Archbishopric of Riga
|Status||Prince-Bishopric of Terra Mariana|
|Common languages|| Latin |
|Archbishop of Riga|
|Albert Suerbeer (first)|
|Wilhelm von Brandenburg (last)|
|Historical era||Middle Ages|
|Currency||Livonian Penny |
|History of Latvia|
The Archbishopric of Riga (Latin : Archiepiscopatus Rigensis, Low German : Erzbisdom Riga) was an archbishopric in Medieval Livonia, a subject to the Holy See. It was established in 1186 as the bishopric of Livonia at Ikšķile, then after moving to Riga it became the bishopric of Riga in 1202 and was elevated to an archbishopric in 1255.
The archbishops of Riga were also the secular rulers of Riga until 1561 when during the Reformation the territory converted from Catholicism to Lutheranism and all church territories were secularized. The see was restored as a diocese of the Catholic Church in 1918 and raised into an archdiocese in 1923.
|Bishopric of Livonia|
(Bishopric of Üxküll)
|1196–1198||Berthold of Hanover|
|1199–1202||Albert of Riga|
|Bishopric of Riga|
|1202–1229||Albert of Riga|
|1229–1253||Nikolaus von Nauen|
|Archbishopric of Riga|
|1273–1284||Johannes I of Lune|
|1285–1294||Johannes II of Vechten|
|1294–1300||Johannes III of Schwerin|
|1300–1302||Isarnus Tacconi of Fontiès-d'Aude|
|1303–1310|| Jens Grand |
titular, never came to Riga
|1304–1341||Friedrich von Pernstein|
|1341–1347||Engelbert von Dolen|
|1348–1369||Bromhold von Vyffhusen|
|1374–1393||Johannes IV von Sinten|
|1393–1418||Johannes V von Wallenrodt|
|1418–1424||Johannes VI Ambundi|
|1479–1484||Sede vacante (empty seat)|
|1524–1527||Johannes VII Blankenfeld|
|1539–1563||Wilhelm von Brandenburg|
A new Bishopric of Livonia was established in Latgalia in 1621 during the Inflanty Voivodeship of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The Archbishops of Riga were innovators in the field of minting currency, reviving techniques abandoned since the collapse of Rome. The names of individual archbishops after 1418, as well as the years of their respective reigns, are stamped on Livonian pennies excavated at archaeological sites. In many cases, this is the only biographical data available. No Livonian pennies before 1418 have been found.
Livonia is a historical region on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea. It is named after the Livonians, who lived on the shores of present-day Latvia.
The Northern Crusades or Baltic Crusades were Christian colonization and Christianization campaigns undertaken by Catholic Christian military orders and kingdoms, primarily against the pagan Baltic, Finnic and West Slavic peoples around the southern and eastern shores of the Baltic Sea, and to a lesser extent also against Orthodox Christian Slavs.
A prince-bishop is a bishop who is also the civil ruler of some secular principality and sovereignty. Since 1951, the sole extant prince-bishop has been the Bishop of Urgell, Catalonia, who has remained ex officio one of two co-princes of Andorra, along with the French President.
Swedish Livonia was a dominion of the Swedish Empire from 1629 until 1721. The territory, which constituted the southern part of modern Estonia and the northern part of modern Latvia, represented the conquest of the major part of the Polish-Lithuanian Duchy of Livonia during the 1600–1629 Polish-Swedish War. Parts of Livonia and the city of Riga were under Swedish control as early as 1621 and the situation was formalized in the Truce of Altmark 1629, but the whole territory was not ceded formally until the Treaty of Oliva in 1660. The minority part of the Wenden Voivodeship retained by the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth was renamed the Inflanty Voivodeship, which today corresponds to the Latgale region of Latvia.
Saare County is one of 15 counties of Estonia. It consists of Saaremaa, the largest island of Estonia, and several smaller islands near it, most notably Muhu, Ruhnu, Abruka and Vilsandi. The county borders Lääne County to the east, Hiiu County to the north, and Latvia to the south. In January 2013 Saare County had a population of 30,966, which was 2.4% of the population of Estonia.
William of Modena, also known as William of Sabina, Guglielmo de Chartreaux, Guglielmo de Savoy, Guillelmus, was an Italian clergyman and papal diplomat. He was frequently appointed a legate, or papal ambassador by the popes Honorius III and Gregory IX, especially in Livonia in the 1220s and in the Prussian questions of the 1240s. Eventually he resigned his see to devote himself to these diplomatic issues. On 28 May 1244 he was created Cardinal-Bishop of Sabina by Pope Innocent IV. For a short time (1219–1222) he served also as Vice-Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church.
The Livonian War (1558–1583) was fought for control of Old Livonia. The Tsardom of Russia faced a varying coalition of the Dano-Norwegian Realm, the Kingdom of Sweden, and the Union of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland.
The Bishopric of Ösel–Wiek was a Roman Catholic diocese and semi-independent prince-bishopric in the Holy Roman Empire, covering what are now Saare, Hiiu, Lääne counties and the western part of Pärnu county of Estonia.
Woltervon Plettenberg was the Master (Landmeister) of the Livonian Order from 1494 to 1535 and one of the greatest leaders of the Teutonic knights. He was an important early Baltic German.
The Diocese of Lund is a former Catholic diocese that, at the time of the Danish Reformation, became a diocese in the Lutheran Church of Denmark. Since the signing of the treaty of Roskilde in 1658 it has been the southernmost diocese in the Lutheran Church of Sweden.
Koknese is a town in Aizkraukle Municipality in the Vidzeme region of Latvia, on the right bank of the Daugava River. It has a population of nearly 3,000.
Cesvaine is a town in Madona Municipality, Vidzeme Region, Latvia. It is home to the Cesvaine Palace, built in 1896 near the ruins of previous medieval castles.
The Bishopric of Courland was the second smallest (4500 km2) ecclesiastical state in the Livonian Confederation founded in the aftermath of the Livonian Crusade. During the Livonian War in 1559 the bishopric became a possession of Denmark, and in 1585 sold by Denmark to Poland–Lithuania.
The Bishropic of Reval was a Latin Church ecclesiastical territory or diocese of the Catholic Church in Reval, Duchy of Estonia created by Valdemar II of Denmark in 1240. Contradictory to canon law, Valdemar II reserved the right to appoint the bishops of Reval to himself and his successor kings of Denmark. The decision to simply nominate the see of Reval was unique in the whole Catholic Church at the time and was disputed by bishops and the Pope. During the era, the election of bishops was never established in Reval and the royal rights to the bishopric and to nominate the bishops was even included in the treaty when the territories of the Duchy of Estonia were sold to Teutonic Order in 1346.
The Livonian crusade refers to the various military Christianisation campaigns in medieval Livonia – in what is now Latvia and Estonia – during the Papal-sanctioned Northern Crusades in the 12-13th century. The Livonian crusade was conducted mostly by the Holy Roman Empire and the Kingdom of Denmark. It ended with the creation of Terra Mariana and the Danish duchy of Estonia. The lands on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea were one of the last parts of Europe to be Christianised.
Mõtsa Pūol or Metsepole was an ancient Livonian county inhabited by the Finnic Livonians, on the east coast of the Gulf of Riga, at the northwest of what is now the Vidzeme region of Latvia. Metsepole was bordered by the ancient Estonian Sakala County to the north, Latgalian Tālava to the east and Livonian county of Turaida to the south.
Lielvārde Castle is a castle in Lielvārde, a town in Ogre Municipality in the Vidzeme region of Latvia. Castle has been built at the steep bank of Daugava River, overseeing this important medieval waterway. Built before 1248 by Albert of Buxthoeven, an archbishop of Riga. During the Livonian War, Lielvārde Castle was destroyed by Russian troops in 1579. Conserved ruins up to the level of second floor.
Thomas Schöning was Archbishop of Riga. He was a member of a prominent Riga burgher family and son of Johann Schöning. He studied at the University of Rostock between 1499 and 1500. Schöning was notable for the dating of coins. During his reign from 1528 to 1539, mark, shilling, and pfenning coins from Riga bore the family shield of Thomas Schöning.
Terra Mariana was the official name for Medieval Livonia or Old Livonia. It was formed in the aftermath of the Livonian Crusade, and its territories were composed of present-day Estonia and Latvia. It was established on 2 February 1207, as a principality of the Holy Roman Empire, but lost this status in 1215 when Pope Innocent III proclaimed it as directly subject to the Holy See.