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|Bavarian State Orchestra|
|Principal conductor||Kirill Petrenko|
The Bavarian State Orchestra (German: Bayerisches Staatsorchester) is the orchestra of the Bavarian State Opera in Munich, Germany. It has given its own series of concerts, the Akademiekonzerte, since 1811.
The Bavarian State Opera is an opera company based in Munich, Germany. Its orchestra is the Bavarian State Orchestra. The company's home base is the National Theatre Munich.
Munich is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria, the second most populous German federal state. With a population of around 1.5 million, it is the third-largest city in Germany, after Berlin and Hamburg, as well as the 12th-largest city in the European Union. The city's metropolitan region is home to 6 million people. Straddling the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps, it is the seat of the Bavarian administrative region of Upper Bavaria, while being the most densely populated municipality in Germany. Munich is the second-largest city in the Bavarian dialect area, after the Austrian capital of Vienna.
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, and the Alps, Lake Constance and the High Rhine to the south. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, and Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands to the west.
On 9 December 2011, this ensemble celebrated the 200th anniversary of its first concert as a full symphony orchestra, and specifically the founding (in 1811) of the Musikalische Akademie.
Its origins stretch back, however, to 1523 and the times of composer Ludwig Senfl, when sacred music was the focus of work. The musicians achieved renown across Europe, the more so after 1563 and the appointment of Belgian master polyphonist Orlande de Lassus as maestro di cappella.
Ludwig Senfl was a Swiss composer of the Renaissance, active in Germany. He was the most famous pupil of Heinrich Isaac, was music director to the court of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, and was an influential figure in the development of the Franco-Flemish polyphonic style in Germany.
Orlande de Lassus was a composer of the late Renaissance, chief representative of the mature polyphonic style of the Franco-Flemish school, and considered to be one of the three most famous and influential musicians in Europe at the end of the 16th century.
In 1653 the first opera performances took place in Munich, adding to and greatly realigning the musicians' activities. In 1762 the ensemble was titled Hoforchester: orchestra to the Bavarian Court, a position it already effectively held. Sixteen years later, just after Karl Theodor of Mannheim became Duke of Bavaria and shifted his court to Munich, 33 musicians of the famous Mannheim orchestra — the prototype of all modern symphony orchestras — followed their boss, injecting new levels of precision into the Hoforchester.
Opera is a form of theatre in which music has a leading role and the parts are taken by singers, but is distinct from musical theater. Such a "work" is typically a collaboration between a composer and a librettist and incorporates a number of the performing arts, such as acting, scenery, costume, and sometimes dance or ballet. The performance is typically given in an opera house, accompanied by an orchestra or smaller musical ensemble, which since the early 19th century has been led by a conductor.
Charles Theodore reigned as Prince-elector and Count Palatine from 1742, as Duke of Jülich and Berg from 1742 and also as prince-elector and Duke of Bavaria from 1777 to his death. He was a member of the House of Palatinate-Sulzbach, a branch of the House of Wittelsbach.
In 1781 Mozart conducted the musicians in the world premiere of his opera Idomeneo , written in Munich. During the 1860s the orchestra, by then an integral part of the Hofoper (Court Opera), gave the world premieres of the Wagner operas Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg , Tristan und Isolde , and Das Rheingold , followed in 1870 by Die Walküre . Hans von Bülow was active as conductor at that time. Upon the German Revolution of 1918–1919 the name changed again, to its present form, reflecting the demise of the Bavarian monarchy.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the classical era.
Idomeneo, re di Creta ossia Ilia e Idamante is an Italian language opera seria by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. The libretto was adapted by Giambattista Varesco from a French text by Antoine Danchet, which had been set to music by André Campra as Idoménée in 1712. Mozart and Varesco were commissioned in 1780 by Karl Theodor, Elector of Bavaria for a court carnival. He probably chose the subject, though it might have been Mozart. The work premiered on 29 January 1781 at the Cuvilliés Theatre in Munich, Germany.
Wilhelm Richard Wagner was a German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor who is chiefly known for his operas. Unlike most opera composers, Wagner wrote both the libretto and the music for each of his stage works. Initially establishing his reputation as a composer of works in the romantic vein of Carl Maria von Weber and Giacomo Meyerbeer, Wagner revolutionised opera through his concept of the Gesamtkunstwerk, by which he sought to synthesise the poetic, visual, musical and dramatic arts, with music subsidiary to drama. He described this vision in a series of essays published between 1849 and 1852. Wagner realised these ideas most fully in the first half of the four-opera cycle Der Ring des Nibelungen.
The Bavarian State Orchestra is today part of the Bavarian State Opera company, Germany's largest, which it serves as pit ensemble, based in Munich's Nationaltheater. Its main conductor has the title of Generalmusikdirektor (GMD) of the company. Richard Strauss, Bruno Walter, Hans Knappertsbusch, Clemens Krauss, Ferenc Fricsay, Joseph Keilberth, and Wolfgang Sawallisch have served in this position. The orchestra had a long and successful cooperation (1968–1997) with Carlos Kleiber, though he never served as GMD. Zubin Mehta held the post from 1998 to 2006. He was succeeded by Kent Nagano, who was replaced by Kirill Petrenko in September 2013.
The National Theatre on Max-Joseph-Platz in Munich, Germany, is a historic opera house, home of the Bavarian State Opera, Bavarian State Orchestra and the Bavarian State Ballet.
Generalmusikdirektor is a German title for the artistic director of an orchestra, an institution or a town.
Richard Georg Strauss was a leading German composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras. He is known for his operas, which include Der Rosenkavalier, Elektra, Die Frau ohne Schatten and Salome; his Lieder, especially his Four Last Songs; his tone poems, including Don Juan, Death and Transfiguration, Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks, Also sprach Zarathustra, Ein Heldenleben, Symphonia Domestica, and An Alpine Symphony; and other instrumental works such as Metamorphosen and his Oboe Concerto. Strauss was also a prominent conductor in Western Europe and the Americas, enjoying quasi-celebrity status as his compositions became standards of orchestral and operatic repertoire.
The orchestra is one of seven (7) such professional bodies in the city of Munich, its neighbors being the orchestra of the Staatstheater am Gärtnerplatz, the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra, the Münchner Rundfunkorchester (a second radio ensemble), the Munich Philharmonic (operated by the City at its controversial Gasteig venue), the Munich Symphony Orchestra, and the smaller-scale "MKO" or Münchener Kammerorchester.
The Staatstheater am Gärtnerplatz, commonly called the Gärtnerplatztheater, is an opera house and opera company in Munich. Designed by Michael Reiffenstuel, it opened on 4 November 1865 as the city's second major theatre after the National Theatre.
The Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra is based in Munich, Germany, one of two full-size symphony orchestras operated under the auspices of Bayerischer Rundfunk, or Bavarian Broadcasting (BR). Its primary concert venues are the Philharmonie am Gasteig and the Herkulessaal in the Residenz.
The Munich Philharmonic is a German symphony orchestra located in the city of Munich. It is one of Munich's four principal orchestras, along with the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra, the Munich Radio Orchestra and the Bavarian State Orchestra. Since 1985, the orchestra has been housed in the Gasteig culture centre.
Wolfgang Sawallisch was a German conductor and pianist.
Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau was a German lyric baritone and conductor of classical music, one of the most famous Lieder performers of the post-war period, best known as a singer of Franz Schubert's Lieder, particularly "Winterreise" of which his recordings with accompanist Gerald Moore and Jörg Demus are still critically acclaimed half a century after their release.
Helen Jeanette Donath is an American soprano with a career spanning fifty years.
Elisabeth Schilz Grümmer was a German soprano. She has been described as "a singer blessed with elegant musicality, warm-hearted sincerity, and a voice of exceptional beauty".
Marjana Lipovšek (mezzo-soprano) is an opera and concert singer. The daughter of composer Marijan Lipovšek, she was born on December 3, 1946. in Ljubljana, Slovenia. She retired in 2017 and now she rests in her family house in Ljubljana.
Ferenc Fricsay was a Hungarian conductor. From 1960 until his death, he was an Austrian citizen.
Ramón Vinay was a famous Chilean operatic tenor with a powerful, dramatic voice. He is probably best remembered for his appearances in the title role of Giuseppe Verdi's tragic opera Otello.
Gerhard Stolze was a German operatic tenor.
Horst Walter Stein was a German conductor.
Ludwig Weber was an Austrian bass.
Bernd Aldenhoff was a German Heldentenor.
The Philharmonisches Staatsorchester Hamburg is an internationally renowned symphony orchestra based in Hamburg. As of 2015, Kent Nagano has been General Music Director (Generalmusikdirektor) and chief conductor (Chefdirigent). The Philharmoniker Hamburg also serves as the orchestra of the Hamburg State Opera. The Hamburg Philharmonic is one of three major orchestras in Hamburg, the others being the Hamburger Symphoniker and the NDR Elbphilharmonie Orchestra.
Hans Hopf was a German operatic tenor, one of the leading heldentenors of the immediate postwar period. He sang Walther von Stolzing in the Bayreuth Festival's Die Meistersinger, in 1951 and again in 1952. He would also sing Siegfried at Bayreuth from 1960–1963.
Ira Malaniuk was an Austrian operatic contralto of Ukrainian descent, who sang a wide range of roles from Mozart to contemporary works.
Taras Konoshchenko is a Ukrainian operatic bass. The winner of numerous vocal competitions, Konoshchenko has performed in concerts in Europe, the United States, Canada, and South America.
Kirill Garrievich Petrenko is a Russian-Austrian conductor, currently the Generalmusikdirektor of the Bavarian State Opera, and the chief conductor of the Berlin Philharmonic as of the 2019–2020 season, succeeding Sir Simon Rattle.
The Meiningen Court Orchestra is one of the oldest and most traditional orchestras in Europe. Since 1952 the now 68-member orchestra has been affiliated to the Meiningen Court Theatre and in addition to their opera performances regularly give symphony concerts and youth concerts. The incumbent music director (GMD) is Philippe Bach.
The Summer Music Festival at Ebrach in Franconia (Germany) was established in 1990 by Gerd Schaller, who conducts it and is its artistic director.
Kieth Engen was an American operatic bass who was a member of Munich's Bavarian State Opera for decades. Although his career was based in Munich, he appeared internationally as a guest singer at major opera houses and festivals and performed and recorded many of Bach's Passion oratorios and cantatas, primarily with the conductor Karl Richter. He was born Keith Sheldon Engen in Frazee, Minnesota, and died in Murnau am Staffelsee, Germany at the age of 79. He was given the title of Kammersänger in 1962 and was a recipient of the Bavarian Order of Merit. In the mid-1950s he also had a brief parallel career as a pop singer under the pseudonym Stan Oliver.