Fort Croghan

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Fort Croghan
Historical Park Site

Fort Croghan outpost.jpg

Fort Croghan Outpost
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Location within Texas
Coordinates: 30°45′25″N98°14′15″W / 30.75694°N 98.23750°W / 30.75694; -98.23750 Coordinates: 30°45′25″N98°14′15″W / 30.75694°N 98.23750°W / 30.75694; -98.23750
Country United States
State Texas
County Burnet
U.S. Army Fort March 13, 1849
Elevation 1,329 ft (405 m)
Time zone Central (CST) (UTC-6)
  Summer (DST) MDT (UTC-5)
GNIS feature ID 1357583
One room school house now located at Ft. Croghan. Fort Croghan school.jpg
One room school house now located at Ft. Croghan.

Fort Croghan was the third of the first four forts established by the United States government to protect settlers from hostile Indians along the Texas frontier. From its establishment on March 18, 1849 by Lt. C.H. Taylor (Company A, Second Dragoons) until it was abandoned in 1855, [1] Fort Croghan was home to Company C, 8th Infantry, U.S.A. (mounted) and eventually became the headquarters of the Second Dragoon Regiment.

United States Federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.

Native Americans in the United States Indigenous peoples of the United States (except Hawaii)

Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii. There are over 500 federally recognized tribes within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations. The term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaska Natives, while Native Americans are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. Native Hawaiians are not counted as Native Americans by the US Census, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander".

Texas State of the United States of America

Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U.S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast.

Contents

Part of a chain of forts extending from Fort Worth to Fort Inge near present-day Uvalde, the fort was named for Colonel George Croghan. The fort originally covered some 50 acres (200,000 m2) near the present day city of Burnet, Texas, extending from Hamilton Creek up and over Post Mountain. Today a small section exists due to the efforts of the Burnet County Historical Society who raised money in the 1960s to purchase this portion of the old fort. [1]

Fort Worth, Texas City in Texas, United States

Fort Worth is the 15th-largest city in the United States and the fifth-largest city in the state of Texas. It is the county seat of Tarrant County, covering nearly 350 square miles (910 km2) into four other counties: Denton, Johnson, Parker and Wise. According to the 2017 census estimates, Fort Worth's population is 874,168. The city is the second-largest in the Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington metropolitan area, which is the 4th most populous metropolitan area in the United States.

Fort Inge

Fort Inge was a frontier fort in Uvalde County, Texas, United States.

Uvalde, Texas City in Texas, United States

Uvalde is a city in and the county seat of Uvalde County, Texas, United States. The population was 15,751 at the 2010 census.

Early history

In the 1840s, upon the annexation of Texas to the United States, the federal government became responsible for the protection of frontier settlers from Indian raids. Several companies of Texas Rangers, financed by the federal government, were stationed along the frontier. In December 1847, a company of Rangers under the command of Henry Eustace McCulloch took up a position about three miles (5 km) south of present-day Burnet. Samuel E. Holland purchased a 1,280-acre (5.2 km2) grant there in 1848, including the land on which the Ranger station was located. His residence built on that land is said to have been the first permanent home in Burnet County. 1. [2] The indigenous peoples of the Americas had occupied this region for thousands of years, but did not build or live in permanent homes, theirs being a migratory culture.

Annexation acquisition of a states territory by another state

Annexation is the administrative action and concept in international law relating to the forcible acquisition of one state's territory by another state. It is generally held to be an illegal act. It is distinct from conquest, which refers to the acquisition of control over a territory involving a change of sovereignty, and differs from cession, in which territory is given or sold through treaty, since annexation is a unilateral act where territory is seized and held by one state. It usually follows military occupation of a territory.

Henry Eustace McCulloch Confederate Army general

Henry Eustace McCulloch was a soldier in the Texas Revolution, a Texas Ranger, and a brigadier general in the army of the Confederate States during the American Civil War.

Indigenous peoples of the Americas Pre-Columbian inhabitants of North, Central, and South America and their descendants

The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the Pre-Columbian peoples of North, Central and South America and their descendants.

In the late 1840s, it became apparent that the lure of free and cheap land had thrust many settlers far beyond the protection of civilization. [3] More and more settlers arrived, many of them from foreign countries. Some came expecting to acquire good farmland near the Texas coast. They soon learned that they would have to move hundreds of miles inland and the only land left was marginal rangeland. Indians who had been peaceful due to treaties and the presence of the United States soldiers during the U.S.-Mexican War now began to come into conflict with these newcomers. The Comanche and Apache were particularly incensed at this intrusion into their ancient hunting grounds.

Coast Area where land meets the sea or ocean

The coast, also known as the coastline or seashore, is the area where land meets the sea or ocean, or a line that forms the boundary between the land and the ocean or a lake. A precise line that can be called a coastline cannot be determined due to the Coastline paradox.

Rangeland open grazing land

Rangelands are grasslands, shrublands, woodlands, wetlands, and deserts that are grazed by domestic livestock or wild animals. Types of rangelands include tallgrass and shortgrass prairies, desert grasslands and shrublands, woodlands, savannas, chaparrals, steppes, and tundras. Rangelands do not include forests lacking grazable understory vegetation, barren desert, farmland, or land covered by solid rock, concrete and/or glaciers.

Comanche Plains native North American tribe whose historic territory consisted of eastern New Mexico, southeastern Colorado, southwestern Kansas, western Oklahoma, and northwest Texas

The Comanche are a Native American nation from the Great Plains whose historic territory consisted of most of present-day northwestern Texas and adjacent areas in eastern New Mexico, southeastern Colorado, southwestern Kansas, western Oklahoma, and northern Chihuahua. The Comanche people are federally recognized as the Comanche Nation, headquartered in Lawton, Oklahoma.

At first, the government wanted to build Fort Croghan near Holland Springs. Burnet County's first white resident, Sam Holland, objected strenuously to a military post being located near his home. It was then decided to locate the fort a few miles north on Hamilton Creek. There was no more important consideration than a year-round source of abundant clean water. Water was needed for many functions as well as drinking water for people and animals.

Burnet County, Texas County in the United States

Burnet County is a county located on the Edwards Plateau in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 42,750. Its county seat is Burnet. The county was founded in 1852 and later organized in 1854. It is named for David Gouverneur Burnet, the first (provisional) president of the Republic of Texas. The name of the county is pronounced with the emphasis or accent on the first syllable, just as its namesake David Burnet.

Anvil and stump from Smithwick Mills, home of Noah Smithwick, early Fort blacksmith. Anvilstump.JPG
Anvil and stump from Smithwick Mills, home of Noah Smithwick, early Fort blacksmith.

All the necessary buildings including a hospital, bakery, officers' quarters, enlisted men's huts, powderhouse, horse and mule lots, blacksmith shop, storage buildings and a lookout building on top of Post Mountain were constructed by the soldiers. In October 1849, Company C. 8th Infantry, U.S.A. Mounted arrived to occupy this newly constructed fort.

Hospital health care institution

A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized medical and nursing staff and medical equipment. The best-known type of hospital is the general hospital, which typically has an emergency department to treat urgent health problems ranging from fire and accident victims to a sudden illness. A district hospital typically is the major health care facility in its region, with a large number of beds for intensive care and additional beds for patients who need long-term care. Specialized hospitals include trauma centers, rehabilitation hospitals, children's hospitals, seniors' (geriatric) hospitals, and hospitals for dealing with specific medical needs such as psychiatric treatment and certain disease categories. Specialized hospitals can help reduce health care costs compared to general hospitals. Hospitals are classified as general, specialty, or government depending on the sources of income received.

Bakery establishment that produces and sells flour-based food baked in an oven

A bakery is an establishment that produces and sells flour-based food baked in an oven such as bread, cookies, cakes, pastries, and pies. Some retail bakeries are also cafés, serving coffee and tea to customers who wish to consume the baked goods on the premises.

Blacksmith person who creates wrought iron or steel products by forging, hammering, bending, and cutting

A blacksmith is a metalsmith who creates objects from wrought iron or steel by forging the metal, using tools to hammer, bend, and cut. Blacksmiths produce objects such as gates, grilles, railings, light fixtures, furniture, sculpture, tools, agricultural implements, decorative and religious items, cooking utensils and weapons.

Fort Croghan consisted of the usual log cabins enclosed by a strong stockade. It was manned by one company of cavalry and one of infantry. The first commander was Captain Phillip St. George Cook. Captain Cook soon resigned his position and was followed by Captains; Blake, Lee and Sibley. Some of the soldiers settled in the area and stayed on after the Fort was decommissioned. Christian Dorbandt, later sheriff of Burnet County was one of these men.3. [4]

House built by Logan Vandeveer for his father, William. Loganv.jpg
House built by Logan Vandeveer for his father, William.

A small town soon grew up across Hamilton Creek as merchants and other suppliers of services moved to be near the fort. Logan Vandeveer and Peter Kerr were among the first to obtain contracts to furnish the fort with beef and other foodstuffs. In 1852 Vandeveer was instrumental in petitioning the Texas Legislature to authorize the creation of Burnet County. The town was first called Hamilton or Hamilton Valley, but in 1858 the name was changed to Burnet also.

Fort Croghan was abandoned in December 1853, having served its purpose. The last building there was demolished in the 1920s and the old fort was forgotten as the town grew and prospered.

Fort Croghan Restoration

Cabin interior, note the trundle bed. Cabininterior.JPG
Cabin interior, note the trundle bed.

In the 1960s, a group of citizens interested in preserving this part of Burnet County and the city of Burnet's past formed the Burnet County Historical Society and raised the money to purchase the present day grounds. Early presidents of the Burnet County Historical Society included; Rethie Dorbandt, Ed Young, Virgil Lewis, Tad Moses, Jimsey Husted, Phyllis Adrian, Reta Ross, Clyde Mather, Mrs. T.D. Bryant, W.C. Galloway, Mather Dorbandt, and Donald Duncan. 4. [5] Local landowners donated the historical cabins which were moved to the fort grounds and reassembled exactly as they were.

Fort Croghan Grounds and Museum

The Fort Croghan Museum features historical artifacts including tools, household items and Western gear. The grounds contain restored buildings with period displays, including a stage stop house, blacksmith shop, school house, powder house, several late 19th century cabins, a lookout house and a syrup making shop. Fort Croghan Day is held each year to demonstrate frontier life.

Fort Croghan Historical Marker Fort Croghan.jpg
Fort Croghan Historical Marker

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 3 Crimmins, M.L., 1943, The First Line of Army Posts Established in West Texas in 1849, Abilene: West Texas Historical Association, Vol. XIX, pp. 121-127
  2. Darrell debo Burnet County History
  3. Frontier Forts > Texas and the Western Frontier
  4. Smithwick, Noah Evolution of a State Copyright 1900
  5. The Burnet Bulletin Newspaper Thursday July 26, 1973