A kick-off is the method of starting and, in some cases, restarting play in a game of association football. The rules concerning the kick-off are part of Law 8 of the Laws of the Game.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport. The game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal.
The Start and Restart of Play is the 8th of the Laws of the Game of association football. It concerns the methods of starting or restarting play in a game via the kick-off and dropped ball. Other methods of restarting play are addressed in other laws.
The Laws of the Game (LOTG) are the codified rules that help define association football. They are the only rules of association football subscribed to by FIFA. The laws mention the number of players a team should have, the game length, the size of the field and ball, the type and nature of fouls that referees may penalise, the frequently misinterpreted offside law, and many other laws that define the sport. During a match, it is the task of the referee to interpret and enforce the Laws of the Game.
A kick-off is used to start each half of play, and each period of extra time where applicable. The kick-off to start a game is awarded to the team that lost the pre-game coin toss (the team that won the coin-toss chooses which direction they wish to play). The kick-off begins when the referee blows the whistle. The kick-off to start the second half is taken by the other team. If extra time is played another coin-toss is used at the beginning of this period.
In association football, the referee is the person responsible for enforcing the Laws of the Game during the course of a match. He or she is the final decision-making authority on all facts connected with play, and is the only official on the pitch with the authority to start and stop play and impose disciplinary action against players during a match. At most levels of play the referee is assisted by two assistant referees, who are empowered to advise the referee in certain situations such as the ball leaving play or infringements of the Laws of the Game occurring out of the view of the referee; however, the assistant referees' decisions are not binding and the referee has authority to overrule an assistant referee. At higher levels of play the referee may also be assisted by a fourth official who supervises the teams' technical areas and assists the referee with administrative tasks, and, at the very highest levels, additional assistant referees and/or video assistant referees.
A kick-off is also used to restart play after a goal is scored, and is taken by the team that conceded the goal.
The kick-off is taken from the centre spot. All players, except for the kicker, must be in their own half of the field of play, and all opposing players must remain at least 10 yards (9.16m) from the ball (a distance marked on the pitch by the centre circle), until the ball is in play.
The ball is initially stationary until it is put into play by being kicked. The player who has first kicked the ball may not touch it again until it has been touched by another player.
A stipulation that this kick must be towards the opponents' goal existed in the rules from 1883until 2016. This resulted in kick-offs typically involving two people (as pictured), with one tapping the ball forward and the other passing it back to the rest of the team. Now a team may kick the ball backwards explaining why the kicker may be in the other half of the field when kicking the ball.
A goal may be scored directly from a kick-off against the opponent.
If a player moves from their required position as detailed above the kick is retaken. Failure to maintain position may constitute misconduct and be punished by a caution (yellow card).
It is an offence for the kicker to touch the ball a second time until it has been touched by another player; this is punishable by an indirect free kick to the defending team from where the offence occurred, unless the second touch was also a more serious handling offence, in which case it is punishable by a direct free kick.
One of the few things we know about the rules of English traditional football is the means by which the matches were started: it appears to have been the custom in several places for the game to start with the ball being "thrown up" in the middle of the field of play by a neutral official. The players would then contest for possession of the ball as it descended.The rules of Surrey Football Club, published in 1849, likewise specify that the game is started by the ball being "tossed up in the centre of the ground".
A game played on Christmas Day 1841 is recorded as having been started with the ball placed in the middle of the field of play, with each team attempting to play the ball as soon as possible after the firing of a pistol.
The oldest published laws of football (Rugby School, 1845) specify that the game is to be started with a "kick off" from the middle of the field of play, which must be a place-kick.Most codes of laws from this era provide for a similar "kick off" from the centre of the ground; these include the Cambridge rules of 1856, the Sheffield rules of 1858, and the rules for Harrow football of 1858. One exception is the laws for the Eton field game (1862), which specify instead a "bully" in the middle of the field (similar to a scrummage in rugby union).
The novel Tom Brown's School Days (published in 1857 but based on the author's experiences at Rugby School from 1834 to 1842) gives a detailed description of the kick-off:
[H]as'nt old Brooke won the toss, with his lucky halfpenny, and got choice of goals, and kick-off? The new ball you may see lie there quite by itself, in the middle, pointing towards the school or island goal; in another minute it will be well on its way there [...] [O]ld Brooke takes a half-a-dozen quick steps, and away goes the ball spinning towards the School goal; seventy yards before it touches ground, and at no point above twelve or fifteen feet high, a model kick-off; and the School-house cheer and rush on; the ball is returned, and they meet it and drive it back amongst the masses of the School already in motion.
The passage above suggests that the winner of the toss, in the Rugby game, was awarded both kick-off and choice of goals. This was also the case in the Cambridge Rules of 1863,while in the Melbourne FC Rules of 1859 and 1860 the winner of the toss chose goals, while the loser kicked off.
The original FA laws of 1863 specify that "[t]he winner of the toss shall have the choice of goals. The game shall be commenced by a place kick from the centre of the ground by the side losing the toss, the other side shall not approach within 10 yards of the ball until it is kicked off". A "place kick" is further defined as "a kick at the ball while on the ground, in any position in which the kicker may choose to place it". Another law states that "[a]fter a goal is won the losing side shall kick off and the goals shall be changed."
The original laws of 1863 specified that the initial kick-off should be taken by the side losing the toss. In 1873, the team winning the toss was given the option of whether to choose ends or to take the initial kick-off.In 1997, the law was changed back, so that the initial kick-off was once again taken by the team losing the toss.
The original laws of 1863 made no provision for half-time. In 1870, based on a proposal by Wanderers F.C., a change of ends was introduced at half-time, but only if no goals had been scored in the first half; the law did not specify the means by which play should be started in the second half.In 1874, a change in the laws proposed by Harrow Chequers specified that a kick-off should occur at the start of the second half, provided no goal had been scored up to that point; this kick-off was taken by same side as originally kicked off the game. In 1875 a further change proposed by Queen's Park F.C. was accepted; there is always a break and change of ends at half-time, and the kick-off for the second half is taken by the opposite team to that which kicked off the first half.
The original laws of 1863 placed no restriction (other than offside) on the players' position during the kick-off, except that opponents could not approach within 10 yards of the ball. In 1874, a new restriction was added that all players had to be in their own half of the field.As of 2016, the kicker is allowed to be in the opponents' half (within 10 yards of the ball when the whistle is blown is assumed).
In 1883, the kick-off was required to be kicked forwards.This restriction was removed in 2016.
In 1875, it was forbidden for the player taking the kick-off to play the ball again until it had been kicked by another player.
In 1875, it was forbidden to score a goal directly from the kick-off.This restriction was reversed in 1997, when it was permitted once again to score a goal directly from the kick-off. In 2016, at the same time the backwards kick-off was legalized, the possibility of scoring an own goal directly from the kick-off (an extremely unlikely situation) was removed, with a corner kick being awarded to the opponents instead.
In 1891, internal pitch-markings were introduced. These included a "suitable mark" at the centre of the pitch and a "circle of radius 10 yards" to mark the area within which opponents were forbidden.
|Date||Awarded at beginning of match||Awarded after goal scored||Awarded at start of second half||Opponents may approach within 10 yards||Players may be in opponents' half||Ball may be kicked backwards||Kicker may play ball again before it is touched by another player||Attacking goal may be scored||Own goal may be scored|
|1863||Yes; to the side losing the toss||Yes; to the side conceding the goal||No||No||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|1873||Yes; the side winning the toss may choose to take the kickoff or to have choice of goals|
|1874||Only if no goals were scored in the first half; awarded to the same team as kicked off the match||No|
|1875||Yes; to the opposite side to that which kicked off the match||No||No||No|
|1997||Yes; to the side losing the toss||Yes||Yes|
|2016||Yes; kicker only||Yes||No|
Canadian football is a sport played in Canada in which two teams of 12 players each compete for territorial control of a field of play 110 yards (101 m) long and 65 yards (59 m) wide attempting to advance a pointed oval-shaped ball into the opposing team's scoring area.
Offside is one of the laws of association football, codified in Law 11 of the Laws of the Game. The law states that a player is in an offside position if any of their body parts, except the hands and arms, are in the opponents' half of the pitch, and closer to the opponents' goal line than both the ball and the second-last opponent. In simple terms players have to be behind the defenders at the point the ball is released
An own goal is an event in competitive goal-scoring sports where a player scores on their own side of the playing area rather than the one defended by the opponent. Own goals sometimes result from the opponent's defensive strength, as when the player is stopped in the scoring area, but can also happen by accident. Since own goals are often added to the opponent's score, they are often an embarrassing blunder for the scoring player, but in certain sports are occasionally done for strategic reasons.
A penalty kick is a method of restarting play in association football, in which a player is allowed to take a single shot on the goal while it is defended only by the opposing team's goalkeeper. It is awarded when a foul punishable by a direct free kick is committed by a player in his or her own penalty area. The shot is taken from the penalty mark, which is 12 yards (11 m) from the goal line and centred between the touch lines.
A corner kick is the method of restarting play in a game of association football when the ball goes out of play over the goal line, without a goal being scored, and having last been touched by a member of the defending team. The kick is taken from the corner of the field of play nearest to where it went out. Corners are considered to be a reasonable goal scoring opportunity for the attacking side, though not as much as a penalty kick or a direct free kick near the edge of the penalty area.
Harrow football is a code of football played between two teams of eleven players, each attempting to win by scoring more bases (goals) than their opponent. Harrow Football is played predominantly with the feet, but players may use any part of their body including, in certain circumstances, their hands and arms to propel the ball. The leather ball is shaped like a giant pork pie, about 18 inches in diameter and 12 inches (300 mm) deep. It tends to soak up mud and water and become extremely heavy.
American and Canadian football are gridiron codes of football that are very similar. Both have their origins in rugby football. There are, however, some key differences.
Game play in American football consists of a series of downs, individual plays of short duration, outside of which the ball is dead or not in play. These can be plays from scrimmage – passes, runs, punts, or field goal attempts – or free kicks such as kickoffs and fair catch kicks. Substitutions can be made between downs, which allows for a great deal of specialization as coaches choose the players best suited for each particular situation. During a play, each team should have no more than 11 players on the field, and each of them has specific tasks assigned for that specific play.
A goal kick, called a goalie kick in some regions, is a method of restarting play in a game of association football. Its procedure is dictated by Law 16 of the Laws of the Game.
A throw-in is a method of restarting play in a game of football when the ball has exited the side of the field of play.
A dropped-ball is a method of restarting play in a game of association football. It is designed to offer no advantage to either side, generally being awarded when play has been stopped due to reasons other than normal gameplay, fouls, or misconduct. The rules concerning the dropped-ball are part of Law 8 of the Laws of the Game.
Like most forms of modern football, rugby league football is played outdoors on a rectangular grass field with goals at each end that are to be attacked and defended by two opposing teams. The rules of rugby league have changed significantly over the decades since rugby football split into the league and union codes. This article details the modern form of the game and how it is generally played today, however rules do vary slightly between specific competitions.
In the sport of association football, fouls and misconduct are acts committed by players which are deemed by the referee to be unfair and are subsequently penalized. An offense may be a foul, misconduct or both depending on the nature of the offence and the circumstances in which it occurs. Fouls and misconduct are addressed in Law 12 of the Laws of the Game.
The rules of Australian rules football were first formed by the Melbourne Football Club in 1859, and been refined over the years as the game evolved into its modern form. The laws significantly predate the advent of a governing body for the sport. The first national and international body, the Australasian Football Council, was formed in 1905 to govern Australian Football. Since 1994, the rules for the game known as Australian football have been governed by the AFL and the organisation's Laws of the Game committee.
This list of rugby league terms is a general glossary of the terminology used in the sport of rugby league football. The sport has accrued a considerable amount of jargon to describe aspects of the game. Many terms originate from the Laws of the Game. A number of aspects of the game have more than one term that refers to them. Different terms have become popularly used to describe an aspect of the game in different places with notable differences between the northern and southern hemispheres.
The laws of Rugby Union are defined by World Rugby and dictate how the game should be played. They are enforced by a referee, generally with the help of two assistant referees.
In games of association football teams compete to score the most goals during the match. A goal is scored when the ball passes completely over a goal line at each end of the field of play between two centrally positioned upright goal posts 24 feet (7.32 m) apart and underneath a horizontal crossbar at a height of 8 feet (2.44 m) — this frame is also referred to as a goal. Each team aims to score at one end of the pitch, while also preventing their opponents scoring at the other. Nets are usually attached to the goal frame to catch goalscoring balls, but the ball is not required to touch the net.
Futsal began in the 1930s in South America as a version of association football, taking elements of its parent game into an indoor format so players could still play during inclement weather. Over the years, both sports have developed, creating a situation where the two sports share common traits while also hosting various differences.
Determining the Outcome of a Match is the 10th of the Laws of the Game of association football.
A kick-off starts both halves of a match, both halves of extra time and restarts play after a goal has been scored. Free kicks (direct or indirect), penalty kicks, throw-ins, goal kicks and corner kicks are other restarts (see Laws 13–17).
The ball was thrown up between the parties by the Duke of Buccleuch
On beginning a second time, two of the gentlemen of opposite parties met together at the ball with such violence, the one of them had his leg broke, and the other his shoulder dislocated
Through the interference of the authorities at Market Rasen, the annual nuisance of foot-ball playing in the streets of that town on Shrove Tuesday has been discontinued [...] This year, although several groups of men and boys were observed in various parts of the town, no attempt was made to throw up the ball
the ball was placed in the middle of the field, and both parties, at the fire of the pistol, started for the game, the Fearnoughts getting the first kick
At the commencement of the play the ball shall be kicked off from the middle of the ground: after every goal there shall be a kick-off in the same way
Kick off from middle must be a place kick
The Ball must be kicked off from the middle of the ground, halfway between the two Bases
The game lasts an hour, and is commenced by a "bully" in the middle of the field
The choice of goals and kick off shall be determined by tossing
The winners of the toss shall have the option of kick off or choice of goals.
A coin is tossed and the team which wins the toss decides which goal it will attack in the first half of the match. The other team takes the kick-off to start the match
In the event, however, of no goal having fallen to either party at the lapse of half the allotted time, ends shall then be changed.
In the event, however, of no goal having fallen to either side at the lapse of half the allotted time, ends shall then be changed. [...] After the change of ends at half-time the same side as originally kicked off shall kick off as provided in the second part of Rule II.
[A]fter the change of ends at half-time the ball shall be kicked off by the opposite side from that which originally did so
nor shall any player on either side pass the centre of the ground in the direction of his opponents' goal until the ball is kicked off.
...all players, except the player taking the kick-off, must be in their own half of the field of play.
The game shall be commenced by a place-kick from the centre of the ground in the direction of the opposite goal-line
In no case shall a goal be scored from any free kick, nor shall the ball be again played by the kicker until it has been played by another player. The kick-off and corner-flag kick shall be free kicks within the meaning of this rule.
A goal may be scored directly from the kick-off
A goal may be scored directly against the opponents from the kick-off