Historical armorial of U.S. states from 1876

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State Arms of the Union (title page, illustrated, 1876) State Arms of the Union (title page, illustrated, 1876).jpg
State Arms of the Union (title page, illustrated, 1876)

Historical coats of arms of the U.S. states date back to the admission of the first states to the Union. Despite the widely accepted practice of determining early statehood from the date of ratification of the United States Constitution, many of the original colonies referred to themselves as states shortly after the Declaration of Independence was signed on 4 July 1776. Committees of political leaders and intellectuals were established by state legislatures to research and propose a seal and coat of arms. Many of these members were signers of the Articles of Confederation, Declaration of Independence, and United States Constitution. Several of the earliest adopted state coats of arms and seals were similar or identical to their colonial counterparts.

U.S. state constituent political entity of the United States

In the United States, a state is a constituent political entity, of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a political union, each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory and shares its sovereignty with the federal government. Due to this shared sovereignty, Americans are citizens both of the federal republic and of the state in which they reside. State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons restricted by certain types of court orders.

United States Federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe, which is 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the most populous city is New York City. Most of the country is located contiguously in North America between Canada and Mexico.

Ratification is a principal's approval of an act of its agent that lacked the authority to bind the principal legally. Ratification defines the international act in which a state indicates its consent to be bound to a treaty if the parties intended to show their consent by such an act. In the case of bilateral treaties, ratification is usually accomplished by exchanging the requisite instruments, and in the case of multilateral treaties, the usual procedure is for the depositary to collect the ratifications of all states, keeping all parties informed of the situation.

Contents

State Arms of the Union, illustrated by Henry Mitchell and published by Louis Prang (known as the father of the lithographic industry), offers historically accurate renderings of the state's coats of arms as they existed in 1876. An accomplished engraver with the Bureau of Engraving and Printing for 40 years, Mitchell was responsible for engraving several coats of arms for official state use as well as arms for well-known educational and philanthropic organizations. The illustrations are presented alongside proof impressions from the engraved dies used to print the state arms on the first issue of United States National Bank Notes.

Louis Prang American printer

Louis Prang was an American printer, lithographer, publisher, and Georgist. He is sometimes known as the "father of the American Christmas card".

Bureau of Engraving and Printing government agency under the U.S. Treasury that prints paper money and distributes Treasury securities

The Bureau of Engraving and Printing (BEP) is a government agency within the United States Department of the Treasury that designs and produces a variety of security products for the United States government, most notable of which is Federal Reserve Notes for the Federal Reserve, the nation's central bank. In addition to paper currency, the BEP produces Treasury securities; military commissions and award certificates; invitations and admission cards; and many different types of identification cards, forms, and other special security documents for a variety of government agencies. The BEP does not produce coins; all coinage is produced by the United States Mint. With production facilities in Washington, D.C., and Fort Worth, Texas, the Bureau of Engraving and Printing is the largest producer of government security documents in the United States.

National Bank Note Bank Notes World

National Bank Notes were United States currency banknotes issued by National banks chartered by the United States Government. The notes were usually backed by United States bonds the bank deposited with the United States Treasury. In addition, banks were required to maintain a redemption fund amounting to five percent of any outstanding note balance, in gold or "lawful money".

Coat of arms

Heraldic arms were worn (embroidered) on a coat which knights wore over their armor, hence coat of arms, [1] a term which dates back roughly 1,000 years [2] to jousting tournaments. [3]

Heraldry Profession, study, or art of creating, granting, and blazoning arms and ruling on questions of rank or protocol

Heraldry is a broad term, encompassing the design, display, and study of armorial bearings, as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology, together with the study of ceremony, rank, and pedigree. Armory, the best-known branch of heraldry, concerns the design and transmission of the heraldic achievement. The achievement, or armorial bearings usually includes a coat of arms on an shield, helmet, and crest, together with any accompanying devices, such as supporters, badges, heraldic banners, and mottoes.

Achievement (heraldry) full display of all the heraldic components

An achievement, armorial achievement or heraldic achievement in heraldry is a full display or depiction of all the heraldic components to which the bearer of a coat of arms is entitled. An achievement comprises not only the arms themselves displayed on the Escutcheon, the central element, but also the following elements surrounding it:

Embroidery art or handicraft of decorating fabric or other materials with needle and thread or yarn

Embroidery is the craft of decorating fabric or other materials using a needle to apply thread or yarn.

Arms versus seal

A state coat of arms may exist independently of the seal, but the reverse is not generally the case. [4] A seal contains a coat of arms or other devices [5] [6] whereas a state coat of arms constitutes the bulk of a seal, [6] [7] except for the wording identifying it as the "Great Seal of the State of..." [8] A "seal" has been described as the design impressed on public or legislative official documents, [9] whereas a coat of arms generally appears for illustrative purposes. Examples include flags and banners, [10] and state militia uniform caps [11] and buttons, [12] as well as specifically-designed regimental coats of arms for U.S. Infantry Regiments, and National Guard units. [13]

Seal (emblem) Device for making an impression in wax or other medium

A seal is a device for making an impression in wax, clay, paper, or some other medium, including an embossment on paper, and is also the impression thus made. The original purpose was to authenticate a document, a wrapper for one such as a modern envelope, or the cover of a container or package holding valuables or other objects.

Illustration depiction made by an artist

An illustration is a decoration, interpretation or visual explanation of a text, concept or process, designed for integration in published media, such as posters, flyers, magazines, books, teaching materials, animations, video games and films. An illustration is typically created by an illustrator. Illustration also means providing an example; either in writing or in picture form.

Flag piece of fabric with a distinctive design

A flag is a piece of fabric with a distinctive design and colours. It is used as a symbol, a signalling device, or for decoration. The term flag is also used to refer to the graphic design employed, and flags have evolved into a general tool for rudimentary signalling and identification, especially in environments where communication is challenging. The study of flags is known as "vexillology" from the Latin vexillum, meaning "flag" or "banner".

A coat of arms of a nation or state is usually the design or device of the obverse of its seal. It is an official emblem, mark of identification, and symbol of the authority of the government of a nation or state. A nation or state's coat of arms is oftentimes referred to as the national or state arms. [14]

Design

The design of a state coat of arms or seal has generally been authorized by a provision in the state constitution or a legislative act. In most instances a committee (more often than not consisting of three members) [15] [16] [17] [18] was appointed to study the issue, seek advice from qualified artists, historians, legal scholars, etc., and report back to the authorizing legislative body with a design for their approval. Historically, this committee has consisted of notable members of society and elected officials.

In the United States, each state has its own constitution.

The first committee to design the Great Seal of the United States was appointed on 4 July 1776 by the Second Continental Congress and consisted of Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson. [19] Their design was rejected on 20 August 1776. The second committee (James Lovell, John Morin Scott, and William Churchill Houston) design met with the same fate. [15] It was the third committee (Arthur Middleton, Elias Boudinot, John Rutledge, who consulted with William Barton) that submitted a design which was approved on 20 July 1782. [15]

Individual states approached their coats of arms and seals in a similar manner (i.e., seeking direction from the statesmen and scholars of their community). A few of those involved in the design of state arms and seals include (but is not limited to): John Jay and Gouverneur Morris (New York); [16] Francis Hopkinson (New Jersey); [20] David Rittenhouse and George Clymer (Pennsylvania); [18] and George Mason, Benjamin Franklin, Benjamin West, and Thomas Jefferson (Virginia). [21]

Authority

An impression of the Great Seal of a state (or its coat of arms) has long been required on official documents ranging from deeds to legislative acts. It was the emblem that certified the authenticity of a given document [14] [22] or that the authority of the state was invested in said document. [22] Judicial decisions upheld the need for a valid seal and/or coat of arms on notarized documents. [nb 1]

One of the more compelling legislative actions recognizing the legal importance/authority of the state seal and arms occurred in February 1873 when a joint session of the United States Congress refused to recognize Arkansas's electoral votes in the November 1872 presidential election. [23] The official tally of the state's electoral votes was submitted with an invalid seal (bearing the coat of arms of the office of the Secretary of the State of Arkansas versus the seal of the state of Arkansas bearing the state arms). [23] [24] [25]

Regulation

Courts and state legislatures also opined on the inappropriate uses of state seals and arms. Most states barred their use for any kind of advertising. [nb 2] Reproduction for corporate use was similarly prohibited [26] and such infractions were classified as offenses against public property. [27] The 2003 Code of Federal Regulations pertaining to the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives prohibits the use of state seals or coats of arms in product branding so as not to mislead the public into thinking that a commercial product has been endorsed by a government organization. [28]

Instances of design inaccuracies

Ohio's seal depicts Mount Logan (elevation 1,243 ft (379 m) ) and nearby summits in Chillicothe. Great Seal of Ohio actual view.jpg
Ohio's seal depicts Mount Logan (elevation 1,243 ft (379 m) ) and nearby summits in Chillicothe.

A state coat of arms provided an opportunity to convey the natural and industrial resources available to its residents. [31] Common themes depicted in state arms include farming, industry, transportation (e.g., boats, trains, and wagons), and nature (e.g., sunsets and mountains). The Ohio and Indiana state arms depict fairly substantial mountains in the distance. In reality, the highest points in Ohio and Indiana are Campbell Hill (1,550 feet (470 m)) [32] and Hoosier Hill (1,257 feet (383 m)) [33] respectively.

The Florida state arms also depicts mountains in the distance but the highest point in the state is 345 feet (105 m) feet high. [34] In addition to the distortion of local geography, [35] the image also contains historically inaccurate information. The period depicted in the state arms (c. 1830) was a time when the local Seminole Native Americans were hostile toward white settlers; the warm greeting (e.g., flower petals strewn on the ground) offered by the Seminole to the arriving steam ship would have been highly improbable. [35] Furthermore, the Seminole woman depicted would not have worn any headdress, particularly one of northern and western Seminole tribes. [35]

State Arms of the Union

Published in 1876 by Louis Prang and illustrated by Henry Mitchell, State Arms of the Union contains a chromolithographed title page depicting the Great Seal of the United States and seven color plates with 45 state and territorial coats of arms. The book was likely published for the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition. [36]

Louis Prang

Louis Prang was born 12 March 1824 in Breslau. At the age of 13 he began apprenticing for his father [37] and learned to dye and print calico, as well as wood and metal engraving. [38] Prang emigrated to Boston in 1850 and became an illustrator for a number of local publications. [39] Starting a business partnership in 1856 to manufacture copper and lithographic plates, Prang became sole proprietor in 1860 and named the company L. Prang & Co. [38] He specialized in color printing, more specifically “chromolithography” [37] Prang spent over four decades studying and creating a standard of colors [40] and engraved and printed maps, prints of contemporary celebrities, and color reproductions of famous works of art. [39]

In 1875 Prang was responsible for introducing the Christmas card to America. [38] He created an annual design competition for his Christmas cards (run between 1880 and 1884), and judges included John La Farge, Samuel Colman, Stanford White, and Louis Comfort Tiffany. [37] Some of the notable winners included Elihu Vedder, Rosina Emmet Sherwood, Edwin Blashfield, [37] Thomas Moran, and Will Hicok Low. [39] Prang has become known as the "father of the American Christmas card", [37] [38] [39] as well as the "father of the lithographic industry". [40] [41]

Henry Mitchell

Henry Mitchell was born in New York in 1835 and went to school in Philadelphia. [42] At the age of 10 he began working with his uncle [43] to learn the trade of gem and steel engraving. [44] By the age of 20 (1855), Mitchell had engraved the official seals for the Kingdom of Hawaii. [44] [45]

In 1868 Mitchell joined the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and for 40 years engraved stamped envelopes. [46] Through his BEP work, Mitchell was also responsible for engraving the seal of the Secretary of the Navy and the Internal Revenue Service. [45] He also engraved the state seals for Massachusetts, [44] New York, [45] New Hampshire, [45] Vermont, [44] Rhode Island, [43] and Wisconsin. [47] Outside of state and federal government engraving, Mitchell engraved the seals and coats of arms for many well-known institutions which include Harvard University, Society of the Cincinnati, and Boston Public Library. [45] He engraved the Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition award medal (1876) which was struck in the Philadelphia Mint. [48] In 1891, Mitchell was invited by the Secretary of the Treasury to join a committee to evaluate the artistic design proposals for a new issue of U.S. coins. The two other members were Charles E. Barber, Chief Engraver of the United States Mint, and Augustus Saint-Gaudens. [49] [50]

In addition to being considered an expert on heraldry, [45] Mitchell was regarded as one of the best engravers [42] [43] and medal designers in the United States. [51]

State Arms depicted on United States banknotes

The National Bank Act (12  Stat.   532) authorized the issue of a national currency. Historical vignettes on the front and back were the same by denomination (e.g., Landing of Columbus was on the reverse of all $5 notes) [52] and the state coat of arms (located on the reverse left side) was coordinated with the geographic location of the issuing bank. [52] Records do not clearly state who bore the responsibility for the design of the state arms (i.e., the U.S. Treasury Department, or the three bank note companies contracted for engraving and printing). [53] It appears that the first dies (for New Jersey, Missouri, Minnesota, and Vermont) were completed by the American Bank Note Company by 9 October 1863 based on their own drawings. [54] State arms appeared on the reverse of the Original and 1875 Series notes (first and second issue of the first design), and the 1882 Brown Back Series (the second design) of National Bank Notes.

Examples of arms depicted on Colonial and National currency
Location Colonial
Currency
National
Banknotes
Information
Connecticut US-Col-CT-Seal detail (1775).jpg US-NBN-CT-state seal detail (Series 1882BB reverse) proof.jpg Colonial (1775) [nb 3]
National (1863) [nb 4]
Maryland US-Col-MD-Seal detail (1770).jpg US-NBN-MD-state seal detail (type 2) (Series 1882BB reverse) proof.jpg Colonial (1770)
National (1864) [nb 4]
Rhode Island
US-Col-RI-Seal detail (1738).jpg
US-NBN-RI-state seal detail (Series 1882BB reverse) proof.jpg Colonial (1738)
National (1863) [nb 4]
South Carolina US-Col-SC-Seal detail (1778).jpg US-NBN-SC-state seal detail (Series 1882BB reverse) proof.jpg Colonial (1778)
National (1865) [nb 4]

Historical coats of arms

The main table contains four columns. Location refers to either the territory or state and is linked to the most relevant article (e.g., Seal of... or Coat of arms of...). All but one of the illustrations are included in a relevant article. Coat of arms contains the State Arms of the Union illustrations. National Bank Note contains the state arms found on U.S. National Currency between 1863 and the 1890s. Information lists the date of statehood and/or territorial organic act date and the date the state or territorial arms were accepted by constitutional convention or legislative assembly.

Historical coats of arms
LocationCoat of arms [nb 5] National Bank NoteInformation [nb 6]
Alabama Alabama state coat of arms (illustrated, 1876).jpg US-NBN-AL-state seal detail (type 2) (Series 1882BB reverse) proof.jpg Statehood – 14 December 1819
Arms – 29 December 1868 [56]
Arkansas Arkansas state coat of arms (illustrated, 1876).jpg US-NBN-AR-state seal detail (Series 1882BB reverse) proof.jpg Statehood – 15 June 1836
Arms – 3 May 1864 [57]
California California state coat of arms (illustrated, 1876).jpg US-NBN-CA-state seal detail (Series 1882BB reverse) proof.jpg Statehood – 9 September 1850
Arms – 2 October 1849 [56]
Colorado Colorado state coat of arms (illustrated, 1876).jpg US-NBN-CO-state seal detail (Series 1882BB reverse) proof.jpg Statehood – 1 August 1876
Arms – 13 June 1877 [58]
Connecticut Connecticut state coat of arms (illustrated, 1876).jpg US-NBN-CT-state seal detail (Series 1882BB reverse) proof.jpg Statehood – 9 January 1788
Arms – October 1842 [59]
Dakota Territory Dakota territory coat of arms (illustrated, 1876).jpg US-NBN-DK-territory seal detail (Series 1882BB reverse) proof.jpg Organic Act – 2 March 1861 [60]
Arms – 3 January 1863 [61]
Delaware Delaware state coat of arms (illustrated, 1876).jpg US-NBN-DE-state seal detail (Series 1882BB reverse) proof.jpg Statehood – 7 December 1787
Arms – 18 January 1847 [62]
District of Columbia District of Columbia coat of arms (illustrated, 1876).jpg US-NBN-DC-state seal detail (type 1) (Series 1882BB reverse) proof.jpg Organic Act – 21 February 1790 [60]
Arms – 3 August 1871 [63]
Florida Florida state coat of arms (illustrated, 1876).jpg US-NBN-FL-state seal detail (Series 1882BB reverse) proof.jpg Statehood – 3 March 1845
Arms – 6 August 1868 [64]
Georgia Georgia state coat of arms (illustrated, 1876).jpg US-NBN-GA-state seal detail (Series 1882BB reverse) proof.jpg Statehood – 2 January 1788
Arms – 8 February 1799 [65]
Idaho Territory Idaho territory coat of arms (illustrated, 1876).jpg US-NBN-ID-territory seal detail (Series 1882BB reverse) proof.jpg Organic Act – 3 March 1863 [66]
Arms – 13 March 1866 [67]
Statehood – 3 July 1890
Illinois Illinois state coat of arms (illustrated, 1876).jpg US-NBN-IL-state seal detail (Series 1882BB reverse) proof.jpg Statehood – 3 December 1818
Arms – 7 March 1867 [68]
Indiana Indiana state coat of arms (illustrated, 1876).jpg US-NBN-IN-state seal detail (Series 1882BB reverse) proof.jpg Statehood – 11 December 1816
Arms – 13 December 1816 [69]
Iowa Iowa state coat of arms (illustrated, 1876).jpg US-NBN-IA-state seal detail (type 2) (Series 1882BB reverse) proof.jpg Statehood – 28 December 1846
Arms – 25 February 1847 [70]
Kansas Kansas state coat of arms (illustrated, 1876).jpg US-NBN-KS-state seal detail (Series 1882BB reverse) proof.jpg Statehood – 29 January 1861
Arms – 25 May 1861 [71] [nb 7]
Kentucky Kentucky state coat of arms (illustrated, 1876).jpg US-NBN-KY-state seal detail (Series 1882BB reverse) proof.jpg Statehood – 1 June 1792
Arms – 20 December 1792 [73] [nb 8]
Louisiana Louisiana state coat of arms (illustrated, 1876).jpg US-NBN-LA-state seal detail (Series 1882BB reverse) proof.jpg Statehood – 30 April 1812
Arms – 23 December 1813 [nb 9] [nb 10]
Maine Maine state coat of arms (illustrated, 1876).jpg US-NBN-ME-state seal detail (Series 1882BB reverse) proof.jpg Statehood – 15 March 1820
Arms – 9 June 1820 [77] [78]
Maryland Maryland state coat of arms (illustrated, 1876).jpg US-NBN-MD-state seal detail (type 2) (Series 1882BB reverse) proof.jpg Statehood – 28 April 1788
Arms – 18 March 1876 [77] [nb 11] [nb 12]
Massachusetts Massachusetts state coat of arms (illustrated, 1876).jpg US-NBN-MA-state seal detail (Series 1882BB reverse) proof.jpg Statehood – 6 February 1788
Arms – 13 December 1780 [81]
Michigan Michigan state coat of arms (illustrated, 1876).jpg US-NBN-MI-state seal detail (Series 1882BB reverse) proof.jpg Statehood – 26 January 1837
Arms – 2 June 1835 [82]
Minnesota Minnesota state coat of arms (illustrated, 1876).jpg US-NBN-MN-state seal detail (Series 1882BB reverse) proof.jpg Statehood – 11 May 1858
Arms – 16 July 1858 [83]
Mississippi Mississippi state coat of arms (illustrated, 1876).jpg US-NBN-MS-state seal detail (Series 1882BB reverse) proof.jpg Statehood – 10 December 1817
Arms – 6 February 1894 [nb 13]
Missouri Missouri state coat of arms (illustrated, 1876).jpg US-NBN-MO-state seal detail (Series 1882BB reverse) proof.jpg Statehood – 10 August 1821
Arms – 11 January 1822 [86] [nb 14]
Montana Territory Montana territory coat of arms (illustrated, 1876).jpg US-NBN-MT-state seal detail (Series 1882BB reverse) proof.jpg Organic Act – 26 May 1864 [66]
Arms – 9 February 1865 [88] [nb 15]
Statehood – 8 November 1889
Nebraska Nebraska state coat of arms (illustrated, 1876).jpg US-NBN-NE-state seal detail (Series 1882BB reverse) proof.jpg Statehood – 1 March 1867
Arms – 15 June 1867 [90] [nb 16]
Nevada Nevada state coat of arms (illustrated, 1876).jpg US-NBN-NV-state seal detail (Series 1882BB reverse) proof.jpg Statehood – 31 October 1864
Arms – 24 February 1866 [91]
New Hampshire New Hampshire state coat of arms (illustrated, 1876).jpg US-NBN-NH-state seal detail (Series 1882BB reverse) proof.jpg Statehood – 21 June 1788
Arms – 12 February 1785 [92]
New Jersey New Jersey state coat of arms (illustrated, 1876).jpg US-NBN-NJ-state seal detail (Series 1882BB reverse) proof.jpg Statehood – 18 December 1787
Arms – 10 September 1776 [82] [nb 17]
New Mexico Territory New Mexico territory coat of arms (illustrated, 1876).jpg
[nb 18]
Organic Act – 9 September 1850 [60]
Arms – 1 February 1887 [94]
Statehood – 6 January 1912
New York New York state coat of arms (illustrated, 1876).jpg US-NBN-NY-state seal detail (type 2) (Series 1882BB reverse) proof.jpg Statehood – 26 July 1788
Arms – 27 March 1809 [95]
North Carolina North Carolina state coat of arms (illustrated, 1876).jpg US-NBN-NC-state seal detail (type 2) (Series 1882BB reverse) proof.jpg Statehood – 21 November 1789
Arms – 1835 [96]
North Dakota
[nb 19]
US-NBN-ND-state seal detail (Series 1882BB reverse) proof.jpg Statehood – 2 November 1889
Arms – 1 October 1889 [98]
Ohio Ohio state coat of arms (illustrated, 1876).jpg US-NBN-OH-state seal detail (type 2) (Series 1882BB reverse) proof.jpg Statehood – 1 March 1803
Arms – 1 March 1803 [nb 20]
Oregon Oregon state coat of arms (illustrated, 1876).jpg US-NBN-OR-state seal detail (Series 1882BB reverse) proof.jpg Statehood – 14 February 1859
Arms – 2 June 1859 [99]
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania state coat of arms (illustrated, 1876).jpg US-NBN-PA-state seal detail (Series 1882BB reverse) proof.jpg Statehood – 12 December 1787
Arms – 17 March 1875 [100]
Rhode Island Rhode Island state coat of arms (illustrated, 1876).jpg US-NBN-RI-state seal detail (Series 1882BB reverse) proof.jpg Statehood – 29 May 1790
Arms – 24 February 1875 [101] [nb 21]
South Carolina South Carolina state coat of arms (illustrated, 1876).jpg US-NBN-SC-state seal detail (Series 1882BB reverse) proof.jpg Statehood – 23 May 1788
Arms – 2 April 1776 [102]
South Dakota
[nb 22]
US-NBN-SD-state seal detail (Series 1882BB reverse) proof.jpg Statehood – 2 November 1889
Arms – 1 October 1889 [103]
Tennessee Tennessee state coat of arms (illustrated, 1876).jpg US-NBN-TN-state seal detail (Series 1882BB reverse) proof.jpg Statehood – 1 June 1796
Arms – 24 April 1802 [104] [nb 23]
Texas Texas state coat of arms (illustrated, 1876).jpg US-NBN-TX-state seal detail (Series 1882BB reverse) proof.jpg Statehood – 29 December 1845
Arms – 25 January 1839 [105]
Utah Territory Utah territory coat of arms (illustrated, 1876).jpg US-NBN-UT-state seal detail (type 1) (Series 1882BB reverse) proof.jpg Organic Act – 9 September 1850 [60]
Arms – 9 September 1850 [106]
Statehood – 4 January 1896
Vermont Vermont state coat of arms (illustrated, 1876).jpg US-NBN-VT-state seal detail (type 2) (Series 1882BB reverse) proof.jpg Statehood – 4 March 1791
Arms – 20 February 1779 [107] [nb 24]
Virginia Virginia state coat of arms (illustrated, 1876).jpg US-NBN-VA-state seal detail (Series 1882BB reverse) proof.jpg Statehood – 25 June 1788
Arms – 1776 [nb 25] [nb 26]
Washington
[nb 27]
US-NBN-WA-state seal detail (Series 1882BB reverse) proof.jpg Organic Act – 2 March 1853 [60]
Arms – 28 February 1854 [111]
West Virginia West Virginia state coat of arms (illustrated, 1876).jpg US-NBN-WV-state seal detail (Series 1882BB reverse) proof.jpg Statehood – 20 June 1863
Arms – 26 September 1863 [112] [nb 28]
Wisconsin Wisconsin state coat of arms (illustrated, 1876).jpg US-NBN-WI-state seal detail (type 1) (Series 1882BB reverse) proof.jpg Statehood – 29 May 1848
Arms – 29 December 1851 [113]
Wyoming Territory Wyoming territory coat of arms (illustrated, 1876).jpg US-NBN-WY-state seal detail (type 1) (Series 1882BB reverse) proof.jpg Organic Act – 25 July 1868 [114]
Statehood – 10 July 1890

Missing territorial or state coats of arms

When State Arms of the Union was published in 1876, some existing arms were not included (e.g., Arizona and Washington Territory). At the time, Alaska was classified as the Department of Alaska (1867–84) and became the District of Alaska (1884–1912) before becoming the Territory of Alaska (1912–59). The Alaska territorial seal was designed in 1910 [115] and adopted in 1913. [116] On 3 January 1959 Alaska became the 49th U.S. State. [117] The Oklahoma Territory (1890–1907) Organic Act was approved on 2 May 1890, and a territorial seal was adopted on 10 January 1893. [118] Hawaii, formerly the Kingdom of Hawaii (1795–1893), Republic of Hawaii (1894–98), and then Territory of Hawaii (1898–1959) became the 50th U.S. State on 21 August 1959. [119] None of the territories or states mentioned above had a coat of arms represented on national currency.

See also

Notes

  1. Tickner et al. v. Roberts, 11La.14 (Louisiana Supreme CourtMarch 1837)("...notarial instruments were required to be authenticated by a seal, containing the coat of arms of the territory, the name and surname of the notary, his official capacity, and the place in which he exercised his office...the protest in this case, lacking the seal, which the law of that State prescribed, it appears to us, ought not to be received in evidence in our courts."). .
  2. For example, see Commonwealth v. R.I. Sherman Manufacturing Company, 189Mass.76 (Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court8 Sep 1905)("The Massachusetts statute prohibiting the use of its arms or seal for advertising or commercial purposes is not in conflict with the clause of the Constitution of the United States investing Congress with power to regulate commerce among the several states"). .
  3. Although the pictured example is from a 1776 colonial note, the arms depicted was designed and adopted on 25 October 1711. [55]
  4. 1 2 3 4 Although the example used is a Series of 1882 Brown Back, the coat of arms on the first issue 1860s notes used the same engraved dies for the arms.
  5. Any missing images in this column indicates that at that time of publication (1876) a given territory had not attained statehood and/or did not have an official territorial coat of arms.
  6. The date listed for the adoption of the state arms refers to the design illustrated in State Arms of the Union. Column sort function is chronological based on the date of statehood (ratification of the U.S. Constitution) or territorial status (Organic Act).
  7. The Kansas state coat of arms on the back of the 1882BB was engraved by Timothy House of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing. [72]
  8. The Kentucky coat of arms on the back of the 1882BB was engraved by Alfred Jones of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing. [74]
  9. The illustrated Louisiana coat of arms represents a small design change in 1864, but the concept and design elements were in place since 1813. [75]
  10. The Louisiana coat of arms on the back of the 1882BB was engraved by Louis Delnoce of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing. [76]
  11. The illustrated coat of arms of Maryland was the tenth version of the seal, and a restoration to the description offered by Lord Baltimore on 12 August 1648). [79]
  12. The Maryland coat of arms on the back of the 1882BB was engraved by W.W. Rice of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing. [80]
  13. In 1861 Mississippi adopted a coat of arms and state flag. However, in 1865 the approval was rescinded leaving Mississippi without official state arms until 1894. [84] On 6 February 1894 the proposed design for the state coat of arms was approved. [85]
  14. The Missouri seal and arms were designed by Judge Robert William Wells. [87]
  15. According to the State Constitution of Montana, in the event of a transition from a Territorial to State government, the Territorial Seal would remain effective until expressly changed by legislative action. [89]
  16. The illustrated arms represent the change from the territorial to state arms. However, the BEP engraved arms were never updated.
  17. New Jersey coat of arms was designed by Pierre Eugene Du Simitiere. [93]
  18. The New Mexico coat of arms (territorial or state) was never used on National Bank Notes.
  19. North Dakota was admitted to the United States on 2 November 1889 (after the 1876 publication of the State Arms of the Union). [97]
  20. While the seal of Ohio had experienced several unauthorized varieties in use, in 1868 legislature reverted the official design to the initial seal from the state constitution of 1803. [6]
  21. The Rhode Island state coat of arms on the back of the 1882BB was engraved by Timothy House of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing. [72]
  22. South Dakota was admitted to the United States on 2 November 1889 (after the 1876 publication of the State Arms of the Union). [97]
  23. The Tennessee state coat of arms on the back of the 1882BB was engraved by Timothy House of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing. [72]
  24. On 25 November 1862, Vermont legislature formally recognized the existing seal and coat of arms. [108]
  25. The coat of arms was engraved in Paris and not ready until 4 September 1779. [109]
  26. The Virginia coat of arms on the back of the 1882BB was engraved by James Bannister of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing. [110]
  27. The Washington Territory seal was authorized (but never described) during the first session of the Territorial Legislature on 28 February 1854 [111] The coat of arms appearing on National currency was a new design adopted after statehood.
  28. Drawings by Joseph H. Diss Debar. [10]

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Sources

Further reading