6] [7]

Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal military award

The Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal (AFEM) is a military award of the United States Armed Forces, which was first created in 1961 by Executive Order of President John Kennedy. The medal is awarded to members of the U.S. Armed Forces who, after July 1, 1958, participated in U.S. military operations, U.S. operations in direct support of the United Nations, or U.S. operations of assistance for friendly foreign nations.

Operation Frequent Wind 1975 military operation by the United States to evacuate Saigon, South Vietnam

Operation Frequent Wind was the final phase in the evacuation of American civilians and "at-risk" Vietnamese from Saigon, South Vietnam prior to the takeover of the city by the North Vietnamese People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) in the Fall of Saigon. It was carried out on 29–30 April 1975, during the last days of the Vietnam War. More than 7,000 people were evacuated by helicopter from various points in Saigon. The airlift resulted in a number of enduring images.

The Vietnam Service Medal is retroactive to 1 July 1958 and supersedes and replaces the Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal which was issued for initial operations in South Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from that date through 3 July 1965. Defense Department regulations do not permit the simultaneous presentation of both the Vietnam Service Medal and the Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal, for the same period of service in Vietnam, however the AFEM may be exchanged for the VSM upon request from a service member. Veterans of the Vietnam War may exchange the AFEM for the VSM and have military records updated to reflect the difference by contacting the National Personnel Records Center, which is the current agency that provides record corrections reflecting an AFEM conversion to the Vietnam Service Medal. [1]

Though the Mayaguez incident is often referred to as the last battle of the Vietnam War, U.S. military personnel who participated in it are not eligible for the Vietnam Service Medal by virtue of participating that battle alone, [8] as the eligibility period for the medal ended in April 1975, a few weeks before the battle took place. Instead of the VSM, the AFEM is authorized for military members who participated in that battle. [9] A congressional bill was introduced in 2016 to award veterans of the Mayaguez battle the VSM, but the bill was referred to a committee, effectively ending it. [10]

South Vietnam also issued its own service medal for the Vietnam War, known as the Republic of Vietnam Campaign Medal. This is a separate military award which was accepted by the U.S. Congress and the U.S. military in accordance with DoD 1348 C7. Six months of service in support of South Vietnamese military operations was the general U.S. requirement for the award. [3]

Medal and ribbon appearance

The Vietnam Service Medal is a rounded bronze shaped medal, 1 14 inches in diameter with a green, yellow, and red suspension ribbon. The obverse side of the medal consists of a figure of an oriental dragon (representing the subversive nature of the conflict) behind a grove of bamboo trees located above the inscription "REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM SERVICE". On the reverse, a crossbow (representing the ancient weapon of Vietnam) facing upwards with a ready to be fired lighted torch of the Statue of Liberty, above an arched inscription "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA". [2]

The service ribbon of the medal is 1 38 inches wide and consists of the following vertical stripes: three narrow (116 inch) strips of red with wider (532 inch) stripes of yellow in the center, flanked by even wider (516 inch) stripes of yellow on each side and narrow 18-inch stripes of primitive green on the ends. The yellow (yellow is traditionally the imperial color of Vietnam) with red stripes (the red represents the three ancient Vietnamese empires of Tonkin, Annam, and Cochin China) resembles the former flag of South Vietnam. The green border on each side alludes to the jungle of that country. [2]

Ribbon devices

The Vietnam Service Medal is authorized three devices for wear on the suspension and service ribbon of the medal: [4] [11]

One 316 inch bronze service star is authorized for each campaign under the following conditions:

1. Assigned or attached to and present for duty with a unit during the period in which it participated in combat.
2. Under orders in a combat zone and in addition meets any of the following requirements:
a. Awarded a combat decoration.
b. Furnished a certificate by a Commanding General of a corps, higher unit, or independent force that soldier actually participated in combat.
c. Served at a normal post of duty (as contrasted to occupying the status of an inspector, observer, or visitor).
d. Aboard a vessel other than in a passenger status and furnished a certificate by the home port commander of the vessel that he or she served in the combat zone.
e. Was an evadee or escapee in the combat zone or recovered from a POW status in the combat zone during the time limitations of the campaign. POWs will not be accorded credit for the time spent in confinement or while otherwise in restraint under enemy control.

Vietnam War campaigns

The U.S. Department of Defense established thirty military campaigns during the Vietnam War which covered all U.S. service branches. In 2010, the Department of Defense consolidated the original list of campaigns from the original thirty to a list of eighteen by combining the U.S. Air Force campaign list with the other armed services. The U.S. Army, and U.S. Coast Guard recognize seventeen 316" bronze service stars (also known as campaign stars; 3 silver stars and 2 bronze stars) on the Vietnam Service campaign streamer. [13] [7] Additionally, the Navy, Marine Corps, and Air Force recognize Operation Frequent Wind (29–30 April 1975). [14] [6]

U.S. Department of Defense consolidated campaign periods

DoD consolidated campaign periods for all services
Name of campaignStart dateEnd date
Vietnam Advisory Campaign [lower-alpha 1] 15 March 19627 March 1965
Vietnam Defense Campaign [lower-alpha 1] 8 March 196524 December 1965
Vietnam Counteroffensive. [lower-alpha 1] 25 December 196530 June 1966
Vietnam Counteroffensive Phase II [lower-alpha 1] 1 July 196631 May 1967
Vietnam Counteroffensive Phase III [lower-alpha 1] 1 June 196729 January 1968
Tet Counteroffensive [lower-alpha 1] 30 January 19681 April 1968
Vietnam Counteroffensive Phase IV [lower-alpha 1] 2 April 196830 June 1968
Vietnam Counteroffensive Phase V [lower-alpha 1] 1 July 19681 November 1968
Vietnam Counteroffensive Phase VI [lower-alpha 1] 2 November 196822 February 1969
Tet 69 Counteroffensive [lower-alpha 2] [lower-alpha 1] 23 February 19698 June 1969
Vietnam Summer–Fall 1969 [lower-alpha 2] [lower-alpha 1] 9 June 196931 October 1969
Vietnam Winter–Spring 1970 [lower-alpha 2] [lower-alpha 1] 1 November 196930 April 1970
Sanctuary Counteroffensive [lower-alpha 2] [lower-alpha 1] 1 May 197030 June 1970
Vietnam Counteroffensive Phase VII [lower-alpha 1] 1 July 197030 June 1971
Consolidation I [lower-alpha 1] 1 July 197130 November 1971
Consolidation II [lower-alpha 1] 1 December 197129 March 1972
Vietnam Cease-fire [lower-alpha 1] 30 March 197228 January 1973
Operation Frequent Wind [lower-alpha 2] [lower-alpha 1] (USN, USMC, and USAF only)29 April 197530 April 1975

U.S. Air Force original campaign periods

Original USAF campaign periods before DoD consolidation
Name of campaignStart dateEnd date
Vietnam Initial Advisory Campaign [lower-alpha 2] 15 November 19611 March 1965
Vietnam Air Defensive Campaign [lower-alpha 2] 2 March 196530 January 1966
Vietnam Air Counteroffensive [lower-alpha 2] 31 January 196628 June 1966
Vietnam Air Offensive [lower-alpha 2] 29 June 19668 March 1967
Vietnam Air Offensive Phase II [lower-alpha 2] 9 March 196731 March 1967
Vietnam Air/Ground Campaign [lower-alpha 2] 22 January 19687 July 1968
Vietnam Air Offensive Phase III [lower-alpha 2] 1 Apr 196831 October 1968
Vietnam Air Offensive Phase IV [lower-alpha 2] 1 November 196822 February 1969
Tet 69 Counteroffensive [lower-alpha 2] [lower-alpha 1] 23 February 19698 June 1969
Vietnam Summer–Fall 1969 [lower-alpha 2] [lower-alpha 1] 9 June 196931 October 1969
Vietnam Winter–Spring 1970 [lower-alpha 2] [lower-alpha 1] 1 November 196930 April 1970
Sanctuary Counteroffensive [lower-alpha 2] [lower-alpha 1] 1 May 197030 June 1970
Southwest Monsoon [lower-alpha 2] 1 July 197030 November 1970
Commando Hunt V [lower-alpha 2] 1 December 197014 May 1971
Commando Hunt VI [lower-alpha 2] 15 May 197131 October 1971
Commando Hunt VII [lower-alpha 2] 1 November 197129 March 1972
Vietnam Cease-fire [lower-alpha 1] 30 March 197228 January 1973
Operation Frequent Wind [lower-alpha 2] [lower-alpha 1] 29 April 197530 April 1975

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Campaign period authorized by Department of Defense Manual 1348.33 Volume 2, dated 23 November 2010
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Campaign period originally authorized by the Department of the Air Force but now consolidated with the Department of Defense list

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References

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  3. 1 2 3 "AR 600-8-22, Military Awards, 25 June 2015, pp. 32–33" (PDF). Ncosupport.com.
  4. 1 2 "Vietnam Service Medal". Gpo.gov.
  5. "Navy and Marine Corps Awards Manual, SECNAVINST 1650.1H, Aug. 22, 2006, VSM, pp. 8–18, 19, 20" (PDF). Marines.mil.
  6. 1 2 "Air Force Instruction, 36-2803, 22 June 2015, Air Force Military Awards and Decorations program, VSM, p. 178" (PDF). Af.mil.
  7. 1 2 "Coast Guard Military Medals and Awards Manual, 15 August 2015, VSM, p. 6-2" (PDF). Uscg.mil.
  8. "President's Page: President Don Raatz". 8 February 2017. Archived from the original on 22 March 2017. Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  9. "Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal". Crazyhorseap.be.
  10. "H.R.6374 – Recognizing Mayaguez Veterans Act". Washington, D.C.: United States Congress. 2016.
  11. EO 11231, 8 July 1965, as amended. Amended by EO 11382, 28 November 1967, and EO 13286, 28 February 2003. Additional details and descriptions given at 32 CFR 578.26.
  12. "Air Force Awards and Decorations" (PDF). Studyguides.af.mil. Retrieved 28 September 2018.
  13. "US Army Campaigns: VietNam". US Army Center Of Military History. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
  14. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 14 March 2010. Retrieved 23 July 2010.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)