An All-America team is a hypothetical American sports team composed of outstanding amateur players. These players are broadly considered by media and other relevant commentators as the best players in a particular sport, of a specific season, for each team position.
Amateur sports are sports in which participants engage largely or entirely without remuneration. The distinction is made between amateur sporting participants and professional sporting participants, who are paid for the time they spend competing and training. In the majority of sports which feature professional players, the professionals will participate at a higher standard of play than amateur competitors, as they can train full-time without the stress of having another job. The majority of worldwide sporting participants are amateurs.
Such athletes at the high school and college level are given the honorific title and typically referred to as "All-American athletes" or simply "All-Americans".
An athlete is a person who competes in one or more sports that involve physical strength, speed or endurance. The application of the term to those who participate in other activities, such as horse riding or driving, is somewhat controversial.
As of 2009, the term is used in U.S. team sports to refer to players who are selected by members of the national media.[ citation needed ] The term is used primarily with regard to college and, occasionally, to high school players.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
A team is a group of individuals - humans, horses, or oxen, for example - working together to achieve their goal. As defined by Professor Leigh Thompson of the Kellogg School of Management, "[a] team is a group of people who are interdependent with respect to information, resources, and skills and who seek to combine their efforts to achieve a common goal".
The mass media is a diversified collection of media technologies that reach a large audience via mass communication. The technologies through which this communication takes place include a variety of outlets.
Note that similar terms exist for non-amateur athletes: outstanding professional players usually are referred to as "All-Stars", or, in the case of professional American football, "All-Pros": (as opposed to Pro Bowlers, who are selected by players, coaches, and fans to compete in Pro Bowl games).[ citation needed ]
American football, referred to as football in the United States and Canada and also known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end. The offense, which is the team controlling the oval-shaped football, attempts to advance down the field by running with or passing the ball, while the defense, which is the team without control of the ball, aims to stop the offense's advance and aims to take control of the ball for themselves. The offense must advance at least ten yards in four downs, or plays, and otherwise they turn over the football to the defense; if the offense succeeds in advancing ten yards or more, they are given a new set of four downs. Points are primarily scored by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone for a touchdown or kicking the ball through the opponent's goalposts for a field goal. The team with the most points at the end of a game wins.
The Pro Bowl is the all-star game of the National Football League (NFL). From the merger with the rival American Football League (AFL) in 1970 up through 2013 and since 2017, it is officially called the AFC–NFC Pro Bowl, matching the top players in the American Football Conference (AFC) against those in the National Football Conference (NFC). From 2014 through 2016, the NFL experimented with an unconferenced format, where the teams were selected by two honorary team captains, instead of selecting players from each conference. The players were picked in a televised "schoolyard pick" prior to the game.
Selection to an All-America team for collegiate (or high-school) players, however, is honorary in nature. "All-America teams" do not typically play any games as a unit, unlike many of the all-star teams.[ citation needed ]
The original use of the term "All-America" seems to have been in reference to a list of college football players who were regarded as the best at their respective positions. The first "All-America" team was the 1889 College Football All-America Team selected by Caspar Whitney and published in This Week's Sports in association with Walter Camp.
College football is American football played by teams of student athletes fielded by American universities, colleges, and military academies, or Canadian football played by teams of student athletes fielded by Canadian universities. It was through college football play that American football rules first gained popularity in the United States.
The 1889 College Football All-America team was the first College Football All-America Team. The team was selected by Caspar Whitney and published in This Week's Sports.
Caspar William Whitney was an American author, editor, explorer, outdoorsman and war correspondent. He originated the concept of the All-American team in college football in 1889 when he worked for Harper's Magazine.
In triathlons, USA Triathlon bestows the All America status on the top 10% within their age group.
The term has also been used in athletics in new ways to recognize the academic achievements of student-athletes as "Academic All-America" teams are named.The term "Academic All-America" is a registered trademark of the College Sports Information Directors of America, which began the program in 1952 to recognize college athletes at all levels of competition and in all collegiate sports.
The term All-American is colloquially used to describe stereotypically clean-cut, mainstream or conventional American middle class people, particularly teenagers and young adults. Phenotypically, the stereotype suggests a blond-haired, light-eyed, WASP, Northern European, or "nordic" appearance. This usage was popularized by the radio series Jack Armstrong, the All-American Boy , which ran from 1933 to 1951. The "mainstream" culture was dominated by white Americans, but this connotation is changing along with demographics and acceptance of a multiracial society.
The United States Army 82nd Airborne Division was given the nickname "All-American" because its members came from all 48 U.S. states which, at that time, constituted the United States (Hawaii and Alaska did not enter the union until 1959).[ citation needed ]
Each year different sets of All-American teams are recognized toward consensus and unanimous selection recognition. A "unanimous selection" is a player who is listed as a first team All-American by all recognized lists. A "consensus All-American" is a player who is listed as a first team All-American by at least half of the recognized lists. All-America teams are selected annually in various collegiate sports.
In collegiate archery competitions All-America selections are determined by the US Collegiate Archery (USCA) association. All-American honors are awarded for Olympic Recurve, Compound Target, and Bowhunter divisions. All-American honors are awarded to the top 10 archers in each division based on aggregate scores from the National Indoor and Intercollegiate Championships each year.
In baseball, All-America teams are selected annually by the American Baseball Coaches Association and Collegiate Baseball .
Selections are administered by the U.S. Track & Field and Cross Country Coaches Association (USTFCCCA). In Division I, the top 40 overall finishers at the national meet are all named to the All-America team. In Division III, as of 2017, the top 40 finishers garner All-American distinction (previously top 35). The student-athlete's team must be a member of the USTFCCCA.
Based on the NCAA Fencing Championships, the U.S. Fencing Coaches Association annually selects athletes for All-American first team, second team, third team, and honorable mention titles.
The National Collegiate Athletic Association currently recognizes College Football All-America Teams selected by the Associated Press, American Football Coaches Association, Football Writers Association of America, Sporting News , and the Walter Camp Football Foundation (WCFF) to determine consensus All-Americans.
All-American honors are awarded by the GCAA for men's golf.
In NCAA men's gymnastics, all American status is awarded to the top 8 finishers in the national championship.
The American Hockey Coaches Association (AHCA) selects All-Americans at the Division I and Division III levels, for both men and women. For Division I men, they select a first- and a second-team for East and for West; for Division I women, they select national first- and second-teams. For Division III men, they select a first- and a second-team for East and for West; for Division III women, they select a first and second team for both East and West.
The United States Intercollegiate Lacrosse Association (USILA) annually selects men's lacrosse All-Americans, distinguished by first team, second team, third team, and honorable mention.
The Intercollegiate Women's Lacrosse Coaches Association (IWLCA) annually selects women's lacrosse All-Americans, distinguished by first team, second team, third team, and honorable mention.
US Lacrosse, the national governing body for men's and women's lacrosse, annually selects national boys' and girls' high school All-Americans.
The American Collegiate Rowing Association (ACRA) and Collegiate Rowing Coaches of America (CRCA) name All-American teams for men and women respectively.
The term All-America was used for the student rugby teams that toured Australia in 1912 and New Zealand in 1913, see Rugby union in the United States.
In soccer, the National Soccer Coaches Association of America annually names an eleven-member All-America team, as well as Division I women, and Division II and III teams.
In NCAA swimming and diving, athletes and relay teams who make the championship final (top eight) are considered First-Team All-Americans. Athletes and relay teams that qualify for the consolation final (determines places 9–16) are considered Honorable Mention All-Americans.All-American teams are selected by the College Swimming Coaches Association of America (CSCAA).
The Intercollegiate Tennis Association annually selects men's and women's D-1 players with the following criteria SINGLES (denoted by 'S') 1.) Top 16 seed in NCAA Singles Championships, or 2.) Reach round of 16 in NCAA Singles Championships, or 3.) Finish in the Top 20 of the final ITA Rankings. DOUBLES (denoted by 'D') 1.) Top eight seed in NCAA Doubles Championships, or 2.) Reach quarterfinals of NCAA Doubles Championship, or 3.) Finish in Top 10 of final ITA Rankings.
Also administered by the U.S. Track & Field and Cross Country Coaches Association, the selection rules are that the top eight finishers in each individual event, as well as American competitors who finish outside the top eight in their event but are among the top eight of the American finishers in an event, earn All-America designation. Relays are judged strictly on a top-eight basis. The cutoff of eight places is the same for both indoor and outdoor competition. The student-athlete's team must be a member of the USTFCCCA.Eligible students from all three divisions and the NAIA are chosen.
The American Volleyball Coaches Association selects men's and women's All-America teams in all three NCAA divisions as well as the NAIA, USCAA and NCCAA.
In all NCAA, NJCAA, NAIA, NCWA, and CCCAA divisions, the top 6 or 8 placers at the national championship tournament are considered All-Americans.
At the high school level, noted All-America teams are selected by Parade magazine in football, and from 1957 to 2015 in basketball.Also in basketball, the McDonald's restaurant chain selects players annually for its McDonald's All-American Game, and there is also a Ballislife All-American Game. In football, there is the U.S. Army All-American Bowl and the Under Armour All-America Game. Since 2000, the United States Army has sponsored its own annual All-American high school football competition, the U.S. Army All-American Bowl, which includes an All-American football team, split East and West, and an All-American marching band.
In 2005, Offense-Defense Sports began publishing a Top 100 ranking for nation's the top high school football athletes.The Offense-Defense All-American Bowl is held every January, featuring the 88 top-ranked high school seniors.
Athletes who place in the top 15 of each gender division at the Foot Locker Cross Country Championships, a series of annual cross country running races which are held in various regions of the US, are awarded All-American honors.
The National Interscholastic Swim Coaches Association publishes an Academic All America Awards list for graduating seniors that have maintained a minimum GPA of 3.750, and have lettered in their high school programs in swimming, diving, or water polo.
The National High School Coaches Association also honors the nation's top student athletes on a yearly basis, as "High School Academic All-Americans".
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The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) is a non-profit organization which regulates athletes of 1,268 North American institutions and conferences. It also organizes the athletic programs of many colleges and universities in the United States and Canada, and helps more than 480,000 college student-athletes who compete annually in college sports. The organization is headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana.
The Alabama Crimson Tide refers to the 21 men and women varsity teams that represent the University of Alabama. The Crimson Tide teams compete in the National Collegiate Athletic Association's Division I as a member of the Southeastern Conference. In 2002, Sports Illustrated named Alabama the No. 26 best collegiate sports program in America. Athletics facilities on the campus include the 101,821-seat Bryant–Denny Stadium, named after football coach Paul "Bear" Bryant and former University President George Denny, 15,316-seat Coleman Coliseum, Foster Auditorium, Sewell–Thomas Stadium, the Alabama Soccer Stadium, the Sam Bailey Track Stadium, the Ol' Colony Golf Complex, the Alabama Aquatic Center, and the Alabama Tennis Stadium.
The Duke Blue Devils are the athletic teams that represent Duke University, featuring 27 varsity teams in the NCAA Division I. The name comes from the French "les Diables Bleus" or "the Blue Devils," which was the nickname given during World War I to the Chasseurs Alpins, the French Alpine light infantry battalion.
The Pittsburgh Panthers, commonly also referred to as the Pitt Panthers, are the athletic teams representing the University of Pittsburgh, although the term is colloquially used to refer to other aspects of the university such as alumni, faculty, and students. Pitt fields 19 university-sponsored varsity teams at the highest level of competitive collegiate athletics in the United States: the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) for American football.
The Fairfield Stags are the athletic programs representing Fairfield University in Fairfield, Connecticut. Most of the programs are members of the Metro Atlantic Athletic Conference (MAAC) and classified as Division I-AAA in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA).
The Drexel Dragons are the athletic teams of Drexel University.
The Villanova Wildcats are the athletic teams of Villanova University. They compete in the Big East for every sport except football and women's rowing, where they compete in the Colonial Athletic Association. On December 15, 2012, Villanova and the other six Catholic, non-FBS schools announced that they were departing the Big East for a new conference. This conference assumed the Big East name on July 1, 2013.
The Richmond Spiders represent the University of Richmond in Richmond, Virginia. The Spiders compete in the Division I FCS of the National Collegiate Athletic Association as a member of the Atlantic 10 Conference for most sports.
The Grand Valley State Lakers are the intercollegiate athletic teams of Grand Valley State University, located in Allendale, Michigan, United States. The GVSU Lakers compete at the NCAA Division II level and are members of the Great Lakes Intercollegiate Athletic Conference (GLIAC).
The Denver Pioneers are the sports teams of the University of Denver (DU). They play in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I, Denver is a member of The Summit League for men's and women's basketball, swimming and diving, men's and women's soccer, tennis and golf for both men and women, plus women's volleyball. Other DU teams play in various conferences in the sports that are not sponsored by The Summit. The men's ice hockey team is a charter member of the National Collegiate Hockey Conference (NCHC), which formed in 2011 with play beginning in 2013. The lacrosse teams for men and women are members of the Big East Conference; the men began Big East play in the 2013–14 school year, while the women left the Mountain Pacific Sports Federation (MPSF) after the 2016 lacrosse season. Men's and women's skiing compete in the Rocky Mountain Intercollegiate Ski Association, while the women's gymnastics team became an affiliate of the Big 12 Conference starting with the 2015–16 season.
The Furman Paladins are the varsity athletic teams representing Furman University in Greenville, South Carolina in intercollegiate athletics. The university sponsors twenty teams including football, men and women's lacrosse, basketball, cross country, golf, sailing, soccer, swimming and diving, and tennis; women's-only equestrian, sand volleyball, softball, track and field, and volleyball; and men's-only baseball. The Paladins compete in NCAA Division I and are currently members of the Southern Conference.
The Fresno State Bulldogs are the athletic teams that represent California State University, Fresno. The university is a member of NCAA Division I's Mountain West Conference. It was a member of the Western Athletic Conference from 1992 until 2012, when it left for the Mountain West alongside fellow WAC member Nevada.
Guy Murray is the current men's and women's cross country and track and field head coach at the University of Detroit Mercy. Murray was one of the top runners in U of D history as a distance runner and he was also a marathon runner. As a coach, Murray has won numerous awards and championships in collegiate running.
The Academic All-America program is a student-athlete recognition program. The program selects an honorary sports team composed of the most outstanding student-athletes of a specific season for positions in various sports—who in turn are given the honorific "Academic All-American". Since 1952, CoSIDA has bestowed Academic All-American recognition on male and female athletes in Divisions I, II, and III of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) as well as NAIA athletes, covering all championship sports. The award honors student-athletes who have performed well academically while regularly competing for their institution.
The Princeton Tigers are the athletic teams of Princeton University. The school sponsors 38 varsity sports. The school has won several NCAA national championships, including one in men's fencing, six in men's lacrosse, three in women's lacrosse, and eight in men's golf. Princeton's men's and women's crews have also won numerous national rowing championships. The field hockey team made history in 2012 as the first Ivy League team to win the Division I NCAA Championship in field hockey.
John "Jack" Thomas was an All-American lacrosse player at Johns Hopkins University from 1972 to 1974.
The Lindenwood Lions and Lady Lions are the intercollegiate athletic teams of Lindenwood University, located in St. Charles, Missouri. The school is primarily a member of the NCAA Division II, although women's ice hockey and gymnastics and men's volleyball compete in NCAA Division I. The Lions joined the NCAA and the Mid-America Intercollegiate Athletics Association (MIAA) in the summer of 2013, after completing the transition process from the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA) and the Heart of America Athletic Conference (HAAC). On October 4, 2018, Lindenwood announced it would be leaving the MIAA for the Great Lakes Valley Conference effective July 1, 2019.
Dom Starsia is an American lacrosse coach. He is the former head coach of the University of Virginia men's lacrosse program, with whom he has won four NCAA national championships, in 1999, 2003, 2006, and 2011. Previously, he served as the head coach of the Brown University lacrosse team where he was twice awarded the F. Morris Touchstone Award as the NCAA Division I lacrosse coach of the year. Starsia is currently the third the winningest collegiate lacrosse coach and was inducted into the National Lacrosse Hall of Fame in 2008.
The Lake Erie Storm are the athletic teams that represent Lake Erie College, located in Painesville, Ohio, in NCAA Division II intercollegiate sporting competitions. The Storm compete as members of the Great Lakes Intercollegiate Athletic Conference (GLIAC), although Lake Erie will move its varsity sports to the Great Midwest Athletic Conference (G-MAC) in 2017. Lake Erie College was a member of the Allegheny Mountain Collegiate Conference (AMCC) of Division III through the 2007–08 academic year but completed the process of moving to Division II at the conclusion of the 2008–2009 academic year.
The 2013 NCAA Division I Men's Lacrosse Championship was the 43rd annual single-elimination tournament to determine the national championship for National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I men's college lacrosse. Sixteen teams were selected to compete in the tournament based upon their performance during the regular season, and for some, by means of a conference tournament automatic qualifier. The Divisions I men’s lacrosse committees announced the matchups on 5 May 2013. Duke defeated Loyola, Notre Dame, Cornell, and Syracuse to capture to their second NCAA Championship.