Andrea Gail

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  • Andrea Gail (final name)
  • Miss Penny (original name)
Owner: Sea Gale Corp., Gloucester, Massachusetts
Port of registry: United States
Route: United States of America
Builder: Eastern Shipbuilding, Panama City, FL
Completed: 1978
Out of service: October 28, 1991
Homeport: Marblehead, Massachusetts
Identification: 592898
Fate: Lost in the 1991 Perfect Storm
General characteristics
Type: Fishing vessel
Tonnage: 92 tons
Length: 72 feet (22 m)
Beam: 20 feet (6.1 m)
Depth: 9.8 feet (3.0 m)
Installed power: 1 CAT 3408 -365 hp turbo diesel reduction engine(main), 1 CAT 35 Kw generator, 1 Lister 15 Kw Generator
Propulsion: 1 single shaft propeller
Speed: 12 knots (22 km/h; 14 mph) [1]
Notes: Sister ship: Hannah Boden

F/V Andrea Gail was a private fishing vessel that was lost at sea with all hands during the "Perfect Storm" of 1991. The vessel and her six-man crew had been fishing the North Atlantic Ocean out of Gloucester, Massachusetts. Her last reported position was 180 mi (290 km) northeast of Sable Island on October 28, 1991. The story of Andrea Gail and her crew was the basis of the 1997 book The Perfect Storm by Sebastian Junger, and a 2000 film adaptation of the same name.

Fishing vessel boat or ship used to catch fish on a body of water

A fishing vessel is a boat or ship used to catch fish in the sea, or on a lake or river. Many different kinds of vessels are used in commercial, artisanal and recreational fishing.

1991 Perfect Storm Category 1 Atlantic hurricane in 1991

The 1991 Perfect Storm, also known as The No-Name Storm and the Halloween Gale/Storm, was a nor'easter that absorbed Hurricane Grace and ultimately evolved back into a small unnamed hurricane late in its life cycle. The initial area of low pressure developed off Atlantic Canada on October 29. Forced southward by a ridge to its north, it reached its peak intensity as a large and powerful cyclone. The storm lashed the east coast of the United States with high waves and coastal flooding before turning to the southwest and weakening. Moving over warmer waters, the system transitioned into a subtropical cyclone before becoming a tropical storm. It executed a loop off the Mid-Atlantic states and turned toward the northeast. On November 1, the system evolved into a full-fledged hurricane, with peak sustained winds of 75 miles per hour (120 km/h), although the National Hurricane Center left it unnamed to avoid confusion amid media interest in the precursor extratropical storm. It later received the name "the Perfect Storm" after a conversation between Boston National Weather Service forecaster Robert Case and author Sebastian Junger. The system was the twelfth and final tropical cyclone, the eighth tropical storm, and fourth hurricane in the 1991 Atlantic hurricane season. The tropical system weakened, striking Nova Scotia as a tropical storm before dissipating.

Atlantic Ocean Ocean between Europe, Africa and the Americas

The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans, with an area of about 106,460,000 square kilometers. It covers approximately 20 percent of the Earth's surface and about 29 percent of its water surface area. It separates the "Old World" from the "New World".


F/V Andrea Gail

Andrea Gail was a 72-foot (22 m) commercial fishing vessel constructed in Panama City, Florida in 1978, and owned by Robert Brown. [2] Her home port was Marblehead, Massachusetts. She also sailed from Gloucester, Massachusetts, where she would offload her catch and reload food and stores for her next run.

Panama City, Florida City in Florida

Panama City is a city and the county seat of Bay County, Florida, United States. Located along U.S. Route 98, it is the largest city between Tallahassee and Pensacola. It is the more populated of two principal cities of the Panama City-Lynn Haven, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area. As of the 2010 census, the population was 36,484. The city was extensively damaged when Hurricane Michael made landfall as a Category 5 hurricane on October 10, 2018.

Florida State of the United States of America

Florida is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States. The state is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, and to the south by the Straits of Florida. Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, and the 8th-most densely populated of the U.S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States. The Miami metropolitan area is Florida's most populous urban area. Tallahassee is the state's capital.

Marblehead, Massachusetts Town in Massachusetts, United States

Marblehead is a coastal New England town in Essex County, Massachusetts. Its population was 19,808 at the 2010 census.

Lost at sea

Final voyage

Andrea Gail began her final voyage departing from Gloucester Harbor, Massachusetts, on September 20, 1991, bound for the Grand Banks of Newfoundland off the coast of eastern Canada. After poor fishing, Captain Frank W. "Billy" Tyne Jr. headed east to the Flemish Cap where he believed they would have better luck. Despite weather reports warning of dangerous conditions, Tyne set course for home on October 26–27. [2] The ship's ice machine was malfunctioning and would not have been able to maintain the catch for much longer. [3]

Grand Banks of Newfoundland A group of underwater plateaus south-east of Newfoundland on the North American continental shelf.

The Grand Banks of Newfoundland are a group of underwater plateaus south-east of Newfoundland on the North American continental shelf. These areas are relatively shallow, ranging from 15 to 91 metres in depth. The cold Labrador Current mixes with the warm waters of the Gulf Stream here, often causing extreme foggy conditions.

Flemish Cap landform

The Flemish Cap is an area of shallow waters in the north Atlantic Ocean centered roughly at 47° north, 45° west or about 563 km east of St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador.


The last reported transmission from Andrea Gail was at about 6:00 p.m. on October 28, 1991. Captain Tyne radioed Linda Greenlaw, Captain of the Hannah Boden, owned by the same company, and gave his coordinates as 44°00′N56°40′W / 44.000°N 56.667°W / 44.000; -56.667 , [2] or about 162 mi (261 km) east of Sable Island. He also gave a weather report indicating 30-foot (9.1 m) seas and wind gusts up to 80  knots (150 km/h (93 mph)). Tyne's final recorded words were "She's comin' on, boys, and she's comin' on strong." Junger reported that the storm created waves in excess of 100 ft (30 m) in height, but ocean buoy monitors recorded a peak wave height of 39 feet (12 m), and so waves of 100 ft (30 m) were deemed "unlikely" by Science Daily . [4] However, data from a series of weather buoys in the general vicinity of the vessel's last known location recorded peak wave action exceeding 60 ft (18 m) in height from October 28 through 30, 1991. [2]

Linda Greenlaw is a best-selling author of books with maritime themes and the only female swordfishing boat captain on the East Coast of the United States. She was featured in the 1997 book The Perfect Storm and the film The Perfect Storm. She previously captained Seahawk after the previous captain died on board.

Sable Island Place in Nova Scotia, Canada

Sable Island, literally "island of sand", is a small Canadian island situated 300 km (190 mi) southeast of Halifax, Nova Scotia, and about 175 km (109 mi) southeast of the closest point of mainland Nova Scotia in the Atlantic Ocean. The island is staffed year round by four federal government staff, rising during summer months when research projects and tourism increase. Notable for its role in early Canadian history and the Sable Island horse, the island is protected and managed by Parks Canada, which must grant permission prior to any visit. Sable Island is part of District 7 of the Halifax Regional Municipality in Nova Scotia. However, the Constitution of Canada specifically names the island as being under the authority of the federal government. The island is also a protected National Park Reserve.

Knot (unit) unit of speed

The knot is a unit of speed equal to one nautical mile per hour, exactly 1.852 km/h. The ISO standard symbol for the knot is kn. The same symbol is preferred by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE); kt is also common, especially in aviation where it is the form recommended by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). The knot is a non-SI unit. Worldwide, the knot is used in meteorology, and in maritime and air navigation—for example, a vessel travelling at 1 knot along a meridian travels approximately one minute of geographic latitude in one hour.

On October 30, 1991, the vessel was reported overdue. An extensive air and land search was launched by the 106th Rescue Wing from the New York Air National Guard, United States Coast Guard and Canadian Coast Guard forces. The search would eventually cover over 186,000 square nautical miles (640,000 km2). [5]

New York Air National Guard

The New York Air National Guard is the air force militia of the State of New York, United States of America. It is, along with the New York Army National Guard, an element of the New York National Guard.

United States Coast Guard Coastal defense and law enforcement branch of the United States Armed Forces

The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is the coastal defense and maritime law enforcement branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the country's seven uniformed services. The Coast Guard is a maritime, military, multi-mission service unique among the U.S. military branches for having a maritime law enforcement mission and a federal regulatory agency mission as part of its mission set. It operates under the U.S. Department of Homeland Security during peacetime, and can be transferred to the U.S. Department of the Navy by the U.S. President at any time, or by the U.S. Congress during times of war. This has happened twice: in 1917, during World War I, and in 1941, during World War II.

Canadian Coast Guard government agency

The Canadian Coast Guard is the coast guard of Canada. Formed in 1962, the coast guard is tasked with marine search and rescue, communication, navigation and transportation issues in Canadian waters, such as navigation aids and icebreaking, marine pollution response and providing support for other Canadian government initiatives. The coast guard operates 119 vessels of varying sizes and 22 helicopters, along with a variety of smaller craft. The Canadian Coast Guard is headquartered in Ottawa, Ontario, and is a special operating agency within Fisheries and Oceans Canada.

On November 6, 1991, Andrea Gail's emergency position-indicating radio beacon (EPIRB) was discovered washed up on the shore of Sable Island in Nova Scotia. The EPIRB was designed to automatically send out a distress signal upon contact with sea water, but the Canadian Coast Guard personnel who found the beacon "did not conclusively verify whether the control switch was in the on or off position". [2] Authorities called off the search for the missing vessel on November 9, 1991, due to the low probability of crew survival. [2]

Nova Scotia Province of Canada

Nova Scotia is one of Canada's three Maritime Provinces, and one of the four provinces that form Atlantic Canada. Its provincial capital is Halifax. Nova Scotia is the second-smallest of Canada's ten provinces, with an area of 55,284 square kilometres (21,300 sq mi), including Cape Breton and another 3,800 coastal islands. As of 2016, the population was 923,598. Nova Scotia is Canada's second-most-densely populated province, after Prince Edward Island, with 17.4 inhabitants per square kilometre (45/sq mi).

Fuel drums, a fuel tank, the EPIRB, an empty life raft, and some other flotsam were the only wreckage ever found. The ship was presumed lost at sea somewhere along the continental shelf near Sable Island.[ citation needed ]


All six of the crew were lost at sea.

In the media


  1. Junger, Sebastian (1999). The Perfect Storm . p. 29. ISBN   0-06-097747-7.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 U.S. Coast Guard investigation report
  3. Houghton, Gillian (2002). The Wreck of the Andrea Gail: Three Days of a Perfect Storm. Rosen Publishing Group.
  4. "Meteorologists Say 'Perfect Storm' Not So Perfect". ScienceDaily. Retrieved 9 April 2012.
  5. "The search for the Andrea Gail: Gloucester Daily Times". Archived from the original on 2009-02-21. Retrieved 2009-04-07.
  6. "Court Revives 'Perfect Storm' Lawsuit". St. Petersburg Times Online. Retrieved 2016-08-10.
  7. "-perfect-storm's"-"andrea-gail"-comes-home-massachusetts "The Perfect Storm'sAndrea Gail Comes Home to Massachusetts". Warner Bros. July 14, 2000. Retrieved 2016-08-10.
  8. Candus Thomson (June 23, 2000). "Ocean City boat sails off to stardom". The Baltimore Sun . Retrieved 2016-08-10.
  9. "The Wreck of the Andrea Gail: Three Days of a Perfect Storm". Rosen Publishing. 2003. Retrieved 2018-06-23.
  10. Morissette, Dove (September 12, 2012). "True to Form: Model Maker Crafts Museum Replica of Andrea Gail". Gloucester Times. Retrieved November 14, 2012.

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