Internet leak

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An Internet leak occurs when a party's confidential information is released to the public on the Internet. Various types of information and data can be, and have been, "leaked" to the Internet, the most common being personal information, computer software and source code, and artistic works such as books or albums. For example, a musical album is leaked if it has been made available to the public on the Internet before its official release date.

Confidentiality involves a set of rules or a promise usually executed through confidentiality agreements that limits access or places restrictions on certain types of information.

Internet Global system of connected computer networks

The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless, and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web (WWW), electronic mail, telephony, and file sharing. Some publications no longer capitalize "internet".

Software non-tangible executable component of a computer

Computer software, or simply software, is a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work. This is in contrast to physical hardware, from which the system is built and actually performs the work. In computer science and software engineering, computer software is all information processed by computer systems, programs and data. Computer software includes computer programs, libraries and related non-executable data, such as online documentation or digital media. Computer hardware and software require each other and neither can be realistically used on its own.

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Source code leaks

Source code leaks are usually caused by misconfiguration of software like CVS or FTP which allow people to get source files by exploiting, by software bugs, or by employees that have access to the sources of part of them revealing the code in order to harm the company.

In computing, source code is any collection of code, possibly with comments, written using a human-readable programming language, usually as plain text. The source code of a program is specially designed to facilitate the work of computer programmers, who specify the actions to be performed by a computer mostly by writing source code. The source code is often transformed by an assembler or compiler into binary machine code understood by the computer. The machine code might then be stored for execution at a later time. Alternatively, source code may be interpreted and thus immediately executed.

The Concurrent Versions System (CVS), also known as the Concurrent Versioning System, is a free client-server revision control system in the field of software development. A version control system keeps track of all work and all changes in a set of files, and allows several developers to collaborate. Dick Grune developed CVS as a series of shell scripts in July 1986.

The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used for the transfer of computer files between a client and server on a computer network.

There were many cases of source code leaks in the history of software development.

MP3 is a coding format for digital audio. Originally defined as the third audio format of the MPEG-1 standard, it was retained and further extended—defining additional bit-rates and support for more audio channels—as the third audio format of the subsequent MPEG-2 standard. A third version, known as MPEG 2.5—extended to better support lower bit rates—is commonly implemented, but is not a recognized standard.

Fraunhofer l3enc was the first public software able to encode PCM (.wav) files to the MP3 format. The first public version was released on July 13, 1994. This commandline tool was shareware and limited to 112 kbit/s. It was available for MS-DOS, Linux, Solaris, SunOS, NeXTstep and IRIX. A licence that allowed full use cost 350 Deutsche Mark, or about 250 US$.

Electronic Arts American interactive entertainment company

Electronic Arts Inc. (EA) is an American video game company headquartered in Redwood City, California. It is the second-largest gaming company in the Americas and Europe by revenue and market capitalization after Activision Blizzard and ahead of Take-Two Interactive and Ubisoft as of March 2018.

End-of-life leaks by developers

Sometimes software developers themselves will intentionally leak their source code in an effort to prevent a software product from becoming abandonware after it has reached its end-of-life, allowing the community to continue development and support. Reasons for leaking instead of a proper release to public domain or as open-source can include scattered or lost intellectual property rights. An example is the video game Falcon 4.0 [31] [32] which became available in 2000; another one is Dark Reign 2 , [33] [34] which was released by an anonymous former Pandemic Studios developer in 2011. Another notable example is an archive of Infocom's video games source code which appeared from an anonymous Infocom source and was archived by the Internet Archive in 2008. [35]

Abandonware is a product, typically software, ignored by its owner and manufacturer, and for which no support is available. Although such software is usually still under copyright, the owner may not be tracking copyright violations.

"End-of-life" (EOL) is a term used with respect to a product supplied to customers, indicating that the product is in the end of its useful life, and a vendor stops marketing, selling, or rework sustaining it. In the specific case of product sales, a vendor may employ the more specific term "end-of-sale" (EOS). The time-frame after the last production date depends on the product and relates to the expected product lifetime from a customer's point of view. Different lifetime examples include toys from fast food chains, mobile phones and cars.

The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have expired, been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable.

Other leaks

Microsoft U.S.-headquartered technology company

Microsoft Corporation (MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington. It develops, manufactures, licenses, supports and sells computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, and related services. Its best known software products are the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems, the Microsoft Office suite, and the Internet Explorer and Edge web browsers. Its flagship hardware products are the Xbox video game consoles and the Microsoft Surface lineup of touchscreen personal computers. As of 2016, it is the world's largest software maker by revenue, and one of the world's most valuable companies. The word "Microsoft" is a portmanteau of "microcomputer" and "software". Microsoft is ranked No. 30 in the 2018 Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue.

The Halloween documents comprise a series of confidential Microsoft memoranda on potential strategies relating to free software, open-source software, and to Linux in particular, and a series of media responses to these memoranda. Both the leaked documents and the responses were published by Eric S. Raymond in 1998.

Eric S. Raymond American computer programmer, author, and advocate for the open source movement

Eric Steven Raymond, often referred to as ESR, is an American software developer, author of the widely cited 1997 essay and 1999 book The Cathedral and the Bazaar and other works, and open-source software advocate. He wrote a guidebook for the Roguelike game NetHack. In the 1990s, he edited and updated the Jargon File, currently in print as The New Hacker's Dictionary.

High-profile Internet leaks

See also

Related Research Articles

Wine (software) software for Unix-like operating systems

Wine is a free and open-source compatibility layer that aims to allow computer programs developed for Microsoft Windows to run on Unix-like operating systems. Wine also provides a software library, known as Winelib, against which developers can compile Windows applications to help port them to Unix-like systems.

Snes9x free SNES emulator software

Snes9x is an SNES emulator written in C++ with official ports for DOS, Linux, Microsoft Windows, AmigaOS 4, macOS, MorphOS, Xbox, PSP, PS3, Nintendo GameCube, Nintendo Wii, iOS, and Android. Both Windows RT and Windows Phone 8 have an unofficial port named Snes8x.

A source-code repository is a file archive and web hosting facility where a large amount of source code, for software or for web pages, is kept, either publicly or privately. They are often used by open-source software projects and other multi-developer projects to handle various versions. They help developers submit patches of code in an organized fashion. Often these web sites support version control, bug tracking, release management, mailing lists, and wiki-based documentation...

Microsoft Visual SourceSafe (VSS) is a discontinued source control program, oriented towards small software development projects. Like most source control systems, SourceSafe creates a virtual library of computer files. While most commonly used for source code, SourceSafe can handle any type of file in its database, but older versions were shown to be unstable when used to store large amounts of non-textual data such as images, and compiled executables.

CodePlex was a forge website by Microsoft. While it was active, it allowed shared development of open-source software. Its features includes wiki pages, source control based on Mercurial, Team Foundation Server (TFS), Subversion or Git, discussion forums, issue tracking, project tagging, RSS support, statistics, and releases.

GitHub is a web-based hosting service for version control using Git. It is mostly used for computer code. It offers all of the distributed version control and source code management (SCM) functionality of Git as well as adding its own features.

Etherpad web-based collaborative real-time editor

Etherpad is an open-source, web-based collaborative real-time editor, allowing authors to simultaneously edit a text document, and see all of the participants' edits in real-time, with the ability to display each author's text in their own color. There is also a chat box in the sidebar to allow meta communication.

Mainsoft is a software company, founded in 1993, that develops interoperability software products for Microsoft Windows and Linux/Unix platforms.

Ghostery is a free and open-source privacy and security-related browser extension and mobile browser application. Since February 2017, it has been owned by the German company Cliqz International GmbH. The code was originally developed by David Cancel and associates.

Open Broadcaster Software

Open Broadcaster Software (OBS) is a free and open-source streaming and recording program maintained by the OBS Project. The program has support for Windows 7 and later, macOS 10.10 and later, and Ubuntu 14.04 and later.

OpenLava is an open source workload job scheduling software for a cluster of computers. OpenLava was derived from an early version of Platform LSF. Its configuration file syntax, API, and CLI have been kept unchanged. Therefore, OpenLava is mostly compatible with Platform LSF.

uBlock Origin Free and open-source content-filtering and ad-blocking browser extension

uBlock Origin ( "you-block") is a free and open-source, cross-platform browser extension for content-filtering, including ad-blocking. The extension is available for several browsers: Safari (beta), Chrome, Chromium, Edge, Firefox, and Opera. uBlock Origin has received praise from technology websites, and is reported to be much less memory-intensive than other extensions with similar functionality. uBlock Origin's stated purpose is to give users the means to enforce their own (content-filtering) choices.

GitHub has been the target of censorship from governments using methods ranging from local Internet service provider blocks, intermediary blocking using methods such as DNS hijacking and man-in-the-middle attacks, and denial-of-service attacks on GitHub's servers from countries including China, India, Russia, and Turkey. In all of these cases, GitHub has been eventually unblocked after backlash from users and technology businesses or compliance from GitHub.

Open Live Writer desktop app for developing and publishing blog posts

Open Live Writer is an open-source desktop blogging application released by .NET Foundation. It is a fork of Windows Live Writer 2012 by Microsoft. Open Live Writer features WYSIWYG authoring, photo-publishing and map-publishing functionality, and is currently compatible with WordPress.com, WordPress (hosted), and Blogger, with support for more platforms planned. The app's source code is available on GitHub under the MIT License.

The following table compares notable software frameworks, libraries and computer programs for deep learning.

References

  1. The heavenly jukebox on The Atlantic "To show industries how to use the codec, MPEG cobbled together a free sample program that converted music into MP3 files. The demonstration software created poor-quality sound, and Fraunhofer did not intend that it be used. The software's "source code"—its underlying instructions—was stored on an easily accessible computer at the University of Erlangen, from which it was downloaded by one SoloH, a hacker in the Netherlands (and, one assumes, a Star Wars fan). SoloH revamped the source code to produce software that converted compact-disc tracks into music files of acceptable quality." (2000)
  2. Dr Charles Fairchild (2013). Pop Idols and Pirates: Mechanisms of Consumption and the Global Circulation of Popular Music. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 75. ISBN   978-1-4094-9381-5.
  3. Technologies of Piracy? - Exploring the Interplay Between Commercialism and Idealism in the Development of MP3 and DivX by HENDRIK STORSTEIN SPILKER, SVEIN HÖIER, page 2072, International Journal of Communication 7 (2013)
  4. euronet.nl/~soloh/mpegEnc
  5. When EA Sports Accidentally Put a Game's Source Code on a Demo Disc by Luke Plunkett on kotaku.com (02-05-2012)
  6. "Playable Version of Half-Life 2 Stolen". CNN Money. 2003-10-07. Retrieved February 14, 2007.
  7. Parkin, Simon (2011-02-21). "The Boy Who Stole Half-Life 2 - The story behind the $250 million robbery". eurogamer.net. Retrieved 2013-09-05.
  8. "Half Life 2 Source-Code Leak Delays Debut". TechNewsWorld. Retrieved February 14, 2007.
  9. Catching up with the guy who stole Half-Life 2’s source code, 10 years later by Simon Parkin on Ars Technica (Jun 19, 2016)
  10. fbi-shuts-down-lineage-ii-private-server on mmorpg.com (2007)
  11. CRACKING THE CODE Online IP Theft Is Not a Game on FBI.gov (02/01/2007)
  12. Treiber-Quellcode von 3dfx im Netz aufgetaucht - Von Nvidia offenbar geduldet by Christian Klaß on Golem.de (7 May 2003, in German)
  13. NuAngel.net Drivers on nuangel.net
  14. Windows Code May Be Stolen on PC World by Joris Evers (February 2004)
  15. "We Are Morons: a quick look at the Win2k source || kuro5hin.org". atdt.freeshell.org. Retrieved 2018-09-30.
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  17. "Microsoft Updates Code Leak Statement, Mainsoft Fingered". windowsitpro.com. 2004-02-19. Retrieved 2009-07-03.
  18. "SecurityLab" . Retrieved 15 June 2015.
  19. "Symantec suspected source code breach back in 2006". Ars Technica . Retrieved 15 June 2015.
  20. Humphries, Matthew (2011-05-25). "Eve Online source code posted online, DMCA takedown quickly follows". geek.com. Retrieved 2015-11-07. It looks as though someone has posted the source code for the space MMO Eve Online there. As you’d imagine, developer CCP isn’t too happy about this and was quick to issue the takedown request.
  21. dmca/2011-05-24-cpp-virtual-world-operations.markdown Archived 2015-11-08 at the Wayback Machine on GitHub
  22. Gunz 1.5 Source Code released. on ragezone.com (20 November 2011)
  23. Oracle Solaris 11 Kernel Source-Code Leaked on Phoronix by Michael Larabel (on 19 December 2011)
  24. xray on github.com (August 2014)
  25. xray-16 on github.com
  26. Larabel, Michael (5 January 2016). "Hyperion Confirms Leak Of AmigaOS 3.1 Source Code". Phoronix.
  27. amiga-os-kickstart-and-workbench-source-coded-leaked on December 29, 2015
  28. presto_engine_source_code_available_on_github (2017)
  29. github.com/prestocore
  30. Windows 10 source code leak is an embarrassment for Microsoft - It's less serious than initially thought but still important, given security is high on everyone’s mind. by Swapna Krishna on engadget.com (June 24, 2017)
  31. Hiawatha Bray (2004-01-21). "Diehard pilots keep Falcon flying". Boston.com. Archived from the original on 2004-04-08. Retrieved 2016-06-28.
  32. Bertolone, Giorgio (2011-03-12). "Interview with Kevin Klemmick - Lead Software Engineer for Falcon 4.0". Cleared-To-Engage. Archived from the original on 2011-03-18. Retrieved 2014-08-31. [C2E] In 2000 the source code of Falcon 4.0 leaked out and after that groups of volunteers were able to make fixes and enhancements that assured the longevity of this sim. Do you see the source code leak as a good or bad event? [Klemmick] "Absolutely a good event. In fact I wish I’d known who did it so I could thank them. I honestly think this should be standard procedure for companies that decide not to continue to support a code base."
  33. Timothy (2012-08-07). "Dark Reign 2 Goes Open Source". slashdot.org. Retrieved 2013-08-13. One of Activision's last RTS games, Dark Reign 2, has gone open source under the LGPL.
  34. "darkreign2". Google Code. 2011-09-01. Retrieved 2013-08-19.
  35. Baio, Andy (Apr 17, 2008). "Milliways: Infocom's Unreleased Sequel to Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy". waxy.org. Retrieved 2016-01-26. From an anonymous source close to the company, I've found myself in possession of the "Infocom Drive" — a complete backup of Infocom's shared network drive from 1989.[...] Among the assets included: design documents, email archives, employee phone numbers, sales figures, internal meeting notes, corporate newsletters, and the source code and game files for every released and unreleased game Infocom made
  36. O'Neal, Sean. "An uncensored version of South Park's controversial Muhammad episode has surfaced". The A.V. Club . Retrieved 3 April 2014.
  37. Gonzales, Dave. "Banned Aqua Teen Hunger Force Boston episode leaks online". Geek.com . Retrieved 19 April 2015.
  38. "Ratings for CBS's NCAA tournament selection show were almost as bad as show itself". Washington Post. March 14, 2016.
  39. "NCAA says it's investigating the bracket leak that saved us from the two-hour Selection Sunday show". Los Angeles Times. March 14, 2016.
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