A dispatcher training simulator (DTS), also known as an operator training simulator (OTS), is a computer-based training system for operators (known as dispatchers) of electrical power grids.It performs this role by simulating the behaviour of the electrical network forming the power system under various operating conditions, and its response to actions by the dispatchers. Student dispatchers may therefore develop their skills from exposure not only to routine operations but also to adverse operational situations without compromising the security of supply on a real transmission system.
Early simulations modelled the transmission system with banks of analog computers linked by scaled-down representations of the interconnecting lines. The operator would simulate the operation of circuit breakers by physically operating their miniature replicas. As transmission systems grew in size and complexity, they could no longer be adequately represented in this manner, and computerised simulations came to the fore.
A modern DTS combines or simulates the following elements:
A DTS is frequently purchased by a customer (such as a transmission system operator) at the same time and from the same manufacturer as an energy management system, and is usually designed to mimic it as closely as possible. Operational scenarios are created on the DTS to represent the operator's transmission system under a variety of conditions.These may represent normal operating conditions, or be specially designed to test the student's responses to adverse circumstances, such as frequent line trips during severe weather. The DTS is administered by a team of instructors, who select scenarios and simulate operational events, monitoring the trainee's actions in response.
Scenarios may also represent circumstances that the system operator hopes never occur, such as complete system shut-down, and allow it to develop strategies for restoration of service (known as black start).
Deficiencies in operator training were identified as a contributory cause of the 2003 North American blackout, a factor similarly connected to earlier power failures. The joint US-Canadian task force investigating the incident recommended mandatory periods of simulation time for operators, and validation of the models against actual system characteristics.
To enable the training simulator to respond as realistically as possible to the student's actions, the power flow study at its heart must run on a frequent time basis, such as every few seconds. The simulation may model electrical networks consisting of many thousands of nodes and containing several hundred generating units.
Electric power transmission is the bulk movement of electrical energy from a generating site, such as a power plant, to an electrical substation. The interconnected lines which facilitate this movement are known as a transmission network. This is distinct from the local wiring between high-voltage substations and customers, which is typically referred to as electric power distribution. The combined transmission and distribution network is part of electricity delivery, known as the "power grid" in North America, or just "the grid". In the United Kingdom, India, Tanzania, Myanmar, Malaysia and New Zealand, the network is known as the National Grid.
A simulation is an approximate imitation of the operation of a process or system; that represents its operation over time.
DTS or DTs may refer to:
A power outage is the loss of the electrical power network supply to an end user.
A substation is a part of an electrical generation, transmission, and distribution system. Substations transform voltage from high to low, or the reverse, or perform any of several other important functions. Between the generating station and consumer, electric power may flow through several substations at different voltage levels. A substation may include transformers to change voltage levels between high transmission voltages and lower distribution voltages, or at the interconnection of two different transmission voltages.
An energy management system (EMS) is a system of computer-aided tools used by operators of electric utility grids to monitor, control, and optimize the performance of the generation or transmission system. Also, it can be used in small scale systems like microgrids.
A Transmission System Operator (TSO) is an entity entrusted with transporting energy in the form of natural gas or electrical power on a national or regional level, using fixed infrastructure. The term is defined by the European Commission. The certification procedure for Transmission System Operators is listed in Article 10 of the Electricity and Gas Directives of 2009.
Power-system protection is a branch of electrical power engineering that deals with the protection of electrical power systems from faults through the disconnection of faulted parts from the rest of the electrical network. The objective of a protection scheme is to keep the power system stable by isolating only the components that are under fault, whilst leaving as much of the network as possible still in operation. Thus, protection schemes must apply a very pragmatic and pessimistic approach to clearing system faults. The devices that are used to protect the power systems from faults are called protection devices.
Electronic circuit simulation uses mathematical models to replicate the behavior of an actual electronic device or circuit. Simulation software allows for modeling of circuit operation and is an invaluable analysis tool. Due to its highly accurate modeling capability, many colleges and universities use this type of software for the teaching of electronics technician and electronics engineering programs. Electronics simulation software engages its users by integrating them into the learning experience. These kinds of interactions actively engage learners to analyze, synthesize, organize, and evaluate content and result in learners constructing their own knowledge.
Simulation software is based on the process of modeling a real phenomenon with a set of mathematical formulas. It is, essentially, a program that allows the user to observe an operation through simulation without actually performing that operation. Simulation software is used widely to design equipment so that the final product will be as close to design specs as possible without expensive in process modification. Simulation software with real-time response is often used in gaming, but it also has important industrial applications. When the penalty for improper operation is costly, such as airplane pilots, nuclear power plant operators, or chemical plant operators, a mock up of the actual control panel is connected to a real-time simulation of the physical response, giving valuable training experience without fear of a disastrous outcome.
The U.S. Army Prime Power School is run by the United States Army Corps of Engineers at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri since January 2011, having previously moved from Fort Belvoir, Virginia. The mission of the school is to produce MOS 12P – Prime Power Production Specialists for the U.S. Army.
In electrical power engineering, power systems CAD is computer-aided design (CAD) software that is used to design and simulate electrical power systems in commercial and industrial buildings.
Electrical power system simulation involves power system modeling and network simulation in order to analyze electrical power systems using design/offline or real-time data. Power system simulation software's are a class of computer simulation programs that focus on the operation of electrical power systems. These types of computer programs are used in a wide range of planning and operational situations for:
Load management, also known as demand-side management (DSM), is the process of balancing the supply of electricity on the network with the electrical load by adjusting or controlling the load rather than the power station output. This can be achieved by direct intervention of the utility in real time, by the use of frequency sensitive relays triggering the circuit breakers, by time clocks, or by using special tariffs to influence consumer behavior. Load management allows utilities to reduce demand for electricity during peak usage times, which can, in turn, reduce costs by eliminating the need for peaking power plants. In addition, some peaking power plants can take more than an hour to bring on-line which makes load management even more critical should a plant go off-line unexpectedly for example. Load management can also help reduce harmful emissions, since peaking plants or backup generators are often dirtier and less efficient than base load power plants. New load-management technologies are constantly under development — both by private industry and public entities.
An electrical grid, electric grid or power grid, is an interconnected network for delivering electricity from producers to consumers. It consists of:
Real Time Digital Simulator or RTS as the abbreviation recommended by IEEE committee on real-time simulator applied for power systems provides power systems simulation technology for fast, reliable, accurate and cost-effective study of power systems with complex High Voltage Alternating Current (HVAC) and High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) networks. The RTS is a fully digital electromagnetic transient power system simulator that operates in real time.
The 2006 European blackout was a major blackout which occurred on Saturday, November 4, 2006. More than 15 million clients of the Union for the Co-ordination of Transmission of Electricity (UCTE) did not have access to electricity during about two hours on this date. The continent was in total disarray, dozens of people were trapped in elevators, numerous trains were halted, and the emergency services were receiving an overwhelming number of calls. The immediate action taken by the Transmission System Operators (TSO) prevented the disturbance from turning into a Europe-wide blackout.
In the recent years, utilization of electrical energy increased exponentially and customer requirement and quality definitions of power were changed enormously. As the electric energy became an essential part of the daily life, its optimal usage and reliability became important. Real-time network view and dynamic decisions have become instrumental for optimizing resources and managing demands, thus making a distribution management system which could handle proper work flows, very critical.
An Operator Training Simulator (OTS) is a computer-based training system that uses a dynamic simulation model of an industrial process, usually integrated with an emulator of the process plant's Distributed Control System (DCS).
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