Rezen Saddle

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Location of Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands. Livingston-Island-location-map.png
Location of Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands.
Rezen Saddle from Emona Anchorage, with Spanish Knoll in the foreground. Rezen-Saddle.jpg
Rezen Saddle from Emona Anchorage, with Spanish Knoll in the foreground.
Topographic map of central-eastern Livingston Island featuring Rezen Saddle. Central-Eastern-Livingston-Map.png
Topographic map of central-eastern Livingston Island featuring Rezen Saddle.
Topographic map of Livingston Island and Smith Island. Livingston-Island-Map-2010-15.png
Topographic map of Livingston Island and Smith Island.

Rezen Saddle (Bulgarian : Rezenska Sedlovina \'re-zen-ska se-dlo-vi-'na\) is a geographical feature on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The 600 m long horseshoe-shaped flat saddle of elevation 420 m lies between Rezen Knoll and Burdick Ridge in eastern Livingston Island, affording overland access from Balkan Snowfield to upper Perunika Glacier and Bowles Ridge area.

Bulgarian language South Slavic language

Bulgarian, is an Indo-European language and a member of the Southern branch of the Slavic language family.

Livingston Island Island of the South Shetland Islands

Livingston Island is an Antarctic island in the Southern Ocean, part of the South Shetlands Archipelago. It was the first land discovered south of 60° south latitude in 1819, a historic event that marked the end of a centuries-long pursuit of the mythical Terra Australis Incognita and the beginning of the exploration and utilization of real Antarctica. The name Livingston, although of unknown derivation, has been well established in international usage since the early 1820s.

South Shetland Islands A group of islands north of the Antarctic Peninsula

The South Shetland Islands are a group of Antarctic islands with a total area of 3,687 square kilometres (1,424 sq mi). They lie about 120 kilometres (75 mi) north of the Antarctic Peninsula, and between 430 kilometres (270 mi) to 900 kilometres (560 mi) south-west from the nearest point of the South Orkney Islands. By the Antarctic Treaty of 1959, the islands' sovereignty is neither recognized nor disputed by the signatories and they are free for use by any signatory for non-military purposes.

Contents

First visited by the Bulgarians Kuzman Tuhchiev, Dimo Dimov and Ivan Tashukov from St. Kliment Ohridski Base during the 1994/95 season.

St. Kliment Ohridski Base Antarctic base

St. Kliment Ohridski Base is a Bulgarian Antarctic base on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands.

The feature takes its name from the adjacent Rezen Knoll.

Location

The saddle is centred at 62°37′35″S60°15′57″W / 62.62639°S 60.26583°W / -62.62639; -60.26583 Coordinates: 62°37′35″S60°15′57″W / 62.62639°S 60.26583°W / -62.62639; -60.26583 , which is 5.15 km east-northeast of Sinemorets Hill by the Bulgarian base, 3.4 km southwest of Dimov Gate, 3.97 km west of Omurtag Pass, 7.38 km west of Pirdop Gate and 2.23 km northwest of Orpheus Gate (Detailed mapping by the Spanish Servicio Geogràfico del Ejàcito in 1991, Bulgarian mapping in 1996, 2005 and 2009).

Geographic coordinate system Coordinate system

A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.

Sinemorets Hill

Sinemorets Hill is the second most prominent in the chain of hills surmounting Bulgarian Beach in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica.

Dimov Gate

Dimov Gate is a 300 m wide ice-covered pass in Antarctica, located in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica and bounded by Rayna Knyaginya Peak in Bowles Ridge to the southeast and by Hemus Peak to the northwest. The pass separates the glacial catchments of Kaliakra Glacier, and the tributary glacier draining the area between Hemus Peak and Bowles West Peak and flowing west-southwestwards into Perunika Glacier. It affords overland access from Perunika Glacier to the northern slopes of Bowles Ridge and to upper Kaliakra Glacier.

Maps

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Related Research Articles

Bulgarian Beach

Bulgarian Beach is a coast in the north part of Hurd Peninsula, eastern Livingston Island, extending 2.3 km from Hespérides Point to the southwest to Perunika Glacier to the northeast, and forming the southeast coast of Emona Anchorage.

Gurev Gap

Gurev Gap is a flat ice-covered saddle of elevation 450 m extending 3 km in south-north direction between Hemus Peak and Gleaner Heights in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The gap separates the glacial catchments of Kaliakra Glacier to the east, and Saedinenie Snowfield and Perunika Glacier to the west. It is part of the overland route from the St. Kliment Ohridski Base via the Balkan Snowfield, Rezen Saddle and Perunika Glacier to Varna Peninsula. The saddle was first trekked on 24 December 2004 by the Tangra 2004/05 Survey team from Camp Academia, and was named for Vasil Gurev, physicist at St. Kliment Ohridski in 1994/95 and subsequent seasons.

Hemus Peak mountain in Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

Hemus Peak is an ice-covered peak rising to 636 m off the northwest extremity of Bowles Ridge in eastern Livingston Island. The feature is breast-shaped, 850 m long in east-west direction and 550 m wide, and overlooks Kaliakra Glacier to the northeast and Perunika Glacier to the southwest. Hemus is an ancient name of Stara Planina, the central mountain range separating northern from southern Bulgaria.

Kresna Gully

Kresna Gully is a heavily crevassed depression in Perunika Glacier extending 2.25 km westwards from Rezen Knoll in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The gully ends in the indentation forming the east corner of Emona Anchorage, and located 3.15 km northeast of Hespérides Point 1.21 km south-southeast of Aleko Point.

Orpheus Gate

Orpheus Gate, also Orpheus Pass, is the 548 m high and 380 m wide pass in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica bounded by Pliska Ridge to the southeast and Burdick Ridge to the northwest, Huntress Glacier to the southwest and Perunika Glacier to the northeast.

Perunika Glacier glacier in Antarctica

Perunika Glacier is an 8 km long and 3 km wide (average) roughly crescent-shaped glacier in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica situated east of Pimpirev Glacier, south of Saedinenie Snowfield, southwest of Kaliakra Glacier, west of Huron Glacier, and north of Balkan Snowfield and the head of Huntress Glacier.

Rezen Knoll

Rezen Knoll is a knoll rising to 433 m in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The knoll is bounded to the east, north and west by Perunika Glacier, and linked to Burdick Ridge by Rezen Saddle. The feature is 250 m wide, extending 500 m in east-west direction. Composed of lavas, with precipitous slopes except to the east. Partly ice-free height and western and northern slopes.

Spanish Knoll

Spanish Knoll has a highest point of elevation 48 m located on Bulgarian Beach on Hurd Peninsula, eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica.

Spanish Point (Antarctica)

Spanish Point is located on Bulgarian Beach on Hurd Peninsula, eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica formed by an offshoot of Spanish Knoll.

Willan Saddle

Willan Saddle is a flat, crescent-shaped and ice-covered saddle extending 1 km in the northeast-southwest direction between Burdick South Peak and Willan Nunatak in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The saddle has an elevation of 400 m and is part of the overland route between Balkan Snowfield and Charrúa Gap in the west and Orpheus Gate in the east, thus providing access from the Bulgarian Base and the Spanish Base to the interior of eastern Livingston Island.

Wörner Gap

Wörner Gap is a flat saddle extending 3 km in the south-north direction between Friesland Ridge and Bowles Ridge in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Its elevation decreases from 585 m in the south to 541 m in the middle, and 525 m in the north. The gap separates the glacial catchments of Perunika Glacier to the west and Huron Glacier to the east, and is linked to the east to Kuzman Knoll, a conspicuous landmark in the area. The gap is visited by field parties from St. Kliment Ohridski Base and Juan Carlos I Base and is subject to Spanish and Bulgarian glaciological studies.

Balkan Snowfield

Balkan Snowfield is an ice-covered plateau of elevation ranging from 150 to 280 m in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, situated south of lower Perunika Glacier, northwest of Huntress Glacier and north of Contell Glacier. It is 3 km long in southwest-northeast direction and 2 km wide, and bounded by Burdick Ridge to the east, Willan Nunatak and Castillo Nunatak to the southeast, and Krum Rock to the southwest. The feature slopes gently northwestwards with its foot bounded by the hills along Bulgarian Beach. It is named after the Balkans.

Belozem Hill

Belozem Hill is the northeasternmost of a chain of hills along Bulgarian Beach on Hurd Peninsula in the east of Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands in Antarctica. The hill is boulder-clay capped with twin summits; the higher east-northeastern of them rising to 41 m. It is snow free in summer. The hill was mapped by the Spanish Servicio Geográfico del Ejército in 1991, and by Bulgaria in 1996 and 2005.

Burdick Ridge

Burdick Ridge is a ridge rising to an elevation of 773 metres (2,536 ft) on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands. Extending for 1.9 kilometres (1.2 mi) between Orpheus Gate in the southeast and Rezen Saddle in the northwest, it is bounded by Perunika Glacier to the northeast and Balkan Snowfield to the southwest. It takes its name from its highest point, Burdick Peak.

Napier Peak mountain in Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

Napier Peak is the partly ice-free peak rising to 380 m on Hurd Peninsula, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. It is linked to Charrúa Gap to the north by a 1.5 km ice-covered col, and by an ice-covered saddle to Mirador Hill to the south-southwest, and surmounts Johnsons Glacier to the northwest and west, Huntress Glacier to the east, and False Bay to the south.

Johnsons Glacier glacier in Antarctica

Johnsons Glacier is the 1.8 km long and 2.3 km wide glacier on Hurd Peninsula, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica bounded by Charrúa Ridge and Charrúa Gap to the north, Napier Peak to the east, Mirador Hill to the southeast, Hurd Ice Cap to the southwest and Mount Reina Sofía to the west. It is draining northwestwards into Johnsons Dock. The glacier provides overland access from the Spanish base Juan Carlos Primero to the interior of the eastern Livingston Island.

Contell Glacier glacier in Antarctica

Contell Glacier is 1.2 nmi long and 0.4 nautical miles wide glacier on Hurd Peninsula, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica bounded by Atlantic Club Ridge to the northwest, Krum Rock to the north, Balkan Snowfield to the northeast, and Charrúa Ridge and Charrúa Gap to the south. It is crescent-shaped, running northwestwards in its upper course, then between Charrúa Ridge and Krum Rock turning west-southwestwards to flow into South Bay north of Johnsons Dock.

Castillo Nunatak a rocky peak in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

Castillo Nunatak is a conspicuous rocky peak rising to 437 m on the glacial divide between Huntress Glacier and Balkan Snowfield on Hurd Peninsula in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. It is linked to Charrúa Ridge to the west Charrúa Gap and, via Willan Nunatak and Willan Saddle, to Burdick Ridge to the east-northeast. Castillo Nunatak is a prominent landmark in the Charrúa Gap area.

Mount Reina Sofía mountain in Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

Mount Reina Sofía is the mostly ice-free peak rising to 275 m on Hurd Peninsula, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica and surmounting Johnsons Glacier to the east and northeast, and the Spanish Antarctic base Juan Carlos Primero to the north-northwest.

References

Antarctic Place-names Commission

The Antarctic Place-names Commission was established by the Bulgarian Antarctic Institute in 1994, and since 2001 has been a body affiliated with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bulgaria.


This article includes information from the Antarctic Place-names Commission of Bulgaria which is used with permission.