Antoine Nduwayo (born 1942) was the Prime Minister of Burundi from February 22, 1995, until July 31, 1996. He is an ethnic Tutsiand a member of UPRONA. He was appointed prime minister by the Hutu president in an effort to stop some Tutsis from fighting with his government. He resigned shortly after the 1996 military coup.
Opened in October 2019, the trial on the assassination of the first democratically elected Hutu president, Melchior Ndadaye delivered his verdict on October 19, 2020, more than a year after its opening and two days before the anniversary of the assassination of Melchior , October 21, 1993.
The former president of Burundi, Pierre Buyoya, and fifteen other defendants, were sentenced to life imprisonment for "an attack on the Head of State, an attack on the authority of the State and an attempt to bring massacre and devastation ”and to a fine of 102 billion Burundian francs. Three other defendants were sentenced to 20 years in prison. Burundian justice has acquitted only one of the accused, Antoine Nduwayo, former Prime Minister (February 1995-July 1996) and member of the Union for National Progress (Uprona).
Burundi is one of the few countries in Africa to be a direct territorial continuation of a pre-colonial era African state.
Crown Prince Louis Rwagasore was a Burundian Royal and politician who is considered a significant figure in the history of Burundi nationalism. He was prime minister, and was assassinated shortly before Burundian independence.
Cyprien Ntaryamira was the Hutu President of Burundi from 5 February 1994 until his death two months later, when the aircraft he was traveling in, together with Rwandan president Juvénal Habyarimana, was shot down near Kigali, Rwanda.
Michel Micombero was a Burundian politician and army officer who ruled the country as its first president and de facto dictator for the decade between 1966 and 1976.
Pierre Buyoya was a Burundian army officer and politician who served two terms as President of Burundi in 1987 to 1993 and 1996 to 2003 as de facto military dictator. He was the second-longest serving president in Burundian history.
Melchior Ndadaye was a Burundian intellectual and politician. He was the first democratically elected and first Hutu president of Burundi after winning the landmark 1993 election. Though he moved to attempt to smooth the country's bitter ethnic divide, his reforms antagonised soldiers in the Tutsi-dominated army, and he was assassinated amidst a failed military coup in October 1993, after only three months in office. His assassination sparked an array of brutal tit-for-tat massacres between the Tutsi and Hutu ethnic groups, and ultimately sparked the decade-long Burundi Civil War.
Jean-Baptiste Bagaza was a Burundian army officer and politician who ruled Burundi as president and de facto military dictator from November 1976 to September 1987.
The Burundian Civil War was a civil war in Burundi lasting from 1993 to 2005. The civil war was the result of long standing ethnic divisions between the Hutu and the Tutsi ethnic groups in Burundi. The conflict began following the first multi-party elections in the country since independence from Belgium in 1962, and is seen as formally ending with the swearing in of Pierre Nkurunziza in August 2005. Children were widely used by both sides in the war. The estimated death toll stands at 300,000.
The Union for National Progress is a nationalist political party in Burundi. It initially emerged as a nationalist united front in opposition to Belgian colonial rule but subsequently became an integral part of the one-party state established by Michel Micombero after 1966. Dominated by members of the Tutsi ethnic group and increasingly intolerant to their Hutu counterparts, UPRONA remained the dominant force in Burundian politics until the latter stages of the Burundian Civil War in 2003. It is currently a minor opposition party.
Pierre Ngendandumwe was a Burundian political figure. He was a member of the Union for National Progress and was an ethnic Hutu. On 18 June 1963, about a year after Burundi gained independence and amidst efforts to bring about political cooperation between Hutus and the dominant minority Tutsis, Ngendandumwe became Burundi's first Hutu prime minister. He served as prime minister until 6 April 1964 and then became prime minister again on 7 January 1965, serving until his death. Just 8 days after beginning his second term, he was assassinated by a Rwandan Tutsi refugee who is believed to have been employed at the American embassy in Burundi. The assassination led to a renewed escalation of unrest between Tutsis and Hutus. His Hutu successor, Joseph Bamina was assassinated on 15 December 1965 by Tutsi soldiers, following another coup attempt.
Sylvie Kinigi was Prime Minister of Burundi from 10 July 1993 to 7 February 1994, and acting President from 27 October 1993 to 5 February 1994, the first and to date only woman to hold these positions.
Pierre Nkurunziza was a Burundian politician who served as the ninth president of Burundi for almost 15 years from August 2005 until his death in June 2020. A member of the Hutu ethnic group, Nkurunziza taught physical education before becoming involved in politics during the Burundian Civil War as part of the rebel National Council for the Defense of Democracy – Forces for the Defense of Democracy of which he became leader in 2000. The CNDD–FDD became a political party at the end of the Civil War and Nkurunziza was elected president. He held the post controversially for three terms, sparking significant public unrest in 2015. He announced his intention not to stand for re-election in 2020 and instead ceded power to Évariste Ndayishimiye, whose candidacy he had endorsed. He died unexpectedly on 8 June 2020 shortly before the official end of his term. He was the longest-ruling president in Burundian history.
The 1993 mass killings of Tutsis by the majority-Hutu populace in Burundi are described as genocide in the final report of the International Commission of Inquiry for Burundi presented to the United Nations Security Council in 1996.
Joseph Bamina was a Burundian politician and member of the Union for National Progress (UPRONA) party. Bamina was Prime Minister from 26 January to 30 September 1965, and President of the Senate of Burundi in 1965. He and other leaders of the government were assassinated on 15 December 1965, by Tutsi soldiers during a reprisal effort to stop a coup by Hutu officers.
Joseph Cimpaye was a Burundian politician and writer. Born into an educated family from the Hutu ethnic group, Cimpaye acquired the reputation as a leading intellectual and became involved in politics in Burundi which was then under Belgian rule. His position in the minor conservative Christian Democratic Party opposed to the more popular anti-colonial Union for National Progress led to his rise to the role of prime minister in 1961 before UPRONA was decisively returned in the country's first elections ahead of Burundi's independence in July 1962. He left politics but was arrested under the regime of Michel Micombero in 1969. While imprisoned, he wrote L'Homme de ma colline which has been acclaimed as the first Burundian novel but which remained unpublished in his lifetime. He was among a number of influential Hutus killed in the genocidal violence of 1972 instigated by the Micombero regime.
Burundi, officially the Republic of Burundi, is a landlocked country in the Great Rift Valley where the African Great Lakes region and East Africa converge. It is bordered by Rwanda to the north, Tanzania to the east and southeast, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west; Lake Tanganyika lies along its southwestern border. The capital cities are Gitega and Bujumbura.
Ethnic groups in Burundi include the three main indigenous groups of Hutu, Tutsi and Twa that have largely been emphasized in the study of the country's history due to their role in shaping it through conflict and consolidation. Burundi's ethnic make-up is similar to that of neighboring Rwanda. Additionally, recent immigration has also contributed to Burundi's ethnic diversity. Throughout the country's history, the relation between the ethnic groups has varied, largely depending on internal political, economic and social factors and also external factors such as colonialism. The pre-colonial era, despite having divisions between the three groups, saw greater ethnic cohesion and fluidity dependent on socioeconomic factors. During the colonial period under German and then Belgian rule, ethnic groups in Burundi experienced greater stratifications and solidification through biological arguments separating the groups and indirect colonial rule that increased group tensions. The post-independence Burundi has experienced recurring inter-ethnic violence especially in the political arena that has, in turn, spilled over to society at large leading to many casualties throughout the decades. The Arusha Agreement served to end the decades-long ethnic tensions, and the Burundian government has stated commitment to creating ethnic cohesion in the country since, yet recent waves of violence and controversies under the Pierre Nkurunziza leadership have worried some experts of potential resurfacing of ethnic violence. Given the changing nature of ethnicity and ethnic relations in the country, many scholars have approached the topic theoretically to come up with primordial, constructivist and mixed arguments or explanations on ethnicity in Burundi.
The 1996 Burundian coup d'état was a military coup d'état that took place in Burundi on 25 July 1996. In the midst of the Burundi Civil War, former president Pierre Buyoya deposed Hutu President Sylvestre Ntibantunganya. According to Amnesty International, in the weeks following the coup, more than 6,000 people were killed in the country. This was Buyoya's second successful coup, having overthrown Jean-Baptiste Bagaza in 1987.
On 18–19 October 1965, a group of ethnic Hutu officers from the Burundian military attempted to overthrow Burundi's government in a coup d'état. The rebels were angry about the apparent favouring of ethnic Tutsi minority by Burundi's monarchy after a period of escalating ethnic tension following national independence from Belgium in 1962. Although the Prime Minister was shot and wounded, the coup failed and soon provoked a backlash against Hutu in which thousands of people, including the participants in the coup, were killed. The coup also facilitated a militant Tutsi backlash against the moderate Tutsi monarchy resulting in two further coups which culminated in the abolition of Burundi's historic monarchy in November 1966 and the rise of Michel Micombero as dictator.
The Ikiza or the Ubwicanyi (Killings) was a genocide which was committed in Burundi in 1972 by the Tutsi-dominated army and government against the Hutus who lived in the country. Conservative estimates place the death toll of the genocide between 100,000 and 150,000 killed, while some estimates of the genocide's death toll go as high as 300,000.
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