Zapruder film

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Frame 150 from the Zapruder film. Kennedy's limousine has just turned onto Elm Street, moments before the first shot, and the President is apparently waving. Zapruder-150.jpg
Frame 150 from the Zapruder film. Kennedy's limousine has just turned onto Elm Street, moments before the first shot, and the President is apparently waving.

The Zapruder film is a silent 8mm color motion picture sequence shot by Abraham Zapruder with a Bell & Howell home-movie camera, as U.S. President John F. Kennedy's motorcade passed through Dealey Plaza in Dallas, Texas, on November 22, 1963. Unexpectedly, it ended up capturing the President's assassination.

8 mm film film gauge

8 mm film is a motion picture film format in which the film strip is eight millimeters wide. It exists in two main versions — the original standard 8 mm film, also known as regular 8 mm, and Super 8. Although both standard 8 mm and Super 8 are 8 mm wide, Super 8 has a larger image area because of its smaller and more widely spaced perforations.

Abraham Zapruder was a Ukrainian-born American clothing manufacturer who witnessed the assassination of U.S. President John F. Kennedy in Dallas, Texas on November 22, 1963. He unexpectedly captured the shooting in a home movie while filming the presidential limousine and motorcade as it traveled through Dealey Plaza.

Bell & Howell manufacturer of film machinery

Bell and Howell is a U.S.-based services organization and former manufacturer of motion picture machinery, founded in 1907 by two projectionists, and was originally headquartered in Wheeling, Illinois. The company is now headquartered in Durham, North Carolina, and currently provides services for automated equipment in enterprise-level companies.

Contents

Even though it is not the only film of the shooting, the Zapruder film has been described as being the most complete one, giving a relatively clear view from a somewhat elevated position on the side from which the president's fatal head wound is visible. It was an important part of the Warren Commission hearings and all subsequent investigations of the assassination, and it is one of the most studied pieces of film in history. Of greatest notoriety is the film's capture of the fatal shot to President Kennedy's head when his presidential limousine was almost exactly in front of, and slightly below, Zapruder's position.

Warren Commission US commission established by president LB Johnson to investigate the Kennedy assassination

The President's Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy, known unofficially as the Warren Commission, was established by President Lyndon B. Johnson through Executive Order 11130 on November 29, 1963 to investigate the assassination of United States President John F. Kennedy that had taken place on November 22, 1963. The U.S. Congress passed Senate Joint Resolution 137 authorizing the Presidential appointed Commission to report on the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, mandating the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of evidence. Its 888-page final report was presented to President Johnson on September 24, 1964 and made public three days later. It concluded that President Kennedy was assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald and that Oswald acted entirely alone. It also concluded that Jack Ruby acted alone when he killed Oswald two days later. The Commission's findings have proven controversial and have been both challenged and supported by later studies.

SS-100-X

SS-100-X was the U.S. Secret Service code name for the presidential limousine originally used by the 35th President of the United States, John F. Kennedy. The limousine is the car in which Kennedy and First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy were passengers when the President was assassinated in Dallas, Texas on November 22, 1963.

Creation

Abraham Zapruder stood on a concrete pedestal along Elm Street in Dealey Plaza holding a high-end Model 414 PD Bell & Howell Zoomatic Director Series Camera. He filmed from the time the presidential limousine turned onto Elm Street [1] for a total of 26.6 seconds, exposing 486 frames of standard 8 mm Kodachrome  II safety film, running at 18.3 frames/second. [note 1]

Kodachrome Brand name of an Eastman Kodak film

Kodachrome is a brand name for a non-substantive, color reversal film introduced by Eastman Kodak in 1935. It was one of the first successful color materials and was used for both cinematography and still photography. For many years Kodachrome was widely used for professional color photography, especially for images intended for publication in print media. Because of its complex processing requirements, the film was sold process-paid in the United States until 1954 when a legal ruling prohibited this. Elsewhere, this arrangement continued.

Frame 371 showing Jacqueline Kennedy reaching out across the back of the presidential limousine as Secret Service agent Clint Hill climbs aboard. Clinthill limo.png
Frame 371 showing Jacqueline Kennedy reaching out across the back of the presidential limousine as Secret Service agent Clint Hill climbs aboard.

After Secret Service agent Forrest Sorrels promised Zapruder that the film would only be used for an official investigation, the two men sought to develop the footage as soon as possible. As television station WFAA's equipment was incompatible with the format, Eastman Kodak's Dallas film processing facility developed the film and Jamieson Film Company produced three copies. Zapruder gave two of the copies to the Secret Service. [1]

United States Secret Service U.S. federal law enforcement agency

The United States Secret Service is a federal law enforcement agency under the Department of Homeland Security charged with conducting criminal investigations and protecting the nation's leaders and past leaders. Until 2003, the Secret Service was part of the Department of the Treasury, as the agency was originally founded to combat the then-widespread counterfeiting of US currency.

WFAA ABC affiliate in Dallas

WFAA, virtual and VHF digital channel 8, is an ABC-affiliated television station licensed to Dallas, Texas, United States and serving the Dallas–Fort Worth Metroplex. The station is owned by Tegna Inc. WFAA maintains business offices and secondary studio facilities at the WFAA Communications Center Studios on Young Street in downtown Dallas, and operates a primary studio facility, which is used for the production of WFAA's newscasts and also houses certain other business operations handled by the station, in the Victory Park neighborhood in central Dallas. The station's transmitter is located south of Belt Line Road in Cedar Hill.

Jamieson Film Company

The Jamieson Film Company, a Texas film production company, was one of the crucial players in the emergence of Dallas as a center for commercial film production in the U.S. Founded by Hugh Jamieson in 1916, the Jamieson Film Company is perhaps most widely remembered for producing the first copies of the Abraham Zapruder film that captured the assassination of JFK. However, the Company’s involvement with the Zapruder film represents just a single episode in over a half-century in the film processing and production business. During its lifespan, the Jamieson Film Company produced industrial films, television programs and advertisements for clients across Texas and the U.S., patented film processing equipment, and became a training ground for many individuals in the Texas film industry.

On the morning of November 23, CBS lost the bidding for the footage to Life magazine's $150,000 offer. [3] CBS news correspondent Dan Rather was the first to report on the footage on national television after seeing it, although the inaccuracies in his description would contribute to many conspiracy theories about the assassination. [1] In his 2001 book Tell Me A Story, CBS producer Don Hewitt said that he told Rather to go to Zapruder's home to "sock him in the jaw", take the film, copy it, then return it and let the network's lawyers deal with the consequences. According to Hewitt, he realized his mistake after ending their telephone conversation and immediately called Rather back to countermand the order, disappointing the reporter. [4] [5] In a 2015 interview on Opie with Jim Norton , Rather stated that the story was a myth. [6]

CBS American broadcast television network

CBS is an American English language commercial broadcast television and radio network that is a flagship property of CBS Corporation. The company is headquartered at the CBS Building in New York City with major production facilities and operations in New York City and Los Angeles.

<i>Life</i> (magazine) American magazine

Life was an American magazine published weekly until 1972, as an intermittent "special" until 1978, and as a monthly from 1978 to 2000. During its golden age from 1936 to 1972, Life was a wide-ranging weekly general interest magazine known for the quality of its photography.

Dan Rather American broadcast journalist

Dan Irvin Rather Jr. is an American journalist. Rather began his career in Texas and was on the scene of the Kennedy assassination in Dallas in 1963. His reporting elevated his position in CBS News, where he was White House correspondent beginning in 1964. He served as foreign correspondent in London and Vietnam over the next two years before returning to the White House correspondent position, covering the Nixon presidency, including the trip to China, Watergate scandal and ultimate resignation.

Frame 313 of the film captures the fatal shot to the President's head. After having a nightmare in which he saw a sign in Times Square, New York City, with the phrase "See the President's head explode!", Zapruder insisted that frame 313 be excluded from publication. [1] The November 29, 1963 issue of Life—which featured the "LIFE" logo in a black box instead of the usual red box—published about 30 frames of the Zapruder film in black and white. Frames were also published in color in the December 6, 1963 special "John F. Kennedy Memorial Edition", and in issues dated October 2, 1964 (a special article on the film and the Warren Commission report), November 25, 1966, and November 24, 1967.

Times Square Neighborhood in Manhattan in New York City, New York

Times Square is a major commercial intersection, tourist destination, entertainment center and neighborhood in the Midtown Manhattan section of New York City at the junction of Broadway and Seventh Avenue. It stretches from West 42nd to West 47th Streets. Brightly adorned with billboards and advertisements, Times Square is sometimes referred to as "The Crossroads of the World", "The Center of the Universe", "the heart of The Great White Way", and "the heart of the world". One of the world's busiest pedestrian areas, it is also the hub of the Broadway Theater District and a major center of the world's entertainment industry. Times Square is one of the world's most visited tourist attractions, drawing an estimated 50 million visitors annually. Approximately 330,000 people pass through Times Square daily, many of them tourists, while over 460,000 pedestrians walk through Times Square on its busiest days.

New York City Largest city in the United States

The City of New York, usually called either New York City (NYC) or simply New York (NY), is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2018 population of 8,398,748 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles (784 km2), New York is also the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 19,979,477 people in its 2018 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 22,679,948 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural, financial, and media capital of the world, and exerts a significant impact upon commerce, entertainment, research, technology, education, politics, tourism, art, fashion, and sports. The city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.

Zapruder was one of at least 32 people in Dealey Plaza known to have made film or still photographs at or around the time of the shooting. [7]

Subsequent history

The Zapruder film frames that were used by the Warren Commission were published in black and white as Commission Exhibit 885 in volume XVIII of the Hearings and Exhibits. [8] Copies of the complete film are available on the Internet. [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14]

One of the first-generation Secret Service copies was lent to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in Washington, D.C., which made a second-generation copy on November 25. After studies of that copy were made in January 1964, the Warren Commission judged the quality to be inadequate, and requested the original. Life brought the original to Washington in February for the Commission's viewing, and also made color 35mm slide enlargements from the relevant frames of the original film for the FBI. From those slides, the FBI made a series of black-and-white prints, which were given to the commission for its use.[ citation needed ]

In October 1964, the U.S. Government Printing Office released 26 volumes of testimony and evidence compiled by the Warren Commission. Volume 18 of the commission's hearings reproduced 158 frames from the Zapruder film in black and white. However, frames 208–211 were missing, a splice was visible in frames 207 and 212, frames 314 and 315 were switched around, and frame 284 was a repeat of 283. [15] In response to an inquiry, then-FBI director J. Edgar Hoover wrote in 1965 that frames 314 and 315 had been swapped due to a printing error, and that that error did not exist in the original Warren Commission exhibits. In early 1967, Life released a statement saying that four frames of the original (frames 208–211) were accidentally destroyed, and the adjacent frames damaged, by a Life photo lab technician on November 23, 1963. Life released those missing frames from the first-generation copy it had received from the film's original version; [16] the Zapruder frames outside the section used in the commission's exhibits, frames 155–157 and 341, were also damaged and were spliced out of the original rendition of the film, but are present in the first-generation copies.[ citation needed ])

In 1966, assassination researcher Josiah Thompson, while working for Life, was brought in to examine a first-generation copy of the film and a set of color 35mm slides made from the original. He tried negotiating with Life for the rights to print important individual frames in his book Six Seconds in Dallas. Life refused to approve the use of any of the frames, even after Thompson offered to give all profits from the book sales to Life. Following its publishing in 1967, Thompson's book featured some very detailed charcoal drawings of important individual frames, plus photo reproductions of the four missing ones. Time Inc. filed a lawsuit against Thompson and his publishing company for copyright infringement. A U.S. District Court ruled in 1968 that the Time Inc. copyright of the Zapruder film was not violated by invoking the doctrine of fair use. The court held that "there is a public interest in having the fullest information available on the murder of President Kennedy, saying that Thompson "did serious work on the subject and has a theory entitled to public consideration" and that "the copying by defendants was fair and reasonable." [17]

In 1967, Life hired New Jersey film lab Manhattan Effects to make a 16 mm film copy of the Zapruder film's original version. Pleased with the results, they asked for a 35 mm internegative to be made. Mo Weitzman made several internegatives in 1968, giving the best to Life and retaining the test copies. Weitzman set up his own optical house and motion picture postproduction facility later that year. Hired in 1969, employee and assassination buff Robert Groden used one of Weitzman's copies and an optical printer to make versions of the Zapruder film with close-ups and minimize the shakiness of Zapruder's camera.[ citation needed ]

Before the 1969 trial of Clay Shaw, a businessman from New Orleans, for conspiracy in connection with the assassination, a copy of the film made several generations from the original was subpoenaed from Time Inc. in 1967 by New Orleans District Attorney Jim Garrison for use at Shaw's grand jury hearing. Garrison unsuccessfully subpoenaed the original film in 1968. The courtroom showings of Garrison's copy in 1969 were the first time it had been shown in public as a film. Noted conspiracy theorist Mark Lane, author of Rush to Judgment , was in New Orleans at the time to assist Garrison in his investigation. Lane borrowed Garrison's copy of the film and had several copies printed at a local lab. These low quality copies began circulating among assassination researchers and were known to many journalists as well. The underground circulation of these copies, as well as the secret screenings to a select few who had the opportunity to see them, added an additional aura of mystery to the film, thus enhancing the idea that there was a secret to be found in it that was being kept hidden from the general public.[ citation needed ]

The first broadcast of the Zapruder film was on the late-night television show Underground News with Chuck Collins, originating on WSNS-TV, Ch 44, Chicago in 1970. It was given to director Howie Samuelsohn by Penn Jones and later aired in syndication to Philadelphia, Detroit, Kansas City, and St. Louis.[ citation needed ]

On March 6, 1975, on the ABC late-night television show Good Night America (hosted by Geraldo Rivera), assassination researchers Robert Groden and Dick Gregory presented the first-ever network television showing of the Zapruder film. The public's response and outrage to that television showing quickly led to the forming of the Hart-Schweiker investigation contributed to the Church Committee Investigation on Intelligence Activities by the United States, and resulted in the House Select Committee on Assassinations investigation. [18]

Bell & Howell Zoomatic movie camera used to shoot the film, in the collection of the U.S. National Archives Zaprudercamera.jpg
Bell & Howell Zoomatic movie camera used to shoot the film, in the collection of the U.S. National Archives

In April 1975, in settlement of a royalties suit between Time Inc. and Zapruder's heirs that arose from the ABC showing, Time Inc. sold the film's initial rendition and its copyright back to the Zapruder family for the token sum of $1. Time Inc. wanted to donate the film to the U.S. government. The Zapruder family originally refused to consent, but in 1978, the family transferred the film to the National Archives and Records Administration for appropriate preservation and safe-keeping, while still retaining ownership of the film and its copyright. Director Oliver Stone paid over $85,000 to the Zapruder family for use of the Zapruder film in his motion picture JFK (1991).[ citation needed ]

On October 26, 1992, then-U.S. President George H. W. Bush signed into law the President John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Collection Act (the "JFK Act"), which sought to preserve for historical and governmental purposes all records related to President Kennedy's assassination. The Act also created the President John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Collection at the National Archives. The Zapruder film was automatically designated an "assassination record" and therefore became official property of the United States government. When the Zapruder family demanded the return of the original film between 1993 and 1994, National Archives officials refused to comply.[ citation needed ]

On April 24, 1997, the Assassination Records Review Board (ARRB), which the JFK Act created, announced a "Statement of Policy and Intent with Regard to the Zapruder Film". The ARRB re-affirmed that the Zapruder film was an "assassination record" within the JFK Act's meaning and directed it to be transferred on August 1, 1998 from its present-day location in NARA's film collection to the John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Collection maintained by NARA. [note 2] As required by the US federal law for such a seizure under eminent domain, payment to Zapruder's heirs was attempted. Because the film is unique, its value was difficult to ascertain; eventually, following arbitration with the Zapruder heirs, the government purchased the film in 1999 for $16 million.[ citation needed ]

The Zapruder family retained copyright to the film, which was not seized. In 1997, the film was digitally replicated and restored under license of the Zapruder family. The 1998 documentary Image of an Assassination: A New Look at the Zapruder Film shows history of the film, as well as various versions of when it was restored.[ citation needed ]

In December 1999, the Zapruder family donated the film's copyright to the Sixth Floor Museum, in the Texas School Book Depository building at Dealey Plaza, along with one of the first-generation copies made on November 22, 1963 and other copies of the film and frame enlargements once held by Life magazine, which had since been returned. [19] The Zapruder family no longer retains any commercial rights to the film, which are now entirely controlled by the museum.[ citation needed ]

The film's relevant history is covered in a 2003 David Wrone book entitled The Zapruder Film: Reframing JFK's Assassination. Wrone is a history professor who tracks the "chain of evidence" for the film.[ citation needed ]

Study of the film

Every frame of the Zapruder film has been put together into a panoramic movie. Each object that appears during the film has its starting position equal to where it appears first in its frames. The objects' positions are updated during visibility in the Zapruder frames, and they stay motionless once each object moves out of those frames. [20]

The Orville Nix film had the same technology applied to it. The Nix and Zapruder films were then combined into a direct simultaneous comparison movie. [21]

Between November 1963 and January 1964, the FBI examined a copy of the Zapruder film, noting that the camera recorded at 18.3 frames per second. It is not clear from the film itself as to when the first and second shots occurred. It is apparent that by frame 225 the President is reacting to his throat wound. However, no wound or blood is seen on either President Kennedy or Governor Connally prior to frame 313. The fatal shot to the President occurred at frame 313 [22] with the visible effects of the head wound.

There is also a stabilized high-definition version of the Zapruder film that is synchronized with the Dallas Police Department audio recording. The version of the Zapruder film used here is the first-generation copy that went to France. The video also shows the immediate aftermath at Dealey Plaza and the press conference of JFK's assistant press secretary Malcolm Kilduff. [23]

A 3D-rendering of the Zapruder Film was created by computer animator Dale Meyers to provide better clarification of what happened during the time of the assassination. [24] [25]

Dispute over authenticity

The Zapruder film is often thought to have captured the shooting from beginning to end, and it has been described by some as a "complete record of the Kennedy assassination".[ according to whom? ] This view is, however, challenged by Max Holland, author of The Kennedy Assassination Tapes, and professional photographer Johann Rush in a joint editorial piece published by The New York Times on November 22, 2007. [26] Holland and Rush have pointed out that Zapruder temporarily stopped filming at around frame 132, when only police motorcycles were visible. When he continued filming, frame 133 already shows the presidential motorcade in view. Holland and Rush suggest that the pause could have had great significance for the interpretation of the assassination.

One of the sources of controversy with the Warren Report is its difficulty in satisfactorily accounting for the sequencing of the assassination. A specific mystery concerns what happened to the one shot that missed (and how Oswald came to miss at what was assumed to be close range). Holland and Rush argue that the break in the Zapruder film might conceal a first shot earlier than analysts have hitherto assumed, and point out that in this case a horizontal traffic mast would temporarily have obstructed Oswald's view of his target. In the authors' words, "The film, we realize, does not depict an assassination about to commence. It shows one that had already started." [27]

The evidence offered by Holland and Rush to support their theory was challenged in a series of 2007–08 articles by computer animator Dale K. Myers and assassination researcher Todd W. Vaughan, who defended the prevailing belief that Zapruder's film captured the entire shooting sequence. [28]

The authenticity of the image in frame 313 is challenged by Douglas Horne, Senior Analyst for the Assassination Records Review Board and Dino Brugioni of the CIA's National Photographic Interpretation Center (NPIC). Brugioni was considered the world's foremost imagery intelligence analyst until his death in 2015. [29] Horne discovered the NPIC worked on two different versions of the Zapruder film on Saturday and Sunday nights immediately following the murder, which had occurred Friday. [30] The work was done by separate teams which had been compartmentalized and ordered to not speak of what their work, causing the teams to not know about one another, even the personnel from the two teams normally worked together on daily basis. When Horne showed his findings and evidence to Brugioni, Brugioni reexamined a copy of the extant Zapruder film, provided by Horne. [31] Brugioni then stated the Zapruder Film in the National Archives today, and available to the public, specifically frame 313, is an altered version of the film he saw and worked with on November 23–24, the earlier of the two versions handled by the NPIC. [32] The Sixth Floor Museum at Dealey Plaza denies that the Zapruder film has been altered, or that any of the frames are missing from the film. [33]

Cultural effect

In 1994, the Zapruder film footage was deemed "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant" by the United States Library of Congress and was selected for permanent preservation in the National Film Registry. [34]

Author J. G. Ballard focuses on Kennedy and the Zapruder film in a number of his works, such as The Atrocity Exhibition .[ citation needed ]

Actor Freddie Prinze was fascinated by the Zapruder film, and watched it frequently in the time leading up to his 1977 suicide. [35]

Some critics have stated that the violence and shock of this home movie led to a new way of representing violence in 1970s American cinema, both in mainstream films, and particularly in indie and underground horror movies. [36] [37]

The film has been featured in films or other media, such as the Oliver Stone film JFK , which used the clearest copy of the film available to the public before the late 1990s. For example, after the fatal shot, Jacqueline Kennedy can be seen mouthing what appears to be the words, "Oh, my God!" A closeup from the portion of the film showing the fatal shot to Kennedy's head is also shown in the Clint Eastwood film In the Line of Fire .

The film was pastiched by the American television show Seinfeld in the two-part episode of Season 3 titled "The Boyfriend".[ citation needed ]

Zapruder is also mentioned in the 1994 Manic Street Preachers song "Ifwhiteamericatoldthetruthforonedayit'sworldwouldfallapart", a track from the album The Holy Bible.[ citation needed ]

The Red Dwarf episode "Tikka to Ride" features a recreation of the shooting which was shot meticulously using the Zapruder film as a reference. It was originally shot in black and white, but was so realistic that people thought it was the original footage. Director Ed Bye then reshot it in color.[ citation needed ]

In the Don DeLillo novel Underworld , there is a screening of a bootleg copy of the Zapruder film, at which the film is played over and over on multiple televisions at varying speeds.[ citation needed ]

In the 2004 revival of Stephen Sondheim's musical Assassins , the film was projected onto Lee Harvey Oswald's white shirt during the climax of the show.[ citation needed ]

The music video for Lana Del Rey's single "National Anthem" is a partial re-creation of the Zapruder film.[ citation needed ]

The earliest three days of the original film's life, including its actual filming, developing, copying, premiere viewing by Zapruder, government agents and reporters, and sale to Life magazine are portrayed in the 2013 docudrama Parkland , in which Abraham Zapruder is played by Paul Giamatti.[ citation needed ]

Abraham Zapruder is sometimes presented as a forefather of all citizen journalists. [38]

The Zapruder film, kept from public viewing for years, has evolved into one of the most viewed films in history, now available on the Internet for public access. [39]

Footnotes

  1. The Model 414 PD held a reel of 16mm film which was first run in one direction, with half of the width of the film being exposed. The reel would then be removed from the camera (a process which could take place in subdued light), the feed and take-up reels swapped and reloaded so that the other half of the film could be exposed in a process analogous to half-track audio tape. The FBI later tested Zapruder's camera and found that it filmed an average of 18.3 frames/second (slightly deviating from the camera's standard frame rate of 16 frame/s). [2] While earlier 8 mm cameras had used a 16 frame/s rate, the 8 mm standard was moving to 18 frame/s by the 1960s, and that was the frame rate adopted by the Super 8 format in 1966.
  2. The film's physical location remained the same, only its record classification changed.

See also

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Josiah "Tink" Thompson is an American writer, professional private investigator, and former philosophy professor. He wrote Six Seconds in Dallas: A Micro-Study of the Kennedy Assassination (ISBN 0394445716). He also wrote a biography of the early 19th-Century Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard (ISBN 057501718X) (ISBN 0394470923) in 1974, and a well-received book about his own, post-academic life as a private detective, Gumshoe: Reflections in a Private Eye (ISBN 0316841757) in 1988.

<i>Pictures of the Pain</i>

Pictures of the Pain: Photography and the Assassination of President Kennedy is a 1994 book by Richard B. Trask, an American historian and archivist based in Danvers, Massachusetts. The book compiles more than 350 photographs made by amateur and professional photographers in Dallas, Texas, during the November 1963 assassination of John F. Kennedy, and includes interviews with many of the people who made the images, some of which had never been published prior to the book's release.

References

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  2. Richard B. Trask, Photographic Memory: The Kennedy Assassination, November 22, 1963, Dallas: Sixth Floor Museum, 1996, p. 5.
  3. "Kennedy's Assassination: How LIFE Brought the Zapruder Film to Light". LIFE.com. October 24, 2013. Archived from the original on November 14, 2013. Retrieved November 14, 2013.
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  7. Vincent Bugliosi, Reclaiming History: The Assassination of President John F. Kennedy. W.W. Norton, 2007, endnotes, p. 291.
  8. Warren Commission Hearings and Exhibits, Vol. XVIII Archived December 13, 2006, at the Wayback Machine . Online version at the History Matters Archive.
  9. Zapruder Film of JFK Assassination on YouTube. Requires Flash Player.
  10. Stabilized Version of the Zapruder Film on YouTube. Requires Flash Player.
  11. Stabilized versions of the Zapruder film Archived October 1, 2011, at the Wayback Machine . Research quality. Based on the "Costella 2006" frames. Large file sizes. Requires QuickTime viewer from apple.com. Entire film is covered in six "fixed camera" video clips, plus one "stabilized pan" video clip. Full speed.
  12. JFK Kennedy shooting, Zapruder audiovideo on YouTube. Licenza Creative Commons Attribuzione. The Zapruder film has been added to the sound recorded by police in Dallas.
  13. All 486 frames of the Zapruder film Archived September 30, 2011, at the Wayback Machine . The "Costella 2006" frames. Research quality. Does not require special viewers, but not shown in movie form.
  14. John P. Costella, "The New Zapruder Film", Assassination Research, Vol.2 No.2 (2003) Archived May 12, 2011, at the Wayback Machine Stabilized version which allows frame-by-frame easy forward.
  15. Frames 207 and 212 Archived December 8, 2008, at the Wayback Machine , frames 283 and 284 (actually 283) Archived December 8, 2008, at the Wayback Machine , frame 314 (actually 315) Archived December 4, 2008, at the Wayback Machine , and frame 315 (actually 314) Archived December 4, 2008, at the Wayback Machine .
  16. "Life To Release Today Part of Kennedy Film", New York Times, January 30, 1967, p. 22;
  17. Time Inc. v. Bernard Geis Associates, 293 F.Supp. 130, 146 (D.C.N.Y. 1968).
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  20. JFK Assassination Zapruder Stabilized Motion Panorama HD plus SloMo - 50th anniversary on YouTube
  21. JFK Assassination Stabilized Motion Panorama HD Nix v Zapruder - 50th anniversary (HD) on YouTube
  22. Frame 313 Archived November 25, 2013, at the Wayback Machine Costella Combined Edit
  23. Zapruder Version 2012 . JFK on YouTube
  24. JFK Assassination Magic Bullet Computer Recreation on YouTube
  25. JFK Assassination - Dale Myers 3D animation on YouTube
  26. Holland, Max; Rush, Johann (November 22, 2007). "J.F.K.'s Death, Re-Framed". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 12, 2018.
  27. The Truth Behind JFK's Assassination Archived February 5, 2016, at the Wayback Machine , by Max Holland, Newsweek, November 20, 2014.
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  29. Klein, Larry (September 2002). "NOVA | Spies That Fly | Master of the Surveillance Image | PBS". www.pbs.org. Retrieved January 17, 2019.
  30. P., Horne, Douglas (2009). Inside the Assassination Records Review Board : the U.S. government's final attempt to reconcile the conflicting medical evidence in the assassination of JFK. [Falls Church, VA.] ISBN   9780984314409. OCLC   596184454.
  31. Horne, Douglas (January 11, 2014). "The Zapruder Film Mystery".
  32. P., Horne, Douglas (2009). Inside the Assassination Records Review Board : the U.S. government's final attempt to reconcile the conflicting medical evidence in the assassination of JFK. [Falls Church, VA.] ISBN   9780984314409. OCLC   596184454.
  33. "Zapruder FAQ". Sixth Floor Museum at Dealey Plaza. Retrieved January 18, 2019.
  34. "25 Films Added to National Registry". The New York Times . November 15, 1994. Archived from the original on March 26, 2018. Retrieved March 9, 2018.
  35. "SUICIDES: Freddie Prinze: Too Much, Too Soon". Time. February 7, 1977. Archived from the original on November 10, 2009.
  36. World Archipelago. "Wallflower Press" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on October 4, 2006.
  37. (in French) 26 secondes: L'Amérique éclaboussée. Archived October 22, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  38. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on August 29, 2013. Retrieved August 15, 2013.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) (in French) La mort de JFK dans le viseur de Zapruder
  39. "Zapruder Film Slow Motion (HIGHER QUALITY)". YouTube.