|Edited by||Oliver Pybus, Santiago Elena|
|ISO 4||Virus Evol.|
|ISSN|| 2057-1577 |
Virus Evolution is an open access scientific journal of virology published by Oxford University Press. It was launched in 2015 and focuses on all aspects of virus evolution and ecology, including the long-term evolution of viruses, viruses as a model system for studying evolutionary processes, virus classification, viral molecular epidemiology, viral phylodynamics, and environmental virology.
Virus Evolution is indexed in Academic OneFile, Academic Search, British Library, Copyright Clearance Center, CSA, DOAJ, EBSCOhost, FIZ Karlsruhe, Google Scholar, INIST, Journal Citation Reports, OCLC ProQuest, Science Citation Index, and Zetoc. According to the latest Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2019 impact factor of 5.549, ranking it 4th out of 37 in the category "Virology".
An RNA virus is a virus that has RNA as its genetic material. This nucleic acid is usually single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) but may be double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Notable human diseases caused by RNA viruses include the common cold, influenza, SARS, MERS, COVID-19, Dengue Virus, hepatitis C, hepatitis E, West Nile fever, Ebola virus disease, rabies, polio and measles.
Virology is the study of viruses – submicroscopic, parasitic particles of genetic material contained in a protein coat – and virus-like agents. It focuses on the following aspects of viruses: their structure, classification and evolution, their ways to infect and exploit host cells for reproduction, their interaction with host organism physiology and immunity, the diseases they cause, the techniques to isolate and culture them, and their use in research and therapy. Virology is a subfield of microbiology.
Virus classification is the process of naming viruses and placing them into a taxonomic system similar to the classification systems used for cellular organisms.
Paramyxoviridae is a family of negative-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses in the order Mononegavirales. Vertebrates serve as natural hosts; no known plants serve as vectors. Paramyxoviridae has four subfamilies, 17 genera, and 77 species, three genera of which are unassigned to a subfamily. Diseases associated with this family include measles, mumps, and respiratory tract infections.
Coronaviruses are a group of related RNA viruses that cause diseases in mammals and birds. In humans and birds, they cause respiratory tract infections that can range from mild to lethal. Mild illnesses in humans include some cases of the common cold, while more lethal varieties can cause SARS, MERS, and COVID-19. In cows and pigs they cause diarrhea, while in mice they cause hepatitis and encephalomyelitis. There are as yet no vaccines or antiviral drugs to prevent or treat human coronavirus infections.
Hepatitis D is a type of viral hepatitis caused by the hepatitis delta virus (HDV), a small spherical enveloped particle that shares similarities with both a viroid and virusoid. HDV is one of five known hepatitis viruses: A, B, C, D, and E. HDV is considered to be a satellite because it can propagate only in the presence of the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Transmission of HDV can occur either via simultaneous infection with HBV (coinfection) or superimposed on chronic hepatitis B or hepatitis B carrier state (superinfection).
Orthohantavirus is a genus of single-stranded, enveloped, negative-sense RNA viruses in the family Hantaviridae of the order Bunyavirales. Members of this genus may be called orthohantaviruses or simply hantaviruses. They normally cause infection in rodents, but do not cause disease in them. Humans may become infected with hantaviruses through contact with rodent urine, saliva, or feces. Some strains cause potentially fatal diseases in humans, such as hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), or hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), also known as hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS), while others have not been associated with known human disease. HPS (HCPS) is a "rare respiratory illness associated with the inhalation of aerosolized rodent excreta contaminated by hantavirus particles."
Viral evolution is a subfield of evolutionary biology and virology that is specifically concerned with the evolution of viruses. Viruses have short generation times, and many—in particular RNA viruses—have relatively high mutation rates. This elevated mutation rate, when combined with natural selection, allows viruses to quickly adapt to changes in their host environment. In addition, most viruses provide many offspring, so any mutated genes can be passed on to many offspring quickly. Although the chance of mutations and evolution can change depending on the type of virus, viruses overall have high chances for mutations.
Caulimoviridae is a family of viruses infecting plants. There are currently 85 species in this family, divided among 10 genera. Viruses belonging to the family Caulimoviridae are termed double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) reverse-transcribing viruses i.e. viruses that contain a reverse transcription stage in their replication cycle. This family contains all plant viruses with a dsDNA genome that have a reverse transcribing phase in its lifecycle.
Betaarterivirus suid 1, formerly Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), is a virus that causes a disease of pigs, called porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), also known as blue-ear pig disease. This economically important, panzootic disease causes reproductive failure in breeding stock and respiratory tract illness in young pigs. Initially referred to as "mystery swine disease" and "mystery reproductive syndrome", it was first reported in 1987 in North America (2) and Central Europe (3). The disease costs the United States swine industry around $644 million annually, and recent estimates in Europe found that it costs almost 1.5b€ every year.
The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) authorizes and organizes the taxonomic classification of and the nomenclatures for viruses. The ICTV has developed a universal taxonomic scheme for viruses, and thus has the means to appropriately describe, name, and classify every virus that affects living organisms. The members of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses are considered expert virologists. The ICTV was formed from and is governed by the Virology Division of the International Union of Microbiological Societies. Detailed work, such as delimiting the boundaries of species within a family, typically is performed by study groups of experts in the families.
Herpesviridae is a large family of DNA viruses that cause infections and certain diseases in animals, including humans. The members of this family are also known as herpesviruses. The family name is derived from the Greek word herpein, referring to spreading cutaneous lesions, usually involving blisters, seen in flares of herpes simplex 1, herpes simplex 2 and herpes zoster (shingles). In 1971, the International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) established Herpesvirus as a genus with 23 viruses among four groups. Currently, 107 species are recognized, all but one of which are in one of the three subfamilies.
Novirhabdovirus is one of the genera of the family Rhabdoviridae containing viruses known to infect aquatic hosts. They can be transmitted from fish to fish or by waterborne virus, as well as through contaminated eggs. Replication and thermal inactivation temperatures are generally lower than for other rhabdoviruses, given the cold-blooded nature of their hosts. Hosts include a large and growing range of marine and freshwater fish.
Virology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal in virology. Established in 1955 by George Hirst, Lindsay Black and Salvador Luria, it is the earliest English-only journal to specialise in the field. The journal covers basic research into viruses affecting animals, plants, bacteria and fungi, including their molecular biology, structure, assembly, pathogenesis, immunity, interactions with the host cell, evolution and ecology. Molecular aspects of control and prevention are also covered, as well as viral vectors and gene therapy, but clinical virology is excluded. As of 2013, the journal is published fortnightly by Elsevier.
A virus is a submicroscopic infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of an organism. Viruses infect all types of life forms, from animals and plants to microorganisms, including bacteria and archaea. Since Dmitri Ivanovsky's 1892 article describing a non-bacterial pathogen infecting tobacco plants and the discovery of the tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in 1898, more than 6,000 virus species have been described in detail of the millions of types of viruses in the environment. Viruses are found in almost every ecosystem on Earth and are the most numerous type of biological entity. The study of viruses is known as virology, a subspeciality of microbiology.
Ampullaviridae is a family of viruses that infect archaea of the genus Acidianus. Only one genus in this family has been described, Ampullavirus, which contains one species, Acidianus bottle-shaped virus. The name of the family and genus is derived from the Latin word for bottle, ampulla, due to the virions having the shape of a bottle. The family was first described during an investigation of the microbial flora of hot springs in Italy.
Viruses is a monthly peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by MDPI covering all aspects of virology. It was established in 2009. The editor-in-chief is Eric O. Freed. The journal is associated with the American Society for Virology, Australasian Virology Society, Brazilian Society for Virology, Canadian Society for Virology, German Society for Virology, Italian Society for Virology, Spanish Society for Virology, and Swedish Society for Virology.
Zaire ebolavirus, more commonly known as Ebola virus, is one of six known species within the genus Ebolavirus. Four of the six known ebolaviruses, including EBOV, cause a severe and often fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans and other mammals, known as Ebola virus disease (EVD). Ebola virus has caused the majority of human deaths from EVD, and was the cause of the 2013–2016 epidemic in western Africa, which resulted in at least 28,646 suspected cases and 11,323 confirmed deaths.
Positive-strand RNA viruses are a group of related viruses that have positive-sense, single-stranded genomes made of ribonucleic acid. The positive-sense genome can act as messenger RNA (mRNA) and can be directly translated into viral proteins by the host cell's ribosomes. Positive-strand RNA viruses encode an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) which is used during replication of the genome to synthesize a negative-sense antigenome that is then used as a template to create a new positive-sense viral genome.
Bamfordvirae is a kingdom of viruses. This kingdom is recognized for its use of double jelly roll major capsid proteins. It was formerly known as the PRD1-adenovirus lineage. The kingdom is named after Dennis H. Bamford who first promoted the evolutionary unity of all viruses encoding double jelly-roll major capsid proteins.