All Saints Church (Frederick, Maryland)

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All Saints Episcopal Church
All Saints Episcopal Church Frederick Maryland.jpg
Location Frederick, Maryland, United States
Denomination Episcopal
Churchmanship Broad church
Status Parish church
Founder(s) Maryland General Assembly
Dedication All Saints
Functional statusActive
Architect(s) Richard Upjohn
Architectural type Church
Style Gothic Revival
Groundbreaking 1855
Construction cost$28,800
Parish All Saints Parish
Diocese Maryland
Province Third

All Saints Church, or All Saints Episcopal Church, founded in 1742, is a historic Episcopal church now located at 106 West Church Street in the Historic District of Frederick, Maryland. [1] [2] It is the seat of All Saints Parish, Diocese of Maryland, which covers most of Frederick County, Maryland and once covered most of Western Maryland.

Frederick Historic District United States historic place

The Frederick Historic District is a national historic district in Frederick, Frederick County, Maryland. The district encompasses the core of the city and contains a variety of residential, commercial, ecclesiastical, and industrial buildings dating from the late 18th century to 1941. Notable are larger detached dwellings in the Queen Anne and American Foursquare architectural styles of the late 19th and early 20th centuries The churches reflect high style architecture ranging from Gothic and Greek Revival to Richardsonian Romanesque and Colonial Revival. The east side of the district includes the industrial buildings.

Frederick, Maryland City in Maryland, United States

Frederick is a city in, and the county seat, of Frederick County in the U.S. state of Maryland. It is part of the Baltimore–Washington Metropolitan Area. Frederick has long been an important crossroads, located at the intersection of a major north–south Indian trail and east–west routes to the Chesapeake Bay, both at Baltimore and what became Washington, D.C. and across the Appalachian mountains to the Ohio River watershed. It is a part of the Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is part of a greater Washington-Baltimore-Arlington, DC-MD-VA-WV-PA Combined Statistical Area. The city's population was 65,239 people at the 2010 United States Census, making it the second-largest incorporated city in Maryland, behind Baltimore. Frederick is home to Frederick Municipal Airport, which accommodates general aviation, and to the county's largest employer U.S. Army's Fort Detrick bioscience/communications research installation.

Episcopal Diocese of Maryland diocese

The Episcopal Diocese of Maryland forms part of Province 3 of the Episcopal Church in the United States of America. Having been divided twice, it no longer has all of Maryland and now consists of the central, northern, and western Maryland counties of Allegany, Anne Arundel, Baltimore, Calvert, Carroll, Frederick, Garrett, Harford, Howard, and Washington, as well as the independent city of Baltimore.



Founding and Colonial Era

In 1742, Maryland's General Assembly separated the westernmost parts of the vast Piscataway (Broad Creek Church) parish to form the large "All Saints Parish". [3] In 1747, Maryland's Assembly provided for buying land and constructing the parish church on Carroll's Creek, as well as chapels of ease between the Monocacy and Seneca Creeks (which ultimately became Poolesville) and another between the Antietam and Cannogocheague Creeks (which became Hagerstown). In 1770, legislation provided for separating Eden (or Zion or St. Peter's) parishes as well as St. John's Parish, Hagerstown, but such never became effective before the American Revolution. [4] In 1786, Maryland's General Assembly separated the westernmost parts of the congregation to create a new "Frederick Parish" named for Frederick Calvert, the last colonial governor of Maryland, and elevated the former chapel at Hagerstown, Maryland to the parish church.

Chapel of ease

A chapel of ease is a church building other than the parish church, built within the bounds of a parish for the attendance of those who cannot reach the parish church conveniently.

Poolesville, Maryland Town in Maryland

Poolesville is a town in the western portion of Montgomery County, Maryland. The population was 4,883 at the 2010 United States Census. It is surrounded by the Montgomery County Agricultural Reserve, and is considered a distant bedroom community for commuters to Washington, D.C.

Hagerstown, Maryland City in Maryland, United States

Hagerstown is a city in Washington County, Maryland, United States. It is the county seat of Washington County. The population of Hagerstown city proper at the 2010 census was 39,662, and the population of the Hagerstown-Martinsburg Metropolitan Area was 269,140. Hagerstown ranks as Maryland's sixth largest incorporated city.

The original All Saints building, built in 1750, was about four blocks away from the buildings constructed in the next century. In 1759, Rev. Thomas Bacon, former rector of St. Peter's Church in Talbot County, was appointed third "reader" of the parish, which by then was the colony's richest with an income of £400 sterling, but he was expected to first compile the laws of Maryland in Annapolis. This caused local consternation such that Rev. Bacon agreed to hire a priest to help him in the 100 mile by 30 mile parish, and moved to Frederick in 1762 upon receiving Governor Sharpe's assent to his appointment, which proved to be his last (he died in 1768). [5]

Thomas Bacon (priest) Anglican clergyman

Thomas Bacon was an Episcopal clergyman, musician, poet, publisher and author. Considered the most learned man in Maryland of his day, Bacon is still known as the first compiler of Maryland statutes.

Talbot County, Maryland U.S. county in Maryland, United States

Talbot County is a county located in the heart of the Eastern Shore of Maryland in the U.S. state of Maryland. As of the 2010 census, the population was 37,782. Its county seat is Easton. The county was named for Lady Grace Talbot, the wife of Sir Robert Talbot, an Anglo-Irish statesman, and the sister of Lord Baltimore.

Annapolis, Maryland Capital of Maryland

Annapolis is the capital of the U.S. state of Maryland, as well as the county seat of Anne Arundel County. Situated on the Chesapeake Bay at the mouth of the Severn River, 25 miles (40 km) south of Baltimore and about 30 miles (50 km) east of Washington, D.C., Annapolis is part of the Baltimore–Washington metropolitan area. Its population was measured at 38,394 by the 2010 census.

Bacon's successor, Bennet Allen, the black sheep of a noted clerical family in England, technically served for seven years, but caused a scandal for his lack of learning as well as insistence upon holding another living (St. James Herring Bay) at the same time, contrary to colonial legislation but supposedly authorized by the Lord Proprietor. The vestry almost immediately locked Allen out of the church. Though he climbed in a window to claim the living, Allen soon fled to Philadelphia, hiring a curate to handle the lucrative parish long before the American Revolutionary War (during which he fled to England and was ultimately convicted of killing Lord Dulany in a duel). [6]

Bennet Allen was an English priest and miscellaneous writer.

St. James Parish (Lothian, Maryland) United States historic place

St. James' Parish is a historic church located on Solomons Island Road in the hamlet of Tracys Landing, Anne Arundel County, Maryland, United States.

American Revolutionary War War between Great Britain and the Thirteen Colonies, which won independence as the United States of America

The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was an 18th-century war between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America.

During the rectorship of the Rev. George Bower on March 24, 1793, Bishop Thomas John Claggett administered his first confirmation on ten members of All Saints Church. Bishop Claggett being the first Episcopal bishop consecrated on American soil, these ten were the first to be confirmed by an American bishop. [7]

Thomas John Claggett First Episcopal bishop consecrated on American soil

Thomas John Claggett was the first bishop of the newly formed American Episcopal Church, U.S.A. to be consecrated on American soil and the first bishop of the recently established (1780) Episcopal Diocese of Maryland.

19th Century

The second All Saints' Church on Court Street, completed in 1814. Second All Saints Episcopal Church Frederick Maryland.jpg
The second All Saints' Church on Court Street, completed in 1814.

As the population of Frederick grew in the late-18th and early-19th centuries, the need for a larger, more accessible church led the vestry of All Saints Parish to call for the construction of a new building on a lot purchased from Dr. Philip Thomas and Richard Potts on Court Street. The vestry raised subscriptions and held a lottery to obtain the funds to build the new church which was completed in 1814. [8] Designed by Henry McCleery, the second All Saints' Church is an example of Federal design with Palladian influences. The first floor doors and window display a unique inter-woven design carved into their architraves. The second-floor windows are separated by stuccoed pilasters and a fanlight is centered in the pediment above. This new building was consecrated by Bishop Claggett on November 12, 1814.

Federal architecture architectural style

Federal-style architecture is the name for the classicizing architecture built in the newly founded United States between c. 1780 and 1830, and particularly from 1785 to 1815. This style shares its name with its era, the Federalist Era. The name Federal style is also used in association with furniture design in the United States of the same time period. The style broadly corresponds to the classicism of Biedermeier style in the German-speaking lands, Regency architecture in Britain and to the French Empire style.

Palladian architecture Style of architecture derived from the work of Venetian Andrea Palladio

Palladian architecture is a European style of architecture derived from and inspired by the designs of the Venetian architect Andrea Palladio (1508–1580). What is recognised as Palladian architecture today is an evolution of Palladio's original concepts. Palladio's work was strongly based on the symmetry, perspective and values of the formal classical temple architecture of the Ancient Greeks and Romans. From the 17th century Palladio's interpretation of this classical architecture was adapted as the style known as Palladianism. It continued to develop until the end of the 18th century.

The 1830s, 40s, and 50s were a tumultuous period for the parish, reflecting the social and political tensions which impacted the United States in this era. Successive pastorates waivered from traditional Low Church worship styles to more High Church preferences. On a more secular note, rectors of the parish in this period also held political views in favor of and against the institution of slavery, causing occasional controversy in the church. One of the rectors who served All Saints' during this time period was the Rev. William N. Pendleton who served as rector from 1847 to 1853 and later became a Brigadier General in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War. [9]

The interior of the 1855 church. Interior of All Saints Episcopal Church Frederick Maryland.jpg
The interior of the 1855 church.

In 1853, the vestry of All Saints' Parish appointed a building committee to oversee the construction of a third, larger church. After corresponding with the firm of Richard Upjohn and Company of New York, plans for the new Gothic Revival-styled church were procured and the cornerstone was laid in 1855. The form of the new church incorporated a long nave with side aisles leading to a recessed chancel. A tall bell tower and spire was centered on the front facade, becoming a part of Frederick's famed "Clustered Spires." The construction was completed in 1856 and this church has been in continuous use by the parish since then. [10] The 1814 building, which sits perpendicular to the third building, was converted for use as a parish hall.

During the American Civil War, All Saints Parish was led by Rev. Marmaduke M. Dillon, a Unionist who had served as an army officer. His pastorate was marked with friction among some of the parish's southern-sympathizing members. In the fall and winter of 1862-1863, the church was used as a field hospital during the Maryland Campaign, housing wounded soldiers from the Battles of South Mountain and Antietam. After the resignation of Rev. Dillon in 1866, the parish settled into a prolonged period of stability and growth under the leadership of Rev. Dr. Osbourne Ingle. He served as rector of All Saints' Parish from 1866 until his death in 1906, a span of 40 years. [11] Dr. Ingles' eldest son, the Rev. James Addison Ingle, served as a missionary to China and as bishop in the Missionary District of Hankow.


The brickwork of the current seven-bay by three bay, two storey church is common bond, with brownstone trim and a high exposed fieldstone foundation. The sharp four storey tower at the front is one of the seven ecclesiastical towers for which Frederick was known in the Civil war. The quire windows were made in 1910 and imported from Munich. The east side clearstory windows are by Tiffany, and those on the western side in medieval style. [12]

See also

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  1. Maryland Historical Trust sites FHD-669, FHD-670, FHD-688 available at
  2. Frederick Historic District Survey, NRIS f-3-039, Section 7 p.8 available at
  3. Percy G. Skirven, The First Parishes of the Province of Maryland (Baltimore: Norman Remingon Company 1923), p. 136
  4. Rightmyer p. 152
  5. Nelson Waite Rightmyer, Maryland's Established Church (Baltimore: Church Historical Society 1956) pp.94-96.
  6. Arthur Pierce Middleton, Tercentenary Essays Commemorating Anglican Maryland, 1692-1792 (Conning Company), pp. 56-57
  7. Williams, T.J.C.; McKinsey, Folger (1997). History of Frederick County, Maryland (1910). Baltimore, MD: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc. p. 431. ISBN   0-8063-7973-1.
  8. Williams, T.J.C.; McKinsey, Folger (1997). History of Frederick County, Maryland (1910). Baltimore, MD: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc. p. 432. ISBN   0-8063-7973-1.
  9. Williams, T.J.C.; McKinsey, Folger (1997). History of Frederick County, Maryland (1910). Baltimore, MD: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc. p. 434. ISBN   0-8063-7973-1.
  10. Williams, T.J.C.; McKinsey, Folger (1997). History of Frederick County, Maryland (1910). Baltimore, MD: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc. p. 435. ISBN   0-8063-7973-1.
  11. Williams, T.J.C.; McKinsey, Folger (1997). History of Frederick County, Maryland (1910). Baltimore, MD: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc. p. 435. ISBN   0-8063-7973-1.

Coordinates: 39°24′55″N77°24′46″W / 39.41528°N 77.41278°W / 39.41528; -77.41278