Programming team

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A programming team is a team of people who develop or maintain computer software. [1] They may be organised in numerous ways, but the egoless programming team and chief programmer team have been common structures. [2]

Team group linked in a common purpose

A team is a group of individuals working together to achieve their goal.

Egoless programming is a style of computer programming in which personal factors are minimized so that quality may be improved. The cooperative methods suggested are similar to those used by other collective ventures such as Wikipedia.

A chief programmer team is a programming team organized in a star around a "chief" role, granted to the software engineer who understands the system's intentions the best. Other team members get supporting roles.



A programming team comprises people who develop or maintain computer software. [3]

Software maintenance in software engineering is the modification of a software product after delivery to correct faults, to improve performance or other attributes.

Programming team structures

Programming teams may be organised in numerous ways, but the egoless programming team and chief programmer team are two common structures typically used. [2] The main determinants when choosing the programming team structure typically include: difficulty, size, duration, modularity, reliability, time, and sociability. [2]

Egoless programming

An egoless programming team contains groups of ten or fewer programmers. Code is exchanged and goals are set amongst the group members. Leadership is rotated within the group according to the needs and abilities required during a specific time. The lack of structure in the egoless team can result in a weakness of efficiency, effectiveness, and error detection for large-scale projects. Egoless programming teams work best for tasks that are very complex. Individuals that are a part of a decentralized programming team report higher job satisfaction. [2]

Chief programmer team

A chief programmer team will usually contain three-person teams consisting of a chief programmer, senior level programmer, and a program librarian. Additional programmers and analysts are added to the team when necessary. The weaknesses of this structure include a lack of communication across team members, task cooperation, and complex task completion. The chief programmer team works best for tasks that are simpler and straightforward since the flow of information in the team is limited. Individuals that work in this team structure typically report lower work morale. [2]

Shared workstation teams

Pair programming

A development technique where two programmers work together at one workstation.

Mob programming

A software development approach where the whole team works on the same thing, at the same time, in the same space, and at the same computer.

Programming Models

Programming models allow software development teams to develop, deploy, and test projects using these different methodologies.

Waterfall Model

The waterfall model, noted as the more traditional [4] approach, is a linear model of production. The sequence of events of this methodology follows as:

  1. Gather and document requirements
  2. Design
  3. Code and unit test
  4. Perform system testing
  5. Perform user acceptance testing (UAT)
  6. Fix any issues
  7. Deliver the finished product

Each stage is distinct during the software development process, and each stage generally finishes before the next one can begin.

Programming teams using this model are able to design the project early on in the development process allowing teams to focus on coding and testing during the bulk of the work instead of constantly reiterating design. This also allows teams to design completely and more carefully so that teams can have a complete understanding of all software deliverables.

Agile Model

The Agile development model is a more team-based approach to development [5] then the previous waterfall model. Teams work in rapid delivery/deployment which splits work into phases called "sprints". Sprints are usually defined as two weeks of planned software deliverables given to each team/team member.

After each sprint, work is reprioritized and the information learned from the previous sprint is used for future sprint planning. As the sprint work is complete, it can be reviewed and evaluated by the programming team and sent back for another iteration (i.e. next sprint) or closed if completed.

The general principles [6] of the Agile Manifesto [7] are as follows:

See also

Related Research Articles

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Systems development life cycle Systems engineering term

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Feature-driven development (FDD) is an iterative and incremental software development process. It is a lightweight or Agile method for developing software. FDD blends a number of industry-recognized best practices into a cohesive whole. These practices are driven from a client-valued functionality (feature) perspective. Its main purpose is to deliver tangible, working software repeatedly in a timely manner in accordance with the Principles behind the Agile Manifesto.

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  1. Jack Belzer, Albert George Holzman, Allen Kent (October 1, 1979), Encyclopedia of computer science and technology, 13CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 Marilyn Mantei (March 1981). "The Effect of Programming Team Structures on Programming Tasks" (PDF). Communications of the ACM. Vol. 24 no. 3. p. 106-113. Retrieved 2019-03-26.
  3. Jack Belzer, Albert George Holzman, Allen Kent, Encyclopedia of computer science and technology, 13CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  4. Mary Lotz (July 5, 2018), Waterfall vs. Agile: Which is the Right Development Methodology for Your Project?
  5. Mary Lotz (July 5, 2018), Waterfall vs. Agile: Which is the Right Development Methodology for Your Project?
  6. Linchpin SEO Team (March 26, 2019), A Beginners Guide To The Agile Method & Scrums
  7. "Principles behind the Agile Manifesto". 2019-06-11.