Raden Kajoran

Last updated

Died14 September 1679
Cause of deathExecuted by the Dutch East India Company (VOC) [1] [2]
Other namesPanembahan Rama
Known forIslamic religious figure; participation in Trunajaya rebellion
TitleRaden, Panembahan
RelativesTrunajaya (son-in-law)

Raden Kajoran, also Panembahan Rama (died 14 September 1679) was a Javanese Muslim nobleman and a major leader of the Trunajaya rebellion against the Mataram Sultanate. He led the rebel forces which overran and sacked Plered, Mataram's capital in June 1677. [1] In September 1679, his forces were defeated by the combined Dutch, Javanese, and Bugis forces under Sindu Reja and Jan Albert Sloot in a battle in Mlambang, near Pajang. [2] [3] Kajoran surrendered but was executed under Sloot's orders. [2]


Ancestors and family

Kajoran  [ id ] is a settlement south of present-day Klaten, Central Java. [4] Raden is a title of Javanese nobility, and the title "Raden Kajoran" signified his status as the head of the ruling family there. [5] According to the Javanese tradition, Sayyid Kalkum, Raden Kajoran's great-grandfather was the first of his family to settle in Kajoran. [4] He was a younger brother of a holy man known as Sunan Tembayat, who was one of the first to introduce Islam to inland Central Java. [6] Kalkum came into control of extensive territories in Kajoran in the early 16th century. [4] The family was intermarried with the royal families of Pajang and Mataram. [4] By the time of Raden Kajoran, the family had become a powerful and influential family in Mataram, due to both their Islamic authority and royal marriage ties. [5] [7]


Before Trunajaya's rebellion

King Amangkurat I's reign saw the execution of many noblemen for suspicion of treachery, including the entire family of Pangeran Pekik (the former ruling dynasty of Surabaya) in 1659 and many members of the royal family at court during the 1660s. [8] This brutality alarmed Kajoran, who began to sympathize with the king's rivals. [6] When Trunajaya, a Madurese nobleman who were forced to live at court after his country's annexation, fled the court, Raden Kajoran took him in Kajoran as protégé and let him marry one of his daughters. [6] [7] He also encouraged a friendship between Trunajaya and the Crown Prince of Mataram (Pangeran Adipati Anom, future Amangkurat II) who also had a grudge against his father the king. [6]

Role in Trunajaya rebellion

The Trunajaya rebellion began in 1674 as Trunajaya's forces conducted raids against the cities under Mataram control. [9] Kajoran joined the rebellion since at least 1676 after Trunajaya's victory at Gegodog in October. [5] His knowledge of the internal Mataram affairs, as well as his reputation as a religious leader, provided support to Trunajaya and his Madurese warlords who were foreign to central Java. [4] [10]

He joined rebel troops marching towards Mataram's capital – led by Trunajaya's captains – at Taji, east of the capital. [5] These troops attacked the capital district (the district of Mataram) in January or February 1677 but was repulsed by loyalist troops led by the royal princes. [4] The defeated forces retreated to Surabaya, where Raden Kajoran joined his son-in-law Trunajaya. [4] [11] Subsequently, Mataram forces burned his district of Kajoran. [4] [11]

In April 1677, Kajoran started another attack on Mataram. [1] [12] His forces overran and sacked the capital Plered around 28 June 1677, marking the high point of the rebellion. [12] There was talk that the western part of Trunajaya's realm (roughly today's Central Java), were to be declared a kingdom ruled by Kajoran, but he preferred to take the position of a spiritual lord rather than a king. [13] Also, despite the proposal of dual rule, Trunajaya took all the treasuries captured from Plered for himself and denied it from Kajoran. [14]

The rebels later withdrew from the now-ruined capital and Raden Kajoran moved to Totombo, in the hills south of Trunajaya's capital at Kediri, East Java, at Trunajaya's summon. [13] [14] This move – leaving central Java to be closer to Trunajaya – and his lack of heir contributed to the decline of his prestige and his followers' loyalty. [14] However, his followers were still active in central Java, including the coastal districts (e.g. Jepara) and inland (in Pajang, bordering the capital district). [15] They mounted major offensives on the northern coast (also known as the Pasisir) in November 1677 and June–July 1678. [1] These activities frustrated both Mataram and its ally the Dutch East India Company (known by its Dutch acronym VOC), who also tried to establish a monopoly in the Pasisir. [13]

In November 1678, Kediri was taken by VOC-Mataram troops and Kajoran returned to Central Java and established his new base at Mlambang (in today's Gunungkidul Regency, Yogyakarta Special Region). [15] He allied himself with Raja Namrud or Nimrod, a Makassarese warlord who was active in central Java, and won some victories there between April and August 1679. [15] [1] However, on 14 September, a combined VOC-Mataram forces under Dutch Captain Jan Albert Sloot and Mataram leader Sindureja marched on his fortress at Mlambang. [16] The attack ended in VOC-Mataram victory, Kajoran surrendered but Sloot ordered his execution. [1] [2] Due to his reputation, no Javanese leader wanted to kill him, so Sloot ordered a Buginese to do it. [14]

After his death

Kajoran's followers continued the resistance against Mataram after his death and Trunajaya's death in January 1680. [2] They include members and relatives of the Kajoran family, religious men from Tembayat, and men from the Gunungkidul district. [2] Their leaders include Kartapada, Kartanadi and Kartanagara. [1]

Personal characters and other names

Raden Kajoran was also known as Panembahan Rama and reputed to be skilled in shakti (cosmic power) and tapa (ascetism). [7] Javanese chronicles called him "Raden Kajoran Ambalik" (Raden Kajoran the Deserter) due to his role in Trunajaya rebellion, [15] and Dutch admiral Cornelis Speelman (one of his opponents during the war) called him "that prophet of the devil". [7] Speelman also wrote that he taught his followers that "God and his Prophet will never bless the Javanese land again, as long as the kaffers [unbelievers, i.e. the Dutch] will be accepted there." [17]

Related Research Articles

Mataram Sultanate Historic kingdom on the island of Java, in present-day Indonesia (1587-1755)

The Sultanate of Mataram was the last major independent Javanese kingdom on the island of Java before it was colonised by the Dutch. It was the dominant political force radiating from the interior of Central Java from the late 16th century until the beginning of the 18th century.

Sultan Agung of Mataram Paduka Ingkang Sinuhun Kangjeng Sultan Agung Hadi Prabu Hanyakrakusuma

Sultan Hanyakrakusuma is known as Sultan Agung was the third Sultan of Mataram in Central Java ruling from 1613 to 1645. A skilled soldier he conquered neighbouring states and expanded and consolidated his kingdom to its greatest territorial and military power.

Amangkurat I of Mataram Sultan of Mataram, 1646–1677

Amangkurat I was the sultan of Mataram from 1646 to 1677. He was the son of Sultan Agung Hanyokrokusumo. He experienced many rebellions during his reign. He died in exile in 1677, and buried in Tegalwangi, hence his posthumous title, Sunan Tegalwangi or Sunan Tegalarum. He was also nicknamed as Sunan Getek, because he was wounded when suppressing the rebellion of Raden Mas Alit, his own brother.

Amangkurat II of Mataram Sultan of Mataram, 1677–1703

Amangkurat II was the Susuhunan of Mataram from 1677 to 1703. Prior to taking the throne, he was the crown prince and had the title Pangeran Adipati Anom.

Plered Location of former Javanese palace in Bantul, Indonesia

Plered was the location of the palace of Amangkurat I of Mataram. Amangkurat moved the capital there from the nearby Karta in 1647. During the Trunajaya rebellion, the capital was occupied and sacked by the rebels, and Amangkurat died during the retreat from the capital. His son and successor Amangkurat II later moved the capital to Kartasura. It was twice occupied by Diponegoro, during the Java War (1825–1830) between his forces and the Dutch. The Dutch assaulted the walled complex in June 1826, which was Diponegoro's first major defeat in the war.

Kartosuro is an Indonesian subdistrict (Kecamatan) in the Sukoharjo Regency, Central Java. Kartosuro is a Surakarta's satellite city, and a junction of Surabaya-Solo-Yogyakarta and Solo-Semarang highway. It can be reached within minutes southward of Surakarta's International Airport of Adi Sumarmo.

Surakarta Sunanate

Surakarta Sunanate was a Javanese monarchy centred in the city of Surakarta, in the province of Central Java, Indonesia.

Trunajaya (Madurese) or Tronajâyâ, also known as Panembahan Maduretno, was a prince and warlord from Arosbaya, Bangkalan, Madura, known for leading a rebellion against the rulers of the Mataram Sultanate on the island of Java.

Pakubuwono I, uncle of Amangkurat III of Mataram was a combatant for the succession of the Mataram dynasty, in the First Javanese War of Succession.

The Mataram conquest of Surabaya or Mataram-Surabaya War was a military campaign by the Sultanate of Mataram in the early 17th century that resulted in the capture of the Duchy of Surabaya and its allies in eastern Java, in modern-day Indonesia. Prior to this conquest, Mataram and Surabaya were rivals for power in central and eastern Java. The campaign began in 1614 when Mataram, under the leadership of Sultan Agung, attacked Surabaya's allies, including Wirasaba. Surabaya and its allies launched a counterattack but were defeated near Pajang in 1616. Over the next few years, Mataram gradually conquered members of the Surabayan alliance, and by 1620, the city of Surabaya itself was under siege, holding out until it surrendered in 1625. With this conquest, Mataram unified most of central and eastern Java under its control, and cemented its position as the dominant power in Java. Surabaya and other conquered areas would remain in Mataram's hands until it was ceded to the Dutch East India Company in 1743.

The Duchy of Surabaya was a Javanese principality centered in Surabaya, on the northeastern coast of Java, that existed as an independent polity from c. 1546 to 1625. It became independent following the disintegration of the Demak Sultanate, and by the beginning of the 17th century had become the leading power in east Java and the most important port on Java's northeastern coast. Subsequently, it entered into decades of conflict with the Mataram Sultanate that ended in the victory of Mataram and the fall of Surabaya in 1625.

Trunajaya rebellion 17th-century unsuccessful rebellion in Java

Trunajaya rebellion or Trunajaya War was the ultimately unsuccessful rebellion waged by the Madurese prince Trunajaya and fighters from Makassar against the Mataram Sultanate and its Dutch East India Company (VOC) supporters in Java during the 1670s.

Battle of Surabaya (1677) Battle during the Trunajaya rebellion

The Battle of Surabaya was fought in May 1677 during the Trunajaya rebellion, in which the Dutch East India Company defeated the forces of Trunajaya and took Surabaya on behalf of its ally, the Mataram Sultanate.

The Fall of Plered was the capture of the capital of the Mataram Sultanate by the rebel forces loyal to Trunajaya in late June 1677. The attack on Plered followed a series of rebel victory, notably in the Battle of Gegodog and the fall of most of Mataram's northern coast. The aged and sick King Amangkurat I and his sons offered an ineffective defense, and the rebel overran the capital on or around 28 June. The capital was plundered and its wealth taken to the rebel capital in Kediri. The loss of the capital led to the collapse of the Mataram government and the flight of the royal family. The king fled with his son the crown prince and a small retinue to Tegal and died there, passing the kingship to the crown prince, now titled Amangkurat II, without any army or treasury.

The Battle of Gegodog took place in 13 October 1676 during the Trunajaya rebellion, and resulted in the victory of the rebel forces over the Mataram army led by the Crown Prince Pangeran Adipati Anom. Gegodog is located in the northeastern coast of Java, east of Tuban.

After his victory at the Battle of Gegodog in northeast Java, the Madurese rebel leader Trunajaya proceeded westwards to conquer Mataram Sultanate's remaining towns on the north coast of Java. By January 1677, nearly all coastal towns from Surabaya to Cirebon were taken.

I Maninrori Kare Tojeng, also known as Karaeng Galesong, was a Makassarese nobleman and warrior, and a major leader of the Trunajaya rebellion in Java against the Mataram Sultanate. He participated in the successful invasion of East Java and the subsequent rebel victory at Battle of Gegodog (1676). He later broke out with Trunajaya, and built a stronghold in Kakaper, East Java. Dutch East India Company (VOC) and Bugis forces took Kakaper in October 1679, but Galesong escaped and rejoined Trunajaya. He died on 21 November 1679, either by illness or murdered by Trunajaya, before the rebellion ended.

1678 Kediri campaign Military campaign in which Mataram and VOC forces took Kediri from Trunajaya

The 1678 Kediri campaign took place from August to December 1678 in Kediri during the Trunajaya rebellion. The forces of the Mataram Sultanate, led by Amangkurat II, and the Dutch East India Company (VOC), led by Anthonio Hurdt, marched inland into eastern Java against Trunajaya's forces. After a series of marches beset by logistical difficulties and harassment by Trunajaya's forces, the Mataram–VOC army crossed the Brantas River on the night of 16–17 November. They then marched on Trunajaya's capital and stronghold at Kediri and took it by direct assault on 25 November. Kediri was plundered by the Dutch and Javanese victors, and the Mataram treasury—captured by Trunajaya after his victory at Plered—was completely lost in the looting. Trunajaya himself fled Kediri and continued his greatly weakened rebellion until his capture at the end of 1679.

Anthonio Hurdt was a Dutch East India Company (VOC) officer active in what is now Indonesia in the seventeenth century. He was initially assigned in civilian positions in Eastern Indonesia, the latest of which was the VOC Governor of Ambon. He was then posted to Java—in Western Indonesia—to lead the Kediri campaign against Trunajaya. After a protracted march slowed by logistical challenges, VOC and its ally Mataram overran Trunajaya and took his stronghold and court at Kediri, 25 November 1678. After the campaign he served in Batavia, becoming Director-General of the VOC in the Indies from 1684 to 1687, when he was expelled due to a dispute with Governor-General Joannes Camphuys.

François Tack

François Tack was a Dutch East India Company (VOC) officer. Ranked captain at the time of his death, he was one of the VOC's main commanders during the 1678 Kediri campaign against Trunajaya and participated in the city's assault. He was later killed during a brawl at the court of Mataram in Kartasura on 8 February 1686, where he was sent on a diplomatic mission.