|Fall of Plered|
|Part of Trunajaya rebellion|
|Mataram Sultanate||Forces of Trunajaya|
|Commanders and leaders|
King Amangkurat I (Died during retreat)
The Fall of Plered (also spelled Pleret) was the capture of the capital of the Mataram Sultanate by the rebel forces loyal to Trunajaya in late June 1677. The attack on Plered followed a series of rebel victory, notably in the Battle of Gegodog and the fall of most of Mataram's northern coast. The aged and sick King Amangkurat I and his sons offered an ineffective defense, and the rebel overran the capital on or around 28 June. The capital was plundered and its wealth taken to the rebel capital in Kediri. The loss of the capital led to the collapse of the Mataram government and the flight of the royal family. The king fled with his son the crown prince and a small retinue to Tegal and died there, passing the kingship to the crown prince, now titled Amangkurat II, without any army or treasury.
The Trunajaya rebellion began in 1674 as raids by the rebel forces against the cities of the Mataram Sultanate.In 1676, a rebel army of 9,000 invaded Java from their base in Madura. They routed a much larger royal army in the Battle of Gegodog in northeast Java (October 1676), took most of Java's north coast and campaigned successfully in the interior central and east Java. In the same year, the rebels arrived at Taji, the eastern entrance to the capital district, and was joined by the men of Raden Kajoran, Trunajaya's powerful father-in-law. The combined forces was defeated by loyalist forces led by Mataram's royal princes, but Kajoran escaped and joined Trunajaya. Despite the defeat, Kajoran continued to cause trouble for Mataram in districts east of the capital. In early 1677, the Dutch East India Company (VOC) in Batavia decided to ally itself with Mataram. A fleet led by Cornelis Speelman sailed to Trunajaya's capital in Surabaya in April, northeastern coast of Java, and took the city after hard fighting in May. Following the defeat, Trunajaya retreated inland, establishing a new capital in Kediri.
Amangkurat I's father and predecessor Sultan Agung built an artificial lake in an area which became known as Plered, east of his court at Karta.In 1647, shortly after taking the throne, Amangkurat built his royal residence near the lake and moved the court there. In contrast to Karta, which was made of wood, the royal compound at Plered was built of brick. Amangkurat continued to expand this complex up to 1666.
According to Jacob Couper, a VOC envoy to Mataram, in March 1677 the rule of King Amangkurat I was visibly collapsing.The king was ill and his four eldest sons, the crown prince (later Amangkurat II), Pangeran Puger (later Pakubuwana I), Pangeran Martasana and Pangeran Singasari were manoeuvring for power. The royal guards, as well as the guards of the princes were available for defending of the capital, but disunity among the four princes prevented an effective defense.
Rebel forces in this sector consisted of Madurese troops, as well as Javanese forces from East Java and central northern coast.They were led by Raden Kajoran, the head of the important and powerful family in the area (Kajoran is in today's Magelang Regency). The Kajoran family was interrelated by marriage to the royal family, but he was alarmed at the king's brutality which had resulted in the death of many noblemen at court. Raden Kajoran was also the father-in-law of Trunajaya. The forces of Pangeran Purbaya, the king's cousin, also joined the rebels. The crown prince later identified the forces who overran Mataram to be from Madiun, Pati, Kudus and Grobogan and the men of Kajoran and Purbaya.
Kajoran renewed military operations in the capital district in April 1677.The accounts of the military operations are unclear, but in June royal forces, under command of King Amangkurat I's four eldest sons (the crown prince as well as Pangeran Puger, Pangeran Martasana and Pangeran Singasari) were defeated in battle after heavy fighting. The king himself was aged and grievously ill and unable to lead his troops. Superior rebel operations, and the lack of unity among the princes contributed to the rebel victory. In addition, the king's cousin Pangeran Purbaya, defected to the rebel side along with his followers, and the loyal princes were unable to rally their people to fight.
The capital was now "beyond defending".Conflict arose between the crown prince and his brother Pangeran Puger. The king put Puger in charge of the defense of the capital, awarding him the title Susuhunan Ingalaga ("king on the field of battle").
Amid anarchy and panic, the king fled the court, in the middle of the night, possibly on or around 28 June, with a small retinue.Soon afterwards, rebel forces entered and sacked the court. The demoralized defenders under Puger soon fled. Rebels entered and plundered the compound of the king, and those of the absent princes, accompanied by much fire-raising. The royal treasury of at least 300,000 Spanish reals were taken by rebels.
Sources disagree on the details of the royal family's flight. According to the Dutch historian H. J. de Graaf, the king and his sons fled separately.Among his sons, the king encountered Puger and Singasari, who refused to come with him and later the crown prince, who did. According to Javanese accounts, the king instructed Puger, Singasari and Martasana to form a new defence to the west of the capital, while he took the crown prince and a younger son Pangeran Arya Mataram travelling northwest. The king travelled through areas not yet under rebel control: west through Bagelen, then the mountainous region of Banyumas, and then north towards Tegal on the coast. He travelled in a palanquin due to his illness, and was unmolested save for (according to Javanese accounts), an attempted robbery by villagers of Karanganyar who were unaware of his identity.
According to de Graaf, he went to Tegal in order to meet with a VOC official on a ship but died on the way.According to the Javanese accounts, the aged and ill king, certain of his imminent death, went to Tegal because he wished to be buried there. Tegal was in his mother's country and he sent his officials ahead to built a grave for him in Tegalwangi, few kilometers south of the coast. As he laid dying, he ceremonially handed over the regalia to the crown prince, and instructed him to recapture the court with the Dutch's help. He then died, and his body was washed, prayed over and taken to the burial site in Tegalwangi. He was buried on 13 July and thirteen VOC soldiers from the ship off Tegal attended the burial. He was given the posthumous name Seda-ing-Tegalwangi ("He who died in Tegalwangi").
After his father's death, the crown prince became King Amangkurat II, but he had no court, no army and no treasury.He was accepted by the Javanese gentry and by VOC officials in Tegal, but could not establish his authority elsewhere in Java. The governor of Cirebon, a vassal of Mataram since 1660 refused to pay homage. His brother Pangeran Puger occupied the capital after the rebels left, and made a rival claim to the kingdom. Aware of his difficult position, the new king sailed to Jepara to meet with the VOC commander Speelman and renewed the Mataram-VOC alliance. In exchange for VOC assistance, he was obliged to promise a large sum of money and geopolitical concessions. The Trunajaya rebellion would continue until 1680 and Puger's pretension to the throne until 1681. Unable to take Plered from his brother, in 1680 Amangkurat II built a new capital in the district of Pajang, and called it Kartasura.
The Sultanate of Mataram was the last major independent Javanese kingdom on the island of Java before it was colonised by the Dutch. It was the dominant political force radiating from the interior of Central Java from the late 16th century until the beginning of the 18th century.
Amangkurat I was the sultan of Mataram from 1646 to 1677. He was the son of Sultan Agung Hanyokrokusumo. He experienced many rebellions during his reign. He died in exile in 1677, and buried in Tegalwangi, hence his posthumous title, Sunan Tegalwangi or Sunan Tegalarum. He was also nicknamed as Sunan Getek, because he was wounded when suppressing the rebellion of Raden Mas Alit, his own brother.
Amangkurat II was the Susuhunan of Mataram from 1677 to 1703. Prior to taking the throne, he was the crown prince and had the title Pangeran Adipati Anom.
Plered was the location of the palace of Amangkurat I of Mataram. Amangkurat moved the capital there from the nearby Karta in 1647. During the Trunajaya rebellion, the capital was occupied and sacked by the rebels, and Amangkurat died during the retreat from the capital. His son and successor Amangkurat II later moved the capital to Kartasura. It was twice occupied by Diponegoro, during the Java War (1825–1830) between his forces and the Dutch. The Dutch assaulted the walled complex in June 1826, which was Diponegoro's first major defeat in the war.
Surakarta Sunanate was a Javanese monarchy centred in the city of Surakarta, in the province of Central Java, Indonesia.
The First Javanese War of Succession was a struggle between Sultan Amangkurat III of Mataram and the Dutch East India Company who supported the claim of the Sultan's uncle, Pangeran Puger to the throne.
Trunajaya (Madurese) or Tronajâyâ, also known as Panembahan Maduretno, was a prince and warlord from Arosbaya, Bangkalan, Madura, known for leading a rebellion against the rulers of the Mataram Sultanate on the island of Java.
Pakubuwono I, uncle of Amangkurat III of Mataram was a combatant for the succession of the Mataram dynasty, in the First Javanese War of Succession.
Amangkurat III was a short-lived ruler of Sultan of Mataram, reigned 1703–1705.
Trunajaya rebellion or Trunajaya War was the ultimately unsuccessful rebellion waged by the Madurese prince Trunajaya and fighters from Makassar against the Mataram Sultanate and its Dutch East India Company (VOC) supporters in Java during the 1670s.
The Battle of Surabaya was fought in May 1677 during the Trunajaya rebellion, in which the Dutch East India Company defeated the forces of Trunajaya and took Surabaya on behalf of its ally, the Mataram Sultanate.
The Battle of Gegodog took place in 13 October 1676 during the Trunajaya rebellion, and resulted in the victory of the rebel forces over the Mataram army led by the Crown Prince Pangeran Adipati Anom. Gegodog is located in the northeastern coast of Java, east of Tuban.
After his victory at the Battle of Gegodog in northeast Java, the Madurese rebel leader Trunajaya proceeded westwards to conquer Mataram Sultanate's remaining towns on the north coast of Java. By January 1677, nearly all coastal towns from Surabaya to Cirebon were taken.
Pangeran Pekik was a Javanese prince, and son of the last Duke of Surabaya, Jayalengkara. After the Mataram conquest of Surabaya he was forced to live in Mataram court. He was executed in 1659 under the orders of Mataram's King Amangkurat I, who suspected him of conspiracy.
Raden Kajoran, also Panembahan Rama was a Javanese Muslim nobleman and a major leader of the Trunajaya rebellion against the Mataram Sultanate. He led the rebel forces which overran and sacked Plered, Mataram's capital in June 1677. In September 1679, his forces were defeated by the combined Dutch, Javanese, and Bugis forces under Sindu Reja and Jan Albert Sloot in a battle in Mlambang, near Pajang. Kajoran surrendered but was executed under Sloot's orders.
I Maninrori Kare Tojeng, also known as Karaeng Galesong, was a Makassarese nobleman and warrior, and a major leader of the Trunajaya rebellion in Java against the Mataram Sultanate. He participated in the successful invasion of East Java and the subsequent rebel victory at Battle of Gegodog (1676). He later broke out with Trunajaya, and built a stronghold in Kakaper, East Java. Dutch East India Company (VOC) and Bugis forces took Kakaper in October 1679, but Galesong escaped and rejoined Trunajaya. He died on 21 November 1679, either by illness or murdered by Trunajaya, before the rebellion ended.
The 1678 Kediri campaign took place from August to December 1678 in Kediri during the Trunajaya rebellion. The forces of the Mataram Sultanate, led by Amangkurat II, and the Dutch East India Company (VOC), led by Anthonio Hurdt, marched inland into eastern Java against Trunajaya's forces. After a series of marches beset by logistical difficulties and harassment by Trunajaya's forces, the Mataram–VOC army crossed the Brantas River on the night of 16–17 November. They then marched on Trunajaya's capital and stronghold at Kediri and took it by direct assault on 25 November. Kediri was plundered by the Dutch and Javanese victors, and the Mataram treasury—captured by Trunajaya after his victory at Plered—was completely lost in the looting. Trunajaya himself fled Kediri and continued his greatly weakened rebellion until his capture at the end of 1679.
Hermanus Johannes de Graaf was a Dutch historian specialising in the history of Java, Indonesia's most populous island. Trained as historian at Leiden University, he moved to Batavia to take a government job, and later became a teacher for various schools in Indonesia. At the same time, he pursued his interest in the history of Indonesia and published books and articles on the topic. After a brief assignment at the University of Indonesia, he returned to the Netherlands. He taught at various institutions, including Leiden, until 1967 and continued to publish scholarly works, even after his retirement. He suffered a serious stroke in 1982 and died two years later.
Anthonio Hurdt was a Dutch East India Company (VOC) officer active in what is now Indonesia in the seventeenth century. He was initially assigned in civilian positions in Eastern Indonesia, the latest of which was the VOC Governor of Ambon. He was then posted to Java—in Western Indonesia—to lead the Kediri campaign against Trunajaya. After a protracted march slowed by logistical challenges, VOC and its ally Mataram overran Trunajaya and took his stronghold and court at Kediri, 25 November 1678. After the campaign he served in Batavia, becoming Director-General of the VOC in the Indies from 1684 to 1687, when he was expelled due to a dispute with Governor-General Joannes Camphuys.
François Tack was a Dutch East India Company (VOC) officer. Ranked captain at the time of his death, he was one of the VOC's main commanders during the 1678 Kediri campaign against Trunajaya and participated in the city's assault. He was later killed during a brawl at the court of Mataram in Kartasura on 8 February 1686, where he was sent on a diplomatic mission.