In geometry, a **pseudosphere** is a surface with constant negative Gaussian curvature.

- Tractroid
- Universal covering space
- Hyperboloid
- Pseudospherical surfaces
- Relation to solutions to the Sine-Gordon equation
- See also
- References
- External links

A pseudosphere of radius R is a surface in having curvature −1/*R*^{2} in each point. Its name comes from the analogy with the sphere of radius R, which is a surface of curvature 1/*R*^{2}. The term was introduced by Eugenio Beltrami in his 1868 paper on models of hyperbolic geometry.^{ [1] }

The same surface can be also described as the result of revolving a tractrix about its asymptote. For this reason the pseudosphere is also called **tractroid**. As an example, the (half) pseudosphere (with radius 1) is the surface of revolution of the tractrix parametrized by^{ [2] }

It is a singular space (the equator is a singularity), but away from the singularities, it has constant negative Gaussian curvature and therefore is locally isometric to a hyperbolic plane.

The name "pseudosphere" comes about because it has a two-dimensional surface of constant negative Gaussian curvature, just as a sphere has a surface with constant positive Gaussian curvature. Just as the sphere has at every point a positively curved geometry of a dome the whole pseudosphere has at every point the negatively curved geometry of a saddle.

As early as 1693 Christiaan Huygens found that the volume and the surface area of the pseudosphere are finite,^{ [3] } despite the infinite extent of the shape along the axis of rotation. For a given edge radius R, the area is 4π*R*^{2} just as it is for the sphere, while the volume is 2/3π*R*^{3} and therefore half that of a sphere of that radius.^{ [4] }^{ [5] }

The half pseudosphere of curvature −1 is covered by the interior of a horocycle. In the Poincaré half-plane model one convenient choice is the portion of the half-plane with *y* ≥ 1.^{ [6] } Then the covering map is periodic in the x direction of period 2π, and takes the horocycles *y* = *c* to the meridians of the pseudosphere and the vertical geodesics *x* = *c* to the tractrices that generate the pseudosphere. This mapping is a local isometry, and thus exhibits the portion *y* ≥ 1 of the upper half-plane as the universal covering space of the pseudosphere. The precise mapping is

where

is the parametrization of the tractrix above.

In some sources that use the hyperboloid model of the hyperbolic plane, the hyperboloid is referred to as a **pseudosphere**.^{ [7] } This usage of the word is because the hyperboloid can be thought of as a sphere of imaginary radius, embedded in a Minkowski space.

A pseudospherical surface is a generalization of the pseudosphere. A surface which is piecewise smoothly immersed in with constant negative curvature is a pseudospherical surface. The tractroid is the simplest example. Other examples include the Dini's surfaces, breather surfaces, and the Kuen surface.

Pseudospherical surfaces can be constructed from solutions to the Sine-Gordon equation.^{ [8] } A sketch proof starts with reparametrizing the tractroid with coordinates in which the Gauss–Codazzi equations can be rewritten as the Sine-Gordon equation.

In particular, for the tractroid the Gauss–Codazzi equations are the Sine-Gordon equation applied to the static soliton solution, so the Gauss–Codazzi equations are satisfied. In these coordinates the first and second fundamental forms are written in a way that makes clear the Gaussian curvature is -1 for any solution of the Sine-Gordon equations.

Then any solution to the Sine-Gordon equation can be used to specify a first and second fundamental form which satisfy the Gauss–Codazzi equations. There is then a theorem that any such set of initial data can be used to at least locally specify an immersed surface in .

A few examples of Sine-Gordon solutions and their corresponding surface are given as follows:

- Static 1-soliton: pseudosphere
- Moving 1-soliton: Dini's surface
- Breather solution: Breather surface
- 2-soliton: Kuen surface

A **sphere** is a geometrical object that is a three-dimensional analogue to a two-dimensional circle. A sphere is the set of points that are all at the same distance *r* from a given point in three-dimensional space. That given point is the centre of the sphere, and *r* is the sphere's radius. The earliest known mentions of spheres appear in the work of the ancient Greek mathematicians.

In mathematics, **hyperbolic functions** are analogues of the ordinary trigonometric functions, but defined using the hyperbola rather than the circle. Just as the points (cos *t*, sin *t*) form a circle with a unit radius, the points (cosh *t*, sinh *t*) form the right half of the unit hyperbola. Also, similarly to how the derivatives of sin(*t*) and cos(*t*) are cos(*t*) and –sin(*t*) respectively, the derivatives of sinh(*t*) and cosh(*t*) are cosh(*t*) and +sinh(*t*) respectively.

In geometry, a **hyperboloid of revolution**, sometimes called a **circular hyperboloid**, is the surface generated by rotating a hyperbola around one of its principal axes. A **hyperboloid** is the surface obtained from a hyperboloid of revolution by deforming it by means of directional scalings, or more generally, of an affine transformation.

In mathematics, **hyperbolic geometry** is a non-Euclidean geometry. The parallel postulate of Euclidean geometry is replaced with:

In differential geometry, the **Gaussian curvature** or **Gauss curvature**Κ of a smooth surface in three-dimensional space at a point is the product of the principal curvatures, *κ*_{1} and *κ*_{2}, at the given point:

The **sine-Gordon equation** is a nonlinear hyperbolic partial differential equation in 1 + 1 dimensions involving the d'Alembert operator and the sine of the unknown function. It was originally introduced by Edmond Bour (1862) in the course of study of surfaces of constant negative curvature as the Gauss–Codazzi equation for surfaces of curvature −1 in 3-space, and rediscovered by Frenkel and Kontorova (1939) in their study of crystal dislocations known as the Frenkel–Kontorova model. This equation attracted a lot of attention in the 1970s due to the presence of soliton solutions.

In mathematics, **hyperbolic space** of dimension n is the unique simply connected, n-dimensional Riemannian manifold of constant sectional curvature equal to -1. It is homogeneous, and satisfies the stronger property of being a symmetric space. There are many ways to construct it as an open subset of with an explicitly written Riemannian metric; such constructions are referred to as models. Hyperbolic 2-space, **H**^{2}, which was the first instance studied, is also called the hyperbolic plane.

**Eugenio Beltrami** was an Italian mathematician notable for his work concerning differential geometry and mathematical physics. His work was noted especially for clarity of exposition. He was the first to prove consistency of non-Euclidean geometry by modeling it on a surface of constant curvature, the pseudosphere, and in the interior of an *n*-dimensional unit sphere, the so-called Beltrami–Klein model. He also developed singular value decomposition for matrices, which has been subsequently rediscovered several times. Beltrami's use of differential calculus for problems of mathematical physics indirectly influenced development of tensor calculus by Gregorio Ricci-Curbastro and Tullio Levi-Civita.

In geometry, a **tractrix** is the curve along which an object moves, under the influence of friction, when pulled on a horizontal plane by a line segment attached to a pulling point that moves at a right angle to the initial line between the object and the puller at an infinitesimal speed. It is therefore a curve of pursuit. It was first introduced by Claude Perrault in 1670, and later studied by Isaac Newton (1676) and Christiaan Huygens (1693).

In hyperbolic geometry, a **hyperbolic triangle** is a triangle in the hyperbolic plane. It consists of three line segments called *sides* or *edges* and three points called *angles* or *vertices*.

In hyperbolic geometry, the **angle of parallelism **, is the angle at the non-right angle vertex of a right hyperbolic triangle having two asymptotic parallel sides. The angle depends on the segment length *a* between the right angle and the vertex of the angle of parallelism.

In geometry, the **hyperboloid model**, also known as the **Minkowski model** after Hermann Minkowski, is a model of *n*-dimensional hyperbolic geometry in which points are represented by points on the forward sheet *S*^{+} of a two-sheeted hyperboloid in (*n*+1)-dimensional Minkowski space or by the displacement vectors from the origin to those points, and *m*-planes are represented by the intersections of (*m*+1)-planes passing through the origin in Minkowski space with *S*^{+} or by wedge products of *m* vectors. Hyperbolic space is embedded isometrically in Minkowski space; that is, the hyperbolic distance function is inherited from Minkowski space, analogous to the way spherical distance is inherited from Euclidean distance when the *n*-sphere is embedded in (*n*+1)-dimensional Euclidean space.

In geometry, the **Beltrami–Klein model**, also called the **projective model**, **Klein disk model**, and the **Cayley–Klein model**, is a model of hyperbolic geometry in which points are represented by the points in the interior of the unit disk and lines are represented by the chords, straight line segments with ideal endpoints on the boundary sphere.

In hyperbolic geometry an **ideal triangle** is a hyperbolic triangle whose three vertices all are ideal points. Ideal triangles are also sometimes called *triply asymptotic triangles* or *trebly asymptotic triangles*. The vertices are sometimes called **ideal vertices**. All ideal triangles are congruent.

In differential geometry, a **breather surface** is a one-parameter family of mathematical surfaces which correspond to breather solutions of the sine-Gordon equation, a differential equation appearing in theoretical physics. The surfaces have the remarkable property that they have constant curvature , where the curvature is well-defined. This makes them examples of generalized pseudospheres.

In mathematics, the **differential geometry of surfaces** deals with the differential geometry of smooth surfaces with various additional structures, most often, a Riemannian metric. Surfaces have been extensively studied from various perspectives: *extrinsically*, relating to their embedding in Euclidean space and *intrinsically*, reflecting their properties determined solely by the distance within the surface as measured along curves on the surface. One of the fundamental concepts investigated is the Gaussian curvature, first studied in depth by Carl Friedrich Gauss, who showed that curvature was an intrinsic property of a surface, independent of its isometric embedding in Euclidean space.

In hyperbolic geometry, the "law of cosines" is a pair of theorems relating the sides and angles of triangles on a hyperbolic plane, analogous to the planar law of cosines from plane trigonometry, or the spherical law of cosines in spherical trigonometry. It can also be related to the relativistic velocity addition formula.

In geometry, the **Poincaré disk model**, also called the **conformal disk model**, is a model of 2-dimensional hyperbolic geometry in which all points are inside the unit disk, and straight lines are either circular arcs contained within the disk that are orthogonal to the unit circle or diameters of the unit circle.

In the hyperbolic plane, as in the Euclidean plane, each point can be uniquely identified by two real numbers. Several qualitatively different ways of coordinatizing the plane in hyperbolic geometry are used.

- ↑ Beltrami, Eugenio (1868). "Saggio sulla interpretazione della geometria non euclidea" [Treatise on the interpretation of non-Euclidean geometry].
*Gior. Mat.*(in Italian).**6**: 248–312.

(Also Beltrami, Eugenio.*Opere Matematiche*[*Mathematical Works*] (in Italian). Vol. 1. pp. 374–405. ISBN 1-4181-8434-9.;

Beltrami, Eugenio (1869). "Essai d'interprétation de la géométrie noneuclidéenne" [Treatise on the interpretation of non-Euclidean geometry].*Annales de l'École Normale Supérieure*(in French).**6**: 251–288. Archived from the original on 2016-02-02. Retrieved 2010-07-24.) - ↑ Bonahon, Francis (2009).
*Low-dimensional geometry: from Euclidean surfaces to hyperbolic knots*. AMS Bookstore. p. 108. ISBN 0-8218-4816-X., Chapter 5, page 108 - ↑ Stillwell, John (2010).
*Mathematics and Its History*(revised, 3rd ed.). Springer Science & Business Media. p. 345. ISBN 978-1-4419-6052-8., extract of page 345 - ↑ Le Lionnais, F. (2004).
*Great Currents of Mathematical Thought, Vol. II: Mathematics in the Arts and Sciences*(2 ed.). Courier Dover Publications. p. 154. ISBN 0-486-49579-5., Chapter 40, page 154 - ↑ Weisstein, Eric W. "Pseudosphere".
*MathWorld*. - ↑ Thurston, William,
*Three-dimensional geometry and topology*, vol. 1, Princeton University Press, p. 62. - ↑ Hasanov, Elman (2004), "A new theory of complex rays",
*IMA J. Appl. Math.*,**69**: 521–537, doi:10.1093/imamat/69.6.521, ISSN 1464-3634, archived from the original on 2013-04-15 - ↑ Wheeler, Nicholas. "From Pseudosphere to Sine-Gordon equation" (PDF). Retrieved 24 November 2022.

- Stillwell, J. (1996).
*Sources of Hyperbolic Geometry*. Amer. Math. Soc & London Math. Soc. - Henderson, D. W.; Taimina, D. (2006). "Experiencing Geometry: Euclidean and Non-Euclidean with History".
*Aesthetics and Mathematics*(PDF). Springer-Verlag. - Kasner, Edward; Newman, James (1940).
*Mathematics and the Imagination*. Simon & Schuster. pp. 140, 145, 155.

- Non Euclid
- Crocheting the Hyperbolic Plane: An Interview with David Henderson and Daina Taimina
- Norman Wildberger lecture 16, History of Mathematics, University of New South Wales. YouTube. 2012 May.
- Pseudospherical surfaces at the virtual math museum.

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