# Hyperboloid model

Last updated

In geometry, the hyperboloid model, also known as the Minkowski model after Hermann Minkowski, is a model of n-dimensional hyperbolic geometry in which points are represented by points on the forward sheet S+ of a two-sheeted hyperboloid in (n+1)-dimensional Minkowski space or by the displacement vectors from the origin to those points, and m-planes are represented by the intersections of (m+1)-planes passing through the origin in Minkowski space with S+ or by wedge products of m vectors. Hyperbolic space is embedded isometrically in Minkowski space; that is, the hyperbolic distance function is inherited from Minkowski space, analogous to the way spherical distance is inherited from Euclidean distance when the n-sphere is embedded in (n+1)-dimensional Euclidean space.

## Contents

Other models of hyperbolic space can be thought of as map projections of S+: the Beltrami–Klein model is the projection of S+ through the origin onto a plane perpendicular to a vector from the origin to specific point in S+ analogous to the gnomonic projection of the sphere; the Poincaré disk model is a projection of S+ through a point on the other sheet S onto perpendicular plane, analogous to the stereographic projection of the sphere; the Gans model is the orthogonal projection of S+ onto a plane perpendicular to a specific point in S+, analogous to the orthographic projection; the band model of the hyperbolic plane is a conformal “cylindrical” projection analogous to the Mercator projection of the sphere; Lobachevsky coordinates are a cylindrical projection analogous to the equirectangular projection (longitude, latitude) of the sphere.

If (x0, x1, ..., xn) is a vector in the (n + 1)-dimensional coordinate space Rn+1, the Minkowski quadratic form is defined to be

${\displaystyle Q(x_{0},x_{1},\ldots ,x_{n})=-x_{0}^{2}+x_{1}^{2}+\ldots +x_{n}^{2}.}$

The vectors vRn+1 such that Q(v) = -1 form an n-dimensional hyperboloid S consisting of two connected components, or sheets: the forward, or future, sheet S+, where x0>0 and the backward, or past, sheet S, where x0<0. The points of the n-dimensional hyperboloid model are the points on the forward sheet S+.

The Minkowski bilinear form B is the polarization of the Minkowski quadratic form Q,

${\displaystyle B(\mathbf {u} ,\mathbf {v} )=(Q(\mathbf {u} +\mathbf {v} )-Q(\mathbf {u} )-Q(\mathbf {v} ))/2.}$

(This is sometimes also written using scalar product notation ${\displaystyle \mathbf {u} \cdot \mathbf {v} .}$) Explicitly,

${\displaystyle B((x_{0},x_{1},\ldots ,x_{n}),(y_{0},y_{1},\ldots ,y_{n}))=-x_{0}y_{0}+x_{1}y_{1}+\ldots +x_{n}y_{n}.}$

The hyperbolic distance between two points u and v of S+ is given by the formula

${\displaystyle d(\mathbf {u} ,\mathbf {v} )=\operatorname {arcosh} (-B(\mathbf {u} ,\mathbf {v} )),}$

where is the inverse function of hyperbolic cosine.

### Choice of metric signature

The bilinear form ${\displaystyle B}$ also functions as the metric tensor over the space. In n+1 dimensional Minkowski space, there are two choices for the metric with opposite signature, in the 3-dimensional case either (+, −, −) or (−, +, +).

If the signature (−, +, +) is chosen, then the scalar square of chords between distinct points on the same sheet of the hyperboloid will be positive, which more closely aligns with conventional definitions and expectations in mathematics. Then n-dimensional hyperbolic space is a Riemannian space and distance or length can be defined as the square root of the scalar square. If the signature (+, −, −) is chosen, scalar square between distinct points on the hyperboloid will be negative, so various definitions of basic terms must be adjusted, which can be inconvenient. Nonetheless, the signature (+, −, −, −) is also common for describing spacetime in physics. (Cf. Sign convention#Metric signature.)

## Straight lines

A straight line in hyperbolic n-space is modeled by a geodesic on the hyperboloid. A geodesic on the hyperboloid is the (non-empty) intersection of the hyperboloid with a two-dimensional linear subspace (including the origin) of the n+1-dimensional Minkowski space. If we take u and v to be basis vectors of that linear subspace with

${\displaystyle B(\mathbf {u} ,\mathbf {u} )=1}$
${\displaystyle B(\mathbf {v} ,\mathbf {v} )=-1}$
${\displaystyle B(\mathbf {u} ,\mathbf {v} )=B(\mathbf {v} ,\mathbf {u} )=0}$

and use w as a real parameter for points on the geodesic, then

${\displaystyle \mathbf {u} \sinh w+\mathbf {v} \cosh w}$

will be a point on the geodesic. [1]

More generally, a k-dimensional "flat" in the hyperbolic n-space will be modeled by the (non-empty) intersection of the hyperboloid with a k+1-dimensional linear subspace (including the origin) of the Minkowski space.

## Isometries

The indefinite orthogonal group O(1,n), also called the (n+1)-dimensional Lorentz group, is the Lie group of real (n+1)×(n+1) matrices which preserve the Minkowski bilinear form. In a different language, it is the group of linear isometries of the Minkowski space. In particular, this group preserves the hyperboloid S. Recall that indefinite orthogonal groups have four connected components, corresponding to reversing or preserving the orientation on each subspace (here 1-dimensional and n-dimensional), and form a Klein four-group. The subgroup of O(1,n) that preserves the sign of the first coordinate is the orthochronous Lorentz group , denoted O+(1,n), and has two components, corresponding to preserving or reversing the orientation of the spatial subspace. Its subgroup SO+(1,n) consisting of matrices with determinant one is a connected Lie group of dimension n(n+1)/2 which acts on S+ by linear automorphisms and preserves the hyperbolic distance. This action is transitive and the stabilizer of the vector (1,0,...,0) consists of the matrices of the form

${\displaystyle {\begin{pmatrix}1&0&\ldots &0\\0&&&\\\vdots &&A&\\0&&&\\\end{pmatrix}}}$

Where ${\displaystyle A}$ belongs to the compact special orthogonal group SO(n) (generalizing the rotation group SO(3) for n = 3). It follows that the n-dimensional hyperbolic space can be exhibited as the homogeneous space and a Riemannian symmetric space of rank 1,

${\displaystyle \mathbb {H} ^{n}=\mathrm {SO} ^{+}(1,n)/\mathrm {SO} (n).}$

The group SO+(1,n) is the full group of orientation-preserving isometries of the n-dimensional hyperbolic space.

In more concrete terms, SO+(1,n) can be split into n(n-1)/2 rotations (formed with a regular Euclidean rotation matrix in the lower-right block) and n hyperbolic translations, which take the form

${\displaystyle {\begin{pmatrix}\cosh \alpha &\sinh \alpha &0&\ldots \\\sinh \alpha &\cosh \alpha &0&\ldots \\0&0&1&\\\vdots &\vdots &&\ddots \\\end{pmatrix}}}$

where ${\displaystyle \alpha }$ is the distance translated (along the x axis in this case), and the 2nd row/column can be exchanged with a different pair to change to a translation along a different axis. The general form of a translation in 3 dimensions along the vector ${\displaystyle (w,x,y,z)}$ is:

${\displaystyle {\begin{pmatrix}w&x&y&z\\x&{\frac {x^{2}}{w+1}}+1&{\frac {yx}{w+1}}&{\frac {zx}{w+1}}\\y&{\frac {xy}{w+1}}&{\frac {y^{2}}{w+1}}+1&{\frac {zy}{w+1}}\\z&{\frac {xz}{w+1}}&{\frac {yz}{w+1}}&{\frac {z^{2}}{w+1}}+1\\\end{pmatrix}}}$ where ${\displaystyle w={\sqrt {x^{2}+y^{2}+z^{2}+1}}}$.

This extends naturally to more dimensions, and is also the simplified version of a Lorentz boost when you remove the relativity-specific terms.

### Examples of groups of isometries

The group of all isometries of the hyperboloid model is O+(1,n). Any group of isometries is a subgroup of it.

#### Reflections

For two points ${\displaystyle \mathbf {p} ,\mathbf {q} \in \mathbb {H} ^{n},\mathbf {p} \neq \mathbf {q} }$, there is a unique reflection exchanging them.

Let ${\displaystyle \mathbf {u} ={\frac {\mathbf {p} -\mathbf {q} }{\sqrt {Q(\mathbf {p} -\mathbf {q} )}}}}$. Note that ${\displaystyle Q(\mathbf {u} )=1}$, and therefore ${\displaystyle u\notin \mathbb {H} ^{n}}$.

Then

${\displaystyle \mathbf {x} \mapsto \mathbf {x} -2B(\mathbf {x} ,\mathbf {u} )\mathbf {u} }$

is a reflection that exchanges ${\displaystyle \mathbf {p} }$ and ${\displaystyle \mathbf {q} }$. This is equivalent to the following matrix:

${\displaystyle R=I-2\mathbf {u} \mathbf {u} ^{\operatorname {T} }{\begin{pmatrix}-1&0\\0&I\\\end{pmatrix}}}$

(note the use of block matrix notation).

Then ${\displaystyle \{I,R\}}$ is a group of isometries. All such subgroups are conjugate.

#### Rotations and reflections

${\displaystyle S=\left\{{\begin{pmatrix}1&0\\0&A\\\end{pmatrix}}:A\in O(n)\right\}}$

is the group of rotations and reflections that preserve ${\displaystyle (1,0,\dots ,0)}$. The function ${\displaystyle A\mapsto {\begin{pmatrix}1&0\\0&A\\\end{pmatrix}}}$ is an isomorphism from O(n) to this group. For any point ${\displaystyle p}$, if ${\displaystyle X}$ is an isometry that maps ${\displaystyle (1,0,\dots ,0)}$ to ${\displaystyle p}$, then ${\displaystyle XSX^{-1}}$ is the group of rotations and reflections that preserve ${\displaystyle p}$.

#### Translations

For any real number ${\displaystyle t}$, there is a translation

${\displaystyle L_{t}={\begin{pmatrix}\cosh t&\sinh t&0\\\sinh t&\cosh t&0\\0&0&I\\\end{pmatrix}}}$

This is a translation of distance ${\displaystyle t}$ in the positive x direction if ${\displaystyle t\geq 0}$ or of distance ${\displaystyle -t}$ in the negative x direction if ${\displaystyle t\leq 0}$. Any translation of distance ${\displaystyle t}$ is conjugate to ${\displaystyle L_{t}}$ and ${\displaystyle L_{-t}}$. The set ${\displaystyle \left\{L_{t}:t\in \mathbb {R} \right\}}$ is the group of translations through the x-axis, and a group of isometries is conjugate to it if and only if it is a group of isometries through a line.

For example, let's say we want to find the group of translations through a line ${\displaystyle {\overline {\mathbf {p} \mathbf {q} }}}$. Let ${\displaystyle X}$ be an isometry that maps ${\displaystyle (1,0,\dots ,0)}$ to ${\displaystyle p}$ and let ${\displaystyle Y}$ be an isometry that fixes ${\displaystyle p}$ and maps ${\displaystyle XL_{d(\mathbf {p} ,\mathbf {q} )}[1,0,\dots ,0]^{\operatorname {T} }}$ to ${\displaystyle q}$. An example of such a ${\displaystyle Y}$ is a reflection exchanging ${\displaystyle XL_{d(\mathbf {p} ,\mathbf {q} )}[1,0,\dots ,0]^{\operatorname {T} }}$ and ${\displaystyle q}$ (assuming they are different), because they are both the same distance from ${\displaystyle p}$. Then ${\displaystyle YX}$ is an isometry mapping ${\displaystyle (1,0,\dots ,0)}$ to ${\displaystyle p}$ and a point on the positive x-axis to ${\displaystyle q}$. ${\displaystyle (YX)L_{t}(YX)^{-1}}$ is a translation through the line ${\displaystyle {\overline {\mathbf {p} \mathbf {q} }}}$ of distance ${\displaystyle |t|}$. If ${\displaystyle t\geq 0}$, it is in the ${\displaystyle {\overrightarrow {\mathbf {p} \mathbf {q} }}}$ direction. If ${\displaystyle t\leq 0}$, it is in the ${\displaystyle {\overrightarrow {\mathbf {q} \mathbf {p} }}}$ direction. ${\displaystyle \left\{(YX)L_{t}(YX)^{-1}:t\in \mathbb {R} \right\}}$ is the group of translations through ${\displaystyle {\overline {\mathbf {p} \mathbf {q} }}}$.

#### Symmetries of horospheres

Let H be some horosphere such that points of the form ${\displaystyle (w,x,0,\dots ,0)}$ are inside of it for arbitrarily large x. For any vector b in ${\displaystyle \mathbb {R} ^{n-1}}$

${\displaystyle {\begin{pmatrix}1+{\frac {\|\mathbf {b} \|^{2}}{2}}&-{\frac {\|\mathbf {b} \|^{2}}{2}}&\mathbf {b} ^{\operatorname {T} }\\{\frac {\|\mathbf {b} \|^{2}}{2}}&1-{\frac {\|\mathbf {b} \|^{2}}{2}}&\mathbf {b} ^{\operatorname {T} }\\\mathbf {b} &-\mathbf {b} &I\\\end{pmatrix}}}$

is a hororotation that maps H to itself. The set of such hororotations is the group of hororotations preserving H. All hororotations are conjugate to each other.

For any ${\displaystyle A}$ in O(n-1)

${\displaystyle {\begin{pmatrix}1&0&0\\0&1&0\\0&0&A\\\end{pmatrix}}}$

is a rotation or reflection that preserves H and the x-axis. These hororotations, rotations, and reflections generate the group of symmetries of H. The symmetry group of any horosphere is conjugate to it. They are isomorphic to the Euclidean group E(n-1).

## History

In several papers between 1878-1885, Wilhelm Killing [2] [3] [4] used the representation he attributed to Karl Weierstrass for Lobachevskian geometry. In particular, he discussed quadratic forms such as ${\displaystyle k^{2}t^{2}+u^{2}+v^{2}+w^{2}=k^{2}}$ or in arbitrary dimensions ${\displaystyle k^{2}x_{0}^{2}+x_{1}^{2}+\dots +x_{n}^{2}=k^{2}}$, where ${\displaystyle k}$ is the reciprocal measure of curvature, ${\displaystyle k^{2}=\infty }$ denotes Euclidean geometry, ${\displaystyle k^{2}>0}$ elliptic geometry, and ${\displaystyle k^{2}<0}$ hyperbolic geometry.

According to Jeremy Gray (1986), [5] Poincaré used the hyperboloid model in his personal notes in 1880. Poincaré published his results in 1881, in which he discussed the invariance of the quadratic form ${\displaystyle \xi ^{2}+\eta ^{2}-\zeta ^{2}=-1}$. [6] Gray shows where the hyperboloid model is implicit in later writing by Poincaré. [7]

Also Homersham Cox in 1882 [8] [9] used Weierstrass coordinates (without using this name) satisfying the relation ${\displaystyle z^{2}-x^{2}-y^{2}=1}$ as well as ${\displaystyle w^{2}-x^{2}-y^{2}-z^{2}=1}$.

Further exposure of the model was given by Alfred Clebsch and Ferdinand Lindemann in 1891 discussing the relation ${\displaystyle x_{1}^{2}+x_{2}^{2}-4k^{2}x_{3}^{2}=-4k^{2}}$ and ${\displaystyle x_{1}^{2}+x_{2}^{2}+x_{3}^{2}-4k^{2}x_{4}^{2}=-4k^{2}}$. [10]

Weierstrass coordinates were also used by Gérard (1892), [11] Felix Hausdorff (1899), [12] Frederick S. Woods (1903)], [13] Heinrich Liebmann (1905). [14]

The hyperboloid was explored as a metric space by Alexander Macfarlane in his Papers in Space Analysis (1894). He noted that points on the hyperboloid could be written as

${\displaystyle \cosh A+\alpha \sinh A,}$

where α is a basis vector orthogonal to the hyperboloid axis. For example, he obtained the hyperbolic law of cosines through use of his Algebra of Physics. [1]

H. Jansen made the hyperboloid model the explicit focus of his 1909 paper "Representation of hyperbolic geometry on a two sheeted hyperboloid". [15] In 1993 W.F. Reynolds recounted some of the early history of the model in his article in the American Mathematical Monthly. [16]

Being a commonplace model by the twentieth century, it was identified with the Geschwindigkeitsvectoren (velocity vectors) by Hermann Minkowski in his 1907 Göttingen lecture 'The Relativity Principle'. Scott Walter, in his 1999 paper "The Non-Euclidean Style of Minkowskian Relativity" [17] recalls Minkowski's awareness, but traces the lineage of the model to Hermann Helmholtz rather than Weierstrass and Killing.

In the early years of relativity the hyperboloid model was used by Vladimir Varićak to explain the physics of velocity. In his speech to the German mathematical union in 1912 he referred to Weierstrass coordinates. [18]

## Notes and references

1. Alexander Macfarlane (1894) Papers on Space Analysis , B. Westerman, New York, weblink from archive.org
2. Killing, W. (1878) [1877]. "Ueber zwei Raumformen mit constanter positiver Krümmung". Journal für die Reine und Angewandte Mathematik. 86: 72–83.
3. Killing, W. (1880) [1879]. "Die Rechnung in den Nicht-Euklidischen Raumformen". Journal für die Reine und Angewandte Mathematik. 89: 265–287.
4. Killing, W. (1885). Die nicht-euklidischen Raumformen. Leipzig.
5. Linear differential equations and group theory from Riemann to Poincaré (pages 271,2)
6. Poincaré, H. (1881). "Sur les applications de la géométrie non-euclidienne à la théorie des formes quadratiques" (PDF). Association Française Pour l'Avancement des Sciences. 10: 132–138.
7. See also Poincaré: On the fundamental hypotheses of geometry 1887 Collected works vol.11, 71-91 and referred to in the book of B.A. Rosenfeld A History of Non-Euclidean Geometry p.266 in English version (Springer 1988).
8. Cox, H. (1881). "Homogeneous coordinates in imaginary geometry and their application to systems of forces". The Quarterly Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics. 18 (70): 178–192.
9. Cox, H. (1882) [1881]. "Homogeneous coordinates in imaginary geometry and their application to systems of forces (continued)". The Quarterly Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics. 18 (71): 193–215.
10. Lindemann, F. (1891) [1890]. Vorlesungen über Geometrie von Clebsch II. Leipzig. p.  524.
11. Gérard, L. (1892). Sur la géométrie non-Euclidienne. Paris: Gauthier-Villars.
12. Hausdorff, F. (1899). "Analytische Beiträge zur nichteuklidischen Geometrie". Leipziger Math.-Phys. Berichte. 51: 161–214. hdl:2027/hvd.32044092889328.
13. Woods, F. S. (1905) [1903]. "Forms of non-Euclidean space". The Boston Colloquium: Lectures on Mathematics for the Year 1903: 31–74.
14. Liebmann, H. (1905) [1904]. Nichteuklidische Geometrie. Leipzig: Göschen.
15. Abbildung hyperbolische Geometrie auf ein zweischaliges Hyperboloid Mitt. Math. Gesellsch Hamburg 4:409440.
16. Reynolds, William F. (1993) "Hyperbolic geometry on a hyperboloid", American Mathematical Monthly 100:44255, Jstor link
17. Walter, Scott A. (1999), "The non-Euclidean style of Minkowskian relativity", in J. Gray (ed.), The Symbolic Universe: Geometry and Physics 1890-1930, Oxford University Press, pp. 91–127
18. Varićak, V. (1912), , Jahresbericht der Deutschen Mathematiker-Vereinigung, 21: 103–127

## Related Research Articles

In geometry, a hyperboloid of revolution, sometimes called a circular hyperboloid, is the surface generated by rotating a hyperbola around one of its principal axes. A hyperboloid is the surface obtained from a hyperboloid of revolution by deforming it by means of directional scalings, or more generally, of an affine transformation.

In mathematical physics, Minkowski space combines inertial space and time manifolds (x,y) with a non-inertial reference frame of space and time (x',t') into a four-dimensional model relating a position to the field (physics). A four-vector (x,y,z,t) consisting of coordinate axes such as a Euclidean space plus time may be used with the non-inertial frame to illustrate specifics of motion, but should not be confused with the spacetime model generally. The model helps show how a spacetime interval between any two events is independent of the inertial frame of reference in which they are recorded. Although initially developed by mathematician Hermann Minkowski for Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism, the mathematical structure of Minkowski spacetime was shown to be implied by the postulates of special relativity.

In physics and mathematics, the Lorentz group is the group of all Lorentz transformations of Minkowski spacetime, the classical and quantum setting for all (non-gravitational) physical phenomena. The Lorentz group is named for the Dutch physicist Hendrik Lorentz.

In mathematics, hyperbolic geometry is a non-Euclidean geometry. The parallel postulate of Euclidean geometry is replaced with:

In mathematics, conformal geometry is the study of the set of angle-preserving (conformal) transformations on a space.

In mathematics and physics, n-dimensional anti-de Sitter space (AdSn) is a maximally symmetric Lorentzian manifold with constant negative scalar curvature. Anti-de Sitter space and de Sitter space are named after Willem de Sitter (1872–1934), professor of astronomy at Leiden University and director of the Leiden Observatory. Willem de Sitter and Albert Einstein worked together closely in Leiden in the 1920s on the spacetime structure of the universe.

In mathematics, hyperbolic space of dimension n is the unique simply connected, n-dimensional Riemannian manifold of constant sectional curvature equal to -1. It is homogeneous, and satisfies the stronger property of being a symmetric space. There are many ways to construct it as an open subset of with an explicitly written Riemannian metric; such constructions are referred to as models. Hyperbolic 2-space, H2, which was the first instance studied, is also called the hyperbolic plane.

Rotation in mathematics is a concept originating in geometry. Any rotation is a motion of a certain space that preserves at least one point. It can describe, for example, the motion of a rigid body around a fixed point. Rotation can have sign (as in the sign of an angle): a clockwise rotation is a negative magnitude so a counterclockwise turn has a positive magnitude. A rotation is different from other types of motions: translations, which have no fixed points, and (hyperplane) reflections, each of them having an entire (n − 1)-dimensional flat of fixed points in a n-dimensional space.

In non-Euclidean geometry, the Poincaré half-plane model is the upper half-plane, denoted below as H, together with a metric, the Poincaré metric, that makes it a model of two-dimensional hyperbolic geometry.

In geometry, hyperbolic angle is a real number determined by the area of the corresponding hyperbolic sector of xy = 1 in Quadrant I of the Cartesian plane. The hyperbolic angle parametrises the unit hyperbola, which has hyperbolic functions as coordinates. In mathematics, hyperbolic angle is an invariant measure as it is preserved under hyperbolic rotation.

In hyperbolic geometry, the angle of parallelism , is the angle at the non-right angle vertex of a right hyperbolic triangle having two asymptotic parallel sides. The angle depends on the segment length a between the right angle and the vertex of the angle of parallelism.

In abstract algebra, the split-quaternions or coquaternions form an algebraic structure introduced by James Cockle in 1849 under the latter name. They form an associative algebra of dimension four over the real numbers.

In mathematics, a function of a motor variable is a function with arguments and values in the split-complex number plane, much as functions of a complex variable involve ordinary complex numbers. William Kingdon Clifford coined the term motor for a kinematic operator in his "Preliminary Sketch of Biquaternions" (1873). He used split-complex numbers for scalars in his split-biquaternions. Motor variable is used here in place of split-complex variable for euphony and tradition.

In geometry, a three-dimensional space is a mathematical space in which three values (coordinates) are required to determine the position of a point. Most commonly, it is the Euclidean space of dimension three that models physical space. More general three-dimensional spaces are called 3-manifolds.

In relativity, rapidity is commonly used as a measure for relativistic velocity. Mathematically, rapidity can be defined as the hyperbolic angle that differentiates two frames of reference in relative motion, each frame being associated with distance and time coordinates.

In geometry, the Beltrami–Klein model, also called the projective model, Klein disk model, and the Cayley–Klein model, is a model of hyperbolic geometry in which points are represented by the points in the interior of the unit disk and lines are represented by the chords, straight line segments with ideal endpoints on the boundary sphere.

In mathematics, the special linear group SL(2, R) or SL2(R) is the group of 2 × 2 real matrices with determinant one:

In geometry, the unit hyperbola is the set of points (x,y) in the Cartesian plane that satisfy the implicit equation In the study of indefinite orthogonal groups, the unit hyperbola forms the basis for an alternative radial length

In geometry, the Poincaré disk model, also called the conformal disk model, is a model of 2-dimensional hyperbolic geometry in which all points are inside the unit disk, and straight lines are either circular arcs contained within the disk that are orthogonal to the unit circle or diameters of the unit circle.

In the hyperbolic plane, as in the Euclidean plane, each point can be uniquely identified by two real numbers. Several qualitatively different ways of coordinatizing the plane in hyperbolic geometry are used.