The Mutharaiyar dynasty was a royal family in what is now the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. They governed the Tanjore, Trichy and Pudukottai regions between 600-900 CE.
According to scholars, Earliest known line of Andhra Cholas Who were the descendantsof the great King Karikala were found in Renadu or Maharajapadi ( king's country ) from about the beginning of the sixth to the middle of the ninth century A.D. The family seems to have begun its rule at Erigal or Nidugal in the Tumkur district on the borderland between the Pallava and Kadamba dominions.The earliest king of whom we hear is Nandivarman, ( A.D. 500 ) whose name indicates a subordinate relation to the Pallavas of Kanchi. Of the three sons of Nandivarman, The Eldest - Simhavishnu ( another Pallava name ). The younger brothers of Simhavishnu were Sundarananda and Dhananjaya, the latter being described as Erigal Mutturaju Dhananjaya ruling Renadu. All the brothers seems to have simultaneously ruled in different areas according to the Malepadu plates of Punyakumara. A brief genealogy of these clan was drawn by K. A. Nilakanta Sastri with the help of Melapadu plates
Dhananjaya was followed by his son Navarama or Mahendra vikrama I Chola Maharaja ( AD.600 ) He holds the title Muditasilakshara, justified by his well - chiselled stone inscriptions. ( Srikantha, who is the father of Vijayalaya Chola, who is founder of the Imperial Chola dynasty was born out from the lineage of this Navarama) at first, Navarama was subordinate of Simhavishnu and Mahendra - varman I of Kanchi, as evidenced by the resemblance of his titles with those of Mahendra - varman, he seems to have affirmed his independence later just like Simhavishnu Choda. He had a dugaraja ( Yuvaraja ) of Erigal under him, possibly his eldest son Gunamudita. The youngest son Punyakumara was Mutturaja of Erigal and over southern Renadu with Chippili as his capital. After Gunamudita's rule as king ( 620-25 ), he succeeded him in the rule of Renadu with Malepadu as capital.
The Tamil language literary work Muthollaayiram lauds about the Mutturaja chieftains. [ full citation needed ] Discendands of Gunamudita established themselves as Lords of the Tanjore district in Chola Country of Tamilnadu.The most famous rulers were Perumbidigu Muttaraiyar, also called Kuvavan Maaran, his son Maaran Parameswaran alias Ilangovadiaraiyan followed by Suvaran Maaran alias Perumbidigu Muttaraiyan II. [ need quotation to verify ]
During the 7th to 8th centuries, the Mutharaiyar served as feudatories of the Pallava dynasty and controlled the fertile plains of the Kaveri region. An inscription in the Vaikuntha Perumal temple in Kanchipuram mentions a Mutharaiyar chief receiving Nandivarman II at the latter's coronation. According to historian T. A. Gopinatha Rao, this chief was Suvaran Maaran (also called Perumbidigu Muthurayar II).Suvaran Maaran is styled as valaiyar in this epigraph. According to historian Mahalingam, Suvaran Maaran fought along with Udayachandra, the Pallava general of Nandivarman II, in at least twelve battles against the Cheras and Pandyas.
The Sendalai inscription of Suvaran Maran states that Tanjore and Vallam were under his control. When the Cholas came to power in 850, Vijayalaya Chola wrested control of Tanjore from the Mutharaiyar chieftains and turned them into vassals. [ full citation needed ]
The Pandya Dynasty, also known as the Pandyas of Madurai, was a dynasty of south India, one of the three ethnically Tamil lineages, the other two being the Chola and the Chera. The rulers of the three dynasties were referred to as "the three crowned rulers of the Tamil country". The Pandyas ruled extensive territories, at times including the large portions of present-day south India and Sri Lanka.
The Pallava dynasty was an Indian dynasty that existed from 275 CE to 897 CE, ruling a portion of southern India. They gained prominence after the eclipse of the Satavahana dynasty, whom the Pallavas served as feudatories.
Simhavishnu, also known as Avanisimha, son of Simhavarman III and one of the Pallava kings of India, was responsible for the revival of the Pallavan dynasty. He was the first Pallava monarch whose domain extended beyond Kanchipuram (Kanchi) in the South. He was portrayed as a great conqueror in Mattavilasa Prahasana, a drama written by his son Mahendravarman I.
The Chola dynasty was a Tamil dynasty of southern India, one of the longest-ruling dynasties in the world's history. The earliest datable references to the Chola are in inscriptions from the 3rd century BCE left by Ashoka, of the Maurya Empire. As one of the Three Crowned Kings of Tamilakam, along with the Chera and Pandya, the dynasty continued to govern over varying territory until the 13th century CE. Despite these ancient origins, the period when it is appropriate to speak of a "Chola Empire" only begins with the medieval Cholas in the mid-9th century CE.
Vijayalaya Chola was a king of South India who founded the imperial Chola Empire. He ruled over the region to the north of the river Kaveri.
Karikala was a Tamil Chola king who ruled southern India. He is credited with the conquest of the whole of India up to the Himalayas and the construction of the flood banks of the river Kaveri. He is recognised as the greatest of the Early Cholas.
The Kalabhra dynasty, also called Kalabra, Kalappirar, Kallupura or Kalvar were rulers of all or parts of Tamil region sometime between 3rd-century and 6th-century CE, after ancient dynasties of early Cholas, early Pandyas and Chera. Information about the origin and reign of the Kalabhras is uncertain and scarce. Their proposed roots vary from southeast region of modern Karnataka, Kalappalars of Vellala community, to Kalavar chieftains. The Kalabhra era is sometimes referred to as the "dark period" of Tamil history, and information about it is generally inferred from any mentions in the literature and inscriptions that are dated many centuries after their era ended.
Rajendra Chola II reigned as the Chola king succeeding his elder brother Rajadhiraja Chola in the 11th century. He is best remembered for his role in the battle of Koppam along with his elder brother where he dramatically turned the tables on the Chalukyan King Someshvara I, after the death of his brother in 1052. During his early reign an expedition was led to Sri Lanka, in the course of which the Sri Lanka army was routed and their king Vijayabahu I of Polonnaruwa was driven to take refuge in a mountain-fortress. He maintained the Chola Empire well as the distribution of his records show that the Chola Empire did not suffer any loss of territory during his reign.
Vikrama Chola, known as Kō Parakēsari Varman, was a 12th-century king of the Chola Empire in southern India. He succeeded his father Kulothunga I to the throne.
The Telugu Chodas or Telugu Cholas ruled parts of present-day Andhra Pradesh between the sixth and the thirteenth century.
The region of Tamil Nadu or Tamilakam, in the southeast of modern India, shows evidence of having had continuous human habitation from 15,000 BCE to 10,000 BCE. Throughout its history, spanning the early Upper Paleolithic age to modern times, this region has coexisted with various external cultures.
Kadava was the name of a Tamil ruling dynasty who ruled parts of the Tamil country during the thirteenth and the fourteenth century. Kadavas were related to the Pallava dynasty and ruled from Kudalur near Cuddalore in Tamil Nadu. Hiranyavarman, the father of Nandivarman II Pallavamalla is said to have belonged to the Kadavakula in epigraphs. Nandivarman II himself is described as "one who was born to raise the prestige of the Kadava family". Chiefs bearing the Kadava title figure as feudatories of the Cholas as early as the 12th century. During the reign of Kulothunga Chola II, there was a vassal called Palli Alappirandan Elisaimohan alias Kulottungasola Kadavaradittan. The Kadava kingdom was at the height of their power briefly during the reigns of Kopperunchinga I and Kopperunchinga II. These two rulers were powerful enough to challenge the waning Chola dynasty during the reign of Rajaraja Chola III and Rajendra Chola III. The two Kopperunchingas have left a large number of inscriptions mostly in the North and South Arcot districts and in the Chingleput district.
Dharmapala Kamboja was probably the last ruler of Kamboja Pala dynasty of Bengal. He ruled Dandabhukti-mandala in Vardhamana-bhukti in the first quarter of eleventh century and was contemporary of Rajendra Chola of Chola dynasty of Deccan.
Kadungon was a Pandya king of early historic south India. He is chiefly remembered for reviving the Pandya dynastic power in south India. Along with the Pallava king Simhavishnu, he is credited with ending the Kalabhra rule, marking the beginning of a new era in south India.
Arikesari Maravarman, also known as Parankusa, was a Pandya king of early medieval south India.
Muthuraja or Mutharaiyar also known as Kudiyaanavar, Ambalakarar is a Tamil speaking community prevalent in southern India. They were historically zamindars and landlords. Their primary occupation is agriculture and trade. The Muthuraja people are the descendants of the Muttaraiyar line of kings who ruled the districts of Trichy, Thanjavur and Pudukottai between the sixth and the ninth century. The Muthuraja people are spread throughout rural area around Trichy region. The community is mostly distributed in the Tiruchirappalli, Pudukkottai, Tanjore, Karur, Sivaganga, Thiruvarur and Perambalur districts of Tamil Nadu.
Rai Bahadur Valaiyattur Venkayya was an Indian epigraphist and historian. He served as the Chief Epigraphist to the Government of India from 1908 to 1912.
The Atakur inscription dated 949-950 C.E. is an inscribed memorial stone with classical Kannada composition inscription. It was discovered at the Chelleshvara temple at Atakur village about 23 km from Mandya city in the Karnataka state, India. The "motion packed" sculptured hero stone describes two events in poetic Kannada; the battle between "Kali" the hound and a wild boar, and the victory of Rashtrakuta Emperor Krishna III over the Chola dynasty of Tanjore in the famous battle of Takkolam. According to historians I. K. Sarma and Singh memorial stones for warriors are common in medieval India, but one erected in memory of an animal is considered unique.
Perumbidugu Mutharaiyar, also known as Suvaran Maran and Perarasar Perumbidugu Mutharaiyar was a king of Thanjavur who belonged to the Mutharaiyar community. He ruled over Thanjavur, Trichy, Pudukkottai, Perambalur and Thiruvarur as a feudatory of the Pallava dynasty. He attended the coronation of Nandivarman II.
Nriputungavarman was a king of the Pallava dynasty. Nriputungavarman was the son of Nandivarman III. Nrpatungavarman had at two queens, Viramahadevi and Kadavanmadevi, as both appear in his inscriptions as donors. In his architectural contribution, the rock-cut shrine at Namakkal and a Vishnu temple built at Ukkal is made for the queen
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