President of Afghanistan

Last updated
President of the
Islamic Republic of Afghanistan

د افغانستان د اسلامي جمهوریت رئیس
رئيس جمهوری اسلامی افغانستان
National emblem of Afghanistan.svg
Standard of the President of Afghanistan.svg
Afghan President Ashraf Ghani December 2014 (cropped).jpg
Incumbent
Ashraf Ghani

since 29 September 2014
Style The Honourable (Formal)
His Excellency (Diplomatic)
Residence Presidential Citadel, Kabul, Afghanistan
Appointer Direct election
Term length Five years, renewable once
Inaugural holder Mohammed Daoud Khan (Republic)
Hamid Karzai (Islamic Republic)
FormationJuly 17, 1973 (Republic)
December 7, 2004 (Islamic Republic)
Deputy Vice President of Afghanistan
Website Office of the President
National emblem of Afghanistan.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Afghanistan
Flag of Afghanistan.svg Afghanistanportal

The President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan is the head of state and head of government of Afghanistan. The incumbent office holder is Ashraf Ghani.

A head of state is the public persona who officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state. Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers, the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead or concurrently the head of government. In a parliamentary system the head of state is the de jure leader of the nation, and there is a separate de facto leader, often with the title of prime minister. In contrast, a semi-presidential system has both heads of state and government as the leaders de facto of the nation.

Head of government is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments. The term "head of government" is often differentiated from the term "head of state", as they may be separate positions, individuals, or roles depending on the country.

Ashraf Ghani Afghanistani politician

Mohammad Ashraf Ghanī Ahmadzai ; born 19 May 1949 as the son of Shah Jan in Logar, is an Afghan politician and current President of Afghanistan, elected on 21 September 2014. An anthropologist by education, he previously served as finance minister and the chancellor of Kabul University.

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Before the office of the President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan was created in 2004, Afghanistan has been an Islamic republic between 1973 and 1992 and from 2001 onward. Before 1973, it was a monarchy. Between 1992 and 2001, during the civil war, the country was recognized as the Islamic State of Afghanistan, and later the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan.

Afghanistan A landlocked south-central Asian country

Afghanistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in South and Central Asia. Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east; Iran in the west; Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan in the north; and in the far northeast, China. Its territory covers 652,000 square kilometers (252,000 sq mi) and much of it is covered by the Hindu Kush mountain range, which experiences very cold winters. The north consists of fertile plains, whilst the south-west consists of deserts where temperatures can get very hot in summers. Kabul serves as the capital and its largest city.

Islamic republic Theocratic republic based on Islamic law

An Islamic republic is the name given to several states that are officially ruled by Islamic laws, including the Islamic Republics of Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan, and Mauritania. Pakistan first adopted the title under the constitution of 1956. Mauritania adopted it on 28 November 1958. Iran adopted it after the 1979 Iranian Revolution that overthrew the Pahlavi dynasty. Afghanistan adopted it in 2004 after the fall of the Taliban government. Despite having similar names the countries differ greatly in their governments and laws.

Monarchy system of government where the head of state position is inherited within family

A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a group of people comprising a dynasty, embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereign. The power of the monarch may vary from purely symbolic, to partial and restricted, to completely autocratic. In most cases the monarch's position is inherited and lasts until death or abdication. In contrast, elective monarchies require the monarch to be elected. Both types have further variations as there are widely divergent structures and traditions defining monarchy. For example, in some elected monarchies family history is the only criterion for eligibility to be monarch, whereas many hereditary monarchies impose requirements regarding the religion, age, gender, or mental capacity. Occasionally this can result in more than one rival claimants, whose legitimacy is subject to election. There have been cases where the term of a monarch's reign either is fixed in years or continues until certain conditions are satisfied: an invasion being repulsed, for instance.

Eligibility and selection process

Article 62 of the Constitution of Afghanistan of 2004 states that a candidate for the office of President: [1]

Constitution of Afghanistan supreme law of the state Afghanistan

The Constitution of Afghanistan is the supreme law of the state of Afghanistan, which serves as the legal framework between the Afghan government and the Afghan citizens. Although Afghanistan was made a state in 1747 by Ahmad Shah Durrani, the earliest Afghan constitution was written during the reign of Emir Abdur Rahman Khan in the 1890s followed by the 1923 version. The 1964 Constitution of Afghanistan transformed Afghanistan into a modern democracy.

Multiple citizenship, dual citizenship, multiple nationality or dual nationality, is a person's citizenship status, in which a person is concurrently regarded as a citizen of more than one state under the laws of those states. Conceptually, citizenship is focused on the internal political life of the state and nationality is a matter of international dealings.

Crimes against humanity deliberate attack against civilians

Crimes against humanity are certain acts that are deliberately committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian or an identifiable part of a civilian population. The first prosecution for crimes against humanity took place at the Nuremberg trials. Crimes against humanity have since been prosecuted by other international courts as well as in domestic prosecutions. The law of crimes against humanity has primarily developed through the evolution of customary international law. Crimes against humanity are not codified in an international convention, although there is currently an international effort to establish such a treaty, led by the Crimes Against Humanity Initiative.

A term limit is a legal restriction that limits the number of terms an officeholder may serve in a particular elected office. When term limits are found in presidential and semi-presidential systems they act as a method of curbing the potential for monopoly, where a leader effectively becomes "president for life". This is intended to protect a democracy from becoming a de facto dictatorship. Sometimes, there is an absolute or lifetime limit on the number of terms an officeholder may serve; sometimes, the restrictions are merely on the number of consecutive terms he or she may serve.

Powers

The Constitution of Afghanistan grants the president wide powers over military and legislative affairs, with a relatively weak national bicameral national assembly, the Wolesi Jirga (House of the People) and Meshrano Jirga (House of Elders). A president can only serve up to two five-year terms. Hamid Karzai started his first five-year term in 2004. [2] After his second term ended in 2014, Ashraf Ghani Ahmadzai was chosen as the next president.

Hamid Karzai President of Afghanistan

Hamid Karzai is an Afghan politician who was the President of Afghanistan from 22 December 2001 to 29 September 2014, originally as an interim leader and then as President for almost ten years, from 7 December 2004 to 2014. He comes from a politically active family; Karzai's father, uncle and grandfather were all active in Afghan politics and government. Karzai and his father before him, Abdul Ahad Karzai, were each head of the Popalzai tribe of the Durrani tribal confederation.

Latest election

CandidateNominating partyFirst roundSecond round (final result)
Votes%Votes%
Ashraf Ghani Ahmadzai Independent 2,084,54731.564,485,88856.44
Abdullah Abdullah National Coalition 2,972,14145.003,461,63943.56
Zalmai Rassoul Independent 750,99711.37
Abdul Rasul Sayyaf Islamic Dawa 465,2077.04
Qutbuddin Hilal Independent 181,8272.75
Gul Agha Sherzai Independent 103,6361.57
Mohammad Daud Sultanzoy Independent 30,6850.46
Hedayat Amin Arsala Independent 15,5060.23
Invalid/blank votes
Total6,604,5461007,947,527100
Registered votes/turnout
Source: IEC IEC
The presidential palace Presidential Palace - panoramio (6).jpg
The presidential palace

See also

Prime Minister of Afghanistan former governmental position in Afghanistan (1927–1997)

The Prime Minister of Afghanistan was a post in the Afghan government. The position was created in 1927 as an official appointed by the King of Afghanistan. The holder served mostly as an advisor, until the end of the Kingdom of Afghanistan in 1973. During the 1980s, the position was the head of government.

Related Research Articles

Loya jirga jirga

In the Pashtunwali, a code of laws of the Pashtun peoples living in areas of Afghanistan and Pakistan and neighboring countries, loya jirga is a special type of jirga that is mainly organized for choosing a new head of state in case of sudden death, adopting a new constitution, or to settle national or regional issue such as war. It predates modern-day written or fixed laws and is mostly favored by the Pashtun people but to a lesser extent by other nearby groups that have been influenced by Pashtuns.

Politics of Afghanistan government, parties, and political activities in Afghanistan

The politics of Afghanistan consists of the council of ministers, provincial governors and the national assembly, with a president serving as the head of state and commander-in-chief of the Afghan Armed Forces. The nation is currently led by President Ashraf Ghani who is backed by two vice presidents, Abdul Rashid Dostum and Sarwar Danish. In the last decade the politics of Afghanistan have been influenced by NATO countries, particularly the United States, in an effort to stabilise and democratise the country. In 2004, the nation's new constitution was adopted and an executive president was elected. The following year a general election to choose parliamentarians took place.

Parliament of Pakistan Federal legislature of Pakistan

The Parliament of Pakistan is the federal and supreme legislative body of Pakistan. It is a bicameral federal legislature that consists of the Senate as the upper house and the National Assembly, as the lower house. According to the constitution of Islamic Republic of Pakistan, the President of Pakistan is also a component of the Parliament. The National Assembly is elected for a five-year term on the basis of adult franchise and one-man one-vote. The tenure of a Member of the National Assembly is for the duration of the house, or sooner, in case the Member dies or resigns. The tenure of the National Assembly also comes to an end if dissolved on the advice of the Prime Minister or by the president in his discretion under the Constitution.

<i>Jirga</i>

A jirga is a traditional assembly of leaders that make decisions by consensus and according to the teachings of Pashtunwali. It predates modern-day written or fixed-laws and is conducted to settle disputes among the Pashtun people but to a lesser extent among other nearby groups that have been influenced by Pashtuns. Its primary purpose has been to prevent tribal war. Most jirgas are conducted in Afghanistan but also among the Pashtun tribes in neighboring Pakistan, especially in Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK). In 2017, the Pakistani government was aiming to integrate jirgas into the formal justice system.

Elections in Afghanistan

This article gives information on elections in Afghanistan.

House of Elders (Afghanistan) upper house of the legislature of Afghanistan

The House of Elders or Mesherano Jirga, is the upper house of the bicameral National Assembly of Afghanistan, alongside the lower House of the People. The House of Elders primarily has an advisory role rather than a maker of law. However, it does have some veto power.

Cabinet of Afghanistan

The Cabinet of Afghanistan is made of the heads of all the government ministries. The president selects the members of cabinet with the approval of the National Assembly. Candidates for a ministerial position must be an Afghan citizen, be at least 35 years of age and have higher education. Ministers, unlike the president and vice presidents, can have citizenship of another country, but the Wolesi Jirga has in the past rejected ministers for the reason of having dual citizenship.

Sibghatullah Mojaddedi politician, former President of Afghanistan (1992)

Sibghatullah Mojaddedi was an Afghan politician, who served as Acting President after the fall of Mohammad Najibullah's government in April 1992. He was also the founder of the Afghan National Liberation Front, and served as the chairman of the 2003 loya jirga that approved Afghanistan's new constitution.

National Assembly (Afghanistan) legislature of Afghanistan

The National Assembly, also known as the Afghanistan Parliament, is Afghanistan's national legislature. It is a bicameral body, comprising two chambers:

The following lists events that happened during 1977 in Afghanistan.

Outline of Afghanistan

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Afghanistan:

Abdullah Abdullah Afghan politician

Abdullah Abdullah is an Afghan politician, serving as Chief Executive of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan since September 2014. From October 2001 to April 2005, he served as Minister of Foreign Affairs. Prior to that he was a senior member of the Northern Alliance working as an adviser to Ahmad Shah Massoud. He also worked as a medical doctor during the late 1990s.

The Constitution of 1962 was the fundamental law of Islamic Republic of Pakistan from June 1962 until martial law was declared in March 1969. It was abrogated in the same year by president Yahya Khan.

Chief Executive (Afghanistan) Senior position within the government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan

The Chief Executive Officer of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan is a position within the Government of Afghanistan. The extra-constitutional post was created in September 2014 following the disputes that arose after the 2014 Afghan presidential election when both Ashraf Ghani and Abdullah Abdullah claimed victory in that election. As part of a national unity agreement, it was agreed that Ashraf Ghani would assume the presidency and a new post of Chief Executive Officer of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan would be created for Abdullah Abdullah.

Ghani is a letter of the Georgian alphabet.

Humayun Azizi was a governor of Kandahar Province, Afghanistan, from April 2015 until 2017. He has previously been minister for parliamentary affairs in the national government. In 2008 Dr Azizi resumed his further studies in plastic surgery in France and received his certificate in 2009.

References

  1. "The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan". Government of Afghanistan. Archived from the original on 5 March 2009. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
  2. "Meshrano Jirga". Government of Afghanistan. Archived from the original on 2009-02-08. Retrieved 2009-07-15. The Meshrano Jirga of the National Assembly of Afghanistan consists of 102 members. Two-thirds were elected indirectly through Provincial Councils (one-third representing the Provincial Councils and one-third representing the District Councils) and one-third were appointed by the President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan.