Free verse

Last updated

Free verse is an open form of poetry, which in its modern form arose through the French vers libre form. It does not use consistent metre patterns, rhyme, or any musical pattern. [1] It thus tends to follow the rhythm of natural speech.

Contents

Definition

Free verse does not "proceed by a strict set of rules … is not a literary type, and does not conform to a formal structure." It is not considered to be completely free. In 1948, Charles Allen wrote, "The only freedom cadenced verse obtains is a limited freedom from the tight demands of the metered line." [2] Free verse contains some elements of form, including the poetic line, which may vary freely; rhythm; strophes or strophic rhythms; stanzaic patterns and rhythmic units or cadences. It is said that verse is free "when it is not primarily obtained by the metered line." [3] Donald Hall goes as far as to say that "the form of free verse is as binding and as liberating as the form of a rondeau," [4] and T. S. Eliot wrote, "No verse is free for the man who wants to do a good job." [5]

Kenneth Allott, the poet and critic, said the adoption by some poets of vers libre arose from "mere desire for novelty, the imitation of Whitman, the study of Jacobean dramatic blank verse, and the awareness of what French poets had already done to the alexandrine in France." [6] The American critic John Livingston Lowes in 1916 observed "Free verse may be written as very beautiful prose; prose may be written as very beautiful free verse. Which is which?" [7]

Some poets have considered free verse restrictive in its own way. In 1922, Robert Bridges voiced his reservations in the essay "Humdrum and Harum-Scarum". Robert Frost, in a comment regarding Carl Sandberg, later remarked that writing free verse was like "playing tennis without a net." Sandberg responded saying, in part, “There have been poets who could and did play more than one game of tennis with unseen rackets, volleying airy and fantastic balls over an insubstantial net, on a frail moonlight fabric of a court.” [8] [9] William Carlos Williams said, "Being an art form, a verse cannot be free in the sense of having no limitations or guiding principles." [10] Yvor Winters, the poet and critic, said, "…the greatest fluidity of statement is possible where the greatest clarity of form prevails. … The free verse that is really verse—the best that is, of W.C. Williams, H. D., Marianne Moore, Wallace Stevens, and Ezra Pound—is, in its peculiar fashion, the antithesis of free." [11]

Vers libre

Vers libre is a free-verse poetic form of flexibility, complexity, and naturalness [12] created in the late 19th century in France, in 1886. It was largely through the activities of La Vogue, a weekly journal founded by Gustave Kahn, [13] as well as the appearance of a band of poets unequaled at any one time in the history of French poetry. [14] Their style of poetry was dubbed ‘Counter-Romanticism’ and it was led by Baudelaire, Verlaine, Rimbaud, Mallarmé, Laforgue and Corbière. [15] It was concerned with synaethesis (the harmony or equilibrium of sensation) [16] and later described as "the moment when French poetry began to take consciousness of itself as poetry." [17] Gustave Kahn was commonly supposed to have invented the term vers libre and according to F. S. Flint, he "was undoubtedly the first theorist of the technique(s)." [18] Later in 1912, Robert de Souza published his conclusion on the genre, voicing that [19] "A vers libre was possible which would keep all the essential characteristics of vers Classique, but would free it from the encumbrances which usage had made appear indispensable." [20] Thus the practice of verse libre was not the abandoning of pattern, but the creation of an original and complicated metrical form for each poem. [21]

The formal stimuli for vers libre were vers libéré (French verse of the late 19th century that liberated itself from classical rules of versification whilst observing the principle of isosyllabism and regular patterned rhyme) and vers libre Classique (a minor French genre of the 17th and 18th century which conformed to classic concepts, but in which lines of different length were irregularly and unpredictable combined) and vers Populaire (versification derived from oral aspects of popular song). [13] Remy de Gourmont's Livre des Masques gave definition to the whole vers libre movement; [22] he notes that there should arise, at regular intervals, a full and complete line, which reassures the ear and guides the rhythm. [23]

Form and structure

The unit of vers libre is not the foot, the number of the syllables, the quantity, or the line. The unit is the strophe, which may be the whole poem or only a part. Each strophe is a complete circle. [24] Vers libre is "verse-formal based upon cadence that allows the lines to flow as they will when read aloud by an intelligent reader." [25]

Unrhymed cadence in vers libre is built upon "organic rhythm" or the rhythm of the speaking voice with its necessity for breathing, rather than upon a strict metrical system. [26] For vers libre addresses the ear, not the eye. [27] Vers libre is liberated from traditional rules concerning meter, caesura, and line end stopping. [28] Every syllable pronounced is of nearly equal value but is less strongly accented than in English; being less intense requires less discipline to mold the accents into the poem's rhythm. [20] This new technique, as defined by Kahn, consists of the denial of a regular number of syllables as the basis for verification; the length of the line is long and short, oscillating with images used by the poet following the contours of his or her thoughts and is free rather than regular. [29]

Although free verse requires no meter, rhyme, or other traditional poetic techniques, a poet can still use them to create some sense of structure. A clear example of this can be found in Walt Whitman's poems, where he repeats certain phrases and uses commas to create both a rhythm and structure.

Pattern and discipline are to be found in good free verse: the internal pattern of sounds, the choice of exact words, and the effect of associations give free verse its beauty. [30] With the Imagists free verse became a discipline and acquired status as a legitimate poetic form. [31] Herbert Read, however, noted that "the Imagist Ezra Pound gave free verse its musical structure to an extent that paradoxically it was no longer free." [32]

Unrestrained by traditional boundaries, the poet possesses more license to express and has more control over the development of the poem. This can allow for a more spontaneous and individualized poetic art product.

Technically, free verse has been described as spaced prose, a mosaic of verse and prose experience. [33]

Legacy

Vers libre, until 1912, had hardly been heard of outside France [34] until T. E. Hulme and F. S. Flint shared their knowledge in 1909 with the Poets Club in London. [35] This later became the heart of the Imagist movement [36] through Flint's advocacy of the genre. [37] Thus, vers libre influenced Imagism in the discovery of new forms and rhythms. [38]

Imagism, in the wake of French Symbolism (i.e. vers libre of French Symbolist poets [39] ) was the wellspring out of which the main current of Modernism in English flowed. [40] T. S. Eliot later identified this as "the point de repere usually taken as the starting point of modern poetry," [41] as hundreds of poets were led to adopt vers libre as their medium. [42]

Antecedents

As the French-language term vers libre suggests, this technique of using more irregular cadences is often said to have its origin in the practices of 19th-century French poets such as Gustave Kahn and Jules Laforgue, in his Derniers vers of 1890. Taupin, the US-based French poet and critic, concluded that free verse and vers libre are not synonymous, since "the French language tends to give equal weight to each spoken syllable, whereas English syllables vary in quantity according to whether stressed or unstressed." [43]

The sort of cadencing that we now recognize in free verse can be traced back at least as far as the Biblical Hebrew psalmist poetry of the Bible. [44] By referring to the Psalms, it is possible to argue that free verse in English first appeared in the 1380s in the John Wycliffe translation of the Psalms and was repeated in different form in most biblical translations ever since.

Walt Whitman, who based his long lines in his poetry collection Leaves of Grass on the phrasing of the King James Bible, influenced later American free verse composers, notably Allen Ginsberg. [45] One form of free verse was employed by Christopher Smart in his long poem Jubilate Agno (Latin: Rejoice in the Lamb), written some time between 1759 and 1763 but not published until 1939.

Many poets of the Victorian era experimented with free verse. Christina Rossetti, Coventry Patmore, and T. E. Brown all wrote examples of rhymed but unmetered verse, poems such as W. E. Henley's "Discharged" (from his In Hospital sequence).

Free verse in English was persuasively advocated by critic T. E. Hulme in his A Lecture on Modern Poetry (1908). Later in the preface to Some Imagist Poets 1916, he comments, "Only the name is new, you will find something much like vers libre in Dryden's Threnodia Augustalis; a great deal of Milton's Samson Agonistes , and the oldest in Chaucer's House of Fame ." [46]

In France, a few pieces in Arthur Rimbaud's prose poem collection Illuminations were arranged in manuscript in lines, rather than prose, and in the Netherlands, tachtiger (i.e., a member of the 1880s generation of innovative poets) Frederik van Eeden employed the form at least once in his poem "Waterlelie" ("Water Lily"). [47]

Goethe in some early poems, such as "Prometheus" and also Hölderlin used free verse occasionally, due in part to a misinterpretation of the meter used in Pindar's poetry. Hölderlin also continued to write unmetered poems after discovering this error. [48]

The German poet Heinrich Heine made an important contribution to the development of free verse with 22 poems, written in two-poem cycles, called Die Nordsee (The North Sea) (written 1825–1826). [49] These were first published in Buch der Lieder (Book of Songs) in 182

See also

Related Research Articles

Poetry Form of literature

Poetry is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and often rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning.

Imagism 20th-century poetry movement

Imagism was a movement in early-20th-century Anglo-American poetry that favored precision of imagery and clear, sharp language. It has been described as the most influential movement in English poetry since the Pre-Raphaelites. As a poetic style it gave modernism its start in the early 20th century, and is considered to be the first organized modernist literary movement in the English language. Imagism is sometimes viewed as "a succession of creative moments" rather than a continuous or sustained period of development. René Taupin remarked that "it is more accurate to consider Imagism not as a doctrine, nor even as a poetic school, but as the association of a few poets who were for a certain time in agreement on a small number of important principles".

Amy Lowell

Amy Lawrence Lowell was an American poet of the imagist school, which was promoting a return to classical values. She posthumously won the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry in 1926.

Modernist poetry in English started in the early years of the 20th century with the appearance of the Imagists. In common with many other modernists, these poets wrote in reaction to the perceived excesses of Victorian poetry, with its emphasis on traditional formalism and ornate diction. In many respects, their criticism echoes what William Wordsworth wrote in Preface to Lyrical Ballads to instigate the Romantic movement in British poetry over a century earlier, criticising the gauche and pompous school which then pervaded, and seeking to bring poetry to the layman.

"In A Station of the Metro" is an Imagist poem by Ezra Pound published in April 1913 in the literary magazine Poetry. In the poem, Pound describes a moment in the underground metro station in Paris in 1912; he suggested that the faces of the individuals in the metro were best put into a poem not with a description but with an "equation". Because of the treatment of the subject's appearance by way of the poem's own visuality, it is considered a quintessential Imagist text.

John Gould Fletcher American writer

John Gould Fletcher was an Imagist poet, author and authority on modern painting. He was born in Little Rock, Arkansas, to a socially prominent family. After attending Phillips Academy, Andover Fletcher went on to Harvard University from 1903 to 1907, when he dropped out shortly after his father's death.

The objectivist poets were a loose-knit group of second-generation Modernists who emerged in the 1930s. They were mainly American and were influenced by, among others, Ezra Pound and William Carlos Williams. The basic tenets of objectivist poetics as defined by Louis Zukofsky were to treat the poem as an object, and to emphasize sincerity, intelligence, and the poet's ability to look clearly at the world. While the name of the group is similar to Ayn Rand's school of philosophy, the two movements are not affiliated.

Articles related to literature include:

T. E. Hulme

Thomas Ernest Hulme was an English critic and poet who, through his writings on art, literature and politics, had a notable influence upon modernism. He was an aesthetic philosopher and the 'father of imagism'.

Frank Stuart Flint was an English poet and translator who was a prominent member of the Imagist group. Ford Madox Ford called him "one of the greatest men and one of the beautiful spirits of the country".

Modernist poetry refers to poetry written, mainly in Europe and North America, between 1890 and 1950 in the tradition of modernist literature, but the dates of the term depend upon a number of factors, including the nation of origin, the particular school in question, and the biases of the critic setting the dates. The critic/poet C. H. Sisson observed in his essay Poetry and Sincerity that "Modernity has been going on for a long time. Not within living memory has there ever been a day when young writers were not coming up, in a threat of iconoclasm."

This glossary of literary terms is a list of definitions of terms and concepts used in the discussion, classification, analysis, and criticism of all types of literature, such as poetry, novels, and picture books, as well as of grammar, syntax, and language techniques. For a more complete glossary of terms relating to poetry in particular, see Glossary of poetry terms.

René Taupin was a French translator, critic, and academic who lived most of his life in the United States and is best known for heading the Romance Languages department at Hunter College.

The Montreal Group, sometimes referred to as the McGill Group or McGill Movement, was a circle of Canadian modernist writers formed in the mid-1920s at McGill University in Montreal, Quebec. The Group included Leon Edel, John Glassco, A. M. Klein, Leo Kennedy, F. R. Scott, and A. J. M. Smith, most of whom attended McGill as undergraduates. The group championed the theory and practice of modernist poetry over the Victorian-style versification, exemplified by the Confederation Poets, that predominated in Canadian poetry at the time.

William Wrighton Eustace Ross [often misspelt William Wrightson Eustace Ross] was a Canadian geophysicist and poet. He was the first published poet in Canadas to write Imagist poetry, and later the first to write surrealist verse, both of which have led some to call him "the first modern Canadian poet."

Louise Morey Bowman was a Canadian poet.

Edward Augustine Storer (1880–1944) was an English writer, translator and poet.

In poetry, cadence describes the fall in pitch of the intonation of the voice, and its modulated inflection with the rise and fall of its sound.

Max Michelson (1880–1953) was an American, imagist poet closely associated with Harriet Monroe and Poetry magazine.

French alexandrine

The French alexandrine is a syllabic poetic meter of 12 syllables with a medial caesura dividing the line into two hemistichs (half-lines) of six syllables each. It was the dominant long line of French poetry from the 17th through the 19th century, and influenced many other European literatures which developed alexandrines of their own.

References

  1. Abbs, Peter; Richardson, John (15 November 1990). The Forms of Poetry: A practical study guide for English (15th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 137. ISBN   978-0-521-37160-5.
  2. Allen, Charles, "Cadenced Free Verse", College English, vol 9, number 6, January 1948
  3. Allen, Charles, "Cadenced Free Verse", College English, vol 9, number 6, January 1948
  4. Donald Hall, in the essay 'Goatfoot, Milktongue, Twinbird' in the book of 0-472-40000-2.
  5. Eliot quote from the essay, "The Music of Poetry" Jackson (1 January 1942) ASIN B0032Q49RO
  6. Introductory Note by Kenneth Allott (ed.) The Penguin Book of Contemporary Verse, Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, England 1950
  7. Lowes, Livingston John, Nation Feb 1916
  8. The Robert Frost Encyclopedia. Nancy Lewis Tuten, John Zubizarreta. Greenwood Press (2001). Page 318. ISBN   9780313294648
  9. Lingeman, Richard. "A Poet for the People: Carl Sandberg: A Biography". Los Angeles Times. July 14, 1991.
  10. Free Verse, Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics, 2nd Ed, 1975
  11. Winters, Yvor. Primitivism and Decadence: A Study of American Experimental Poetry. Arrow Editions, New York, 1937. p. 7
  12. Hover, Richard Poet in Town Interview with Boston Record Sept 1898
  13. 1 2 Scott, Clive, Vers libre: the emergence of free verse in France, 1886-1914 Clarendon Press, Oxford ISBN   978-0-19-815159-3
  14. Hulme, T. E. Lecture on Modern Poetry, Kensington Town Hall 1914
  15. Pratt, William, Introduction to The Influence of French Symbolism on Modern American Poetry by René Taupin, AMS Press Inc, New York 1985 ISBN   0-404-61579-1
  16. I A Richards & C.K.Ogden The Foundations of Aesthetics, Lear Publisher, New York 1925
  17. Maritain Jaques, The Situation of Poetry Now, Philosophical Library, New York, 1955
  18. Flint, F. S., Contemporary French Poetry, The Poetry Review Aug 1912
  19. de Souza, Robert, Du Rythme en Francais, Welter, Paris 1912
  20. 1 2 Taupin, René, The Influence of French Symbolism on Modern American Poetry (1986),(trans William Pratt) AMS Studies in Modern Literature, ISBN   0-404-61579-1
  21. Pondrom, Cryrena The Road from Paris, French Influence on English Poetry 1900-1920 Cambridge University Press 1974 ISBN   978-0-521-13119-3
  22. Read, Herbert The Tenth Muse New York 1958
  23. Remy de Gourmand, Le Probleme du Style, Paris 1900
  24. Lowes, John Livingston Conventions and Revolt in Poetry Houghton Mifflin, Boston 1919
  25. Lowell, Amy, Preface, Sword Blades, and Poppy Seed; North American Review for January 1917
  26. Lowes, John Livingston Conventions and Revolt in Poetry Houghton Mifflin, Boston 1919
  27. de Souza Robert, Du Rythme en Francais, Welter, Paris 1912
  28. Kahn, Gustave, Le Vers libre, Paris, 1923 ASIN: B008XZTTY2
  29. Hulme, T. E., Lecture on Modern Poetry, Kensington Town Hall 1914
  30. Boulton, Marjories, Anatomy of Poetry, Routledge&Kegan, London 1953
  31. Pratt, William. The Imagist Poem, Modern Poetry in Miniature (Story Line Press, 1963, expanded 2001). ISBN   1-58654-009-2.
  32. Read, Herbert Ezra Pound, The Tenth Muse. Routledge & Kegan Paul, London 1957
  33. Patterson, William Morrison, Rhythm of Prose (Preface 2nd edition) Columbia University Press, 1916.
  34. Aldington, Richard, A Young American Poet The Little Review, March 1915.
  35. Pondrom, Cryrena The Road from Paris, French Influence on English Poetry 1900-1920 Cambridge University Press 1974 ISBN   978-0-521-13119-3
  36. F. S. Flint, The History of Imagism Essay in The Egoist May 1915
  37. Jones Peter (editor) Introduction to Imagist Poetry Penguin Books ISBN   0-14-042147-5
  38. Review of Imagist Anthology 1930 Times Literary Supplement June 1931
  39. Pratt William Introduction to The Imagist Poem, modern poetry in miniature Uno Press 1963 edition ISBN   978-0-9728143-8-6
  40. Pratt William Preface to The Imagist Poem, modern poetry in miniature Uno Press 1963 edition ISBN   978-0-9728143-8-6
  41. Eliot T. S. Address To Criticize the Critic to Washington University June 1953, Faber & Faber 1965
  42. Untermeyer, Louis, Preface to Modern American Poetry Harcourt Brace& Co New York 1950
  43. Taupin, Rene. The Influence of French Symbolism on Modern American Poetry (1986), (translated by William Pratt), Ams Studies in Modern Literature, ISBN   0-404-61579-1
  44. Allen, Charles 'Cadenced Free Verse', College English, vol 9, no 6 January 1948
  45. H. T. Kirby-Smith (1998). The Origins of Free Verse. University of Michigan Press. p. 44. ISBN   0-472-08565-4.
  46. Preface to Some Imagist Poets, Constable, 1916
  47. "De waterlelie < Frederik van Eeden". 4umi.com.
  48. Michael Hamburger: Foreword in Robert Marcellus Browning (ed.): German poetry from 1750 to 1900 (The German Library, vol. 39), New York: The Continuum Publishing Company, 1984, p. XV, ISBN   0-8264-0282-8
  49. Heine, Heinrich (22 November 1995). Songs of Love and Grief: A Bilingual Anthology in the Verse Forms of the ... - Heinrich Heine - Google Books. Books.google.co.uk. ISBN   9780810113244 . Retrieved 23 April 2013.

Further reading

On vers libre