Orpheus Gate

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Location of Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands. Livingston-Island-location-map.png
Location of Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands.
Orpheus Gate, with Pliska Ridge on the right. Orpheus-Gate.jpg
Orpheus Gate, with Pliska Ridge on the right.
Topographic map of Livingston Island and Smith Island. Livingston-Island-Map-2010-15.png
Topographic map of Livingston Island and Smith Island.

Orpheus Gate (Orfeeva Porta \or-'fe-e-va 'por-ta\), also Orpheus Pass, is the 548 m high and 380 m wide pass in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica bounded by Pliska Ridge to the southeast and Burdick Ridge to the northwest, Huntress Glacier to the southwest and Perunika Glacier to the northeast.

Livingston Island Island of the South Shetland Islands

Livingston Island is an Antarctic island in the Southern Ocean, part of the South Shetlands Archipelago. It was the first land discovered south of 60° south latitude in 1819, a historic event that marked the end of a centuries-long pursuit of the mythical Terra Australis Incognita and the beginning of the exploration and utilization of real Antarctica. The name Livingston, although of unknown derivation, has been well established in international usage since the early 1820s.

South Shetland Islands A group of islands north of the Antarctic Peninsula

The South Shetland Islands are a group of Antarctic islands with a total area of 3,687 square kilometres (1,424 sq mi). They lie about 120 kilometres (75 mi) north of the Antarctic Peninsula, and between 430 kilometres (270 mi) to 900 kilometres (560 mi) south-west from the nearest point of the South Orkney Islands. By the Antarctic Treaty of 1959, the islands' sovereignty is neither recognized nor disputed by the signatories and they are free for use by any signatory for non-military purposes.

Antarctica Polar continent in the Earths southern hemisphere

Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent. It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. At 14,200,000 square kilometres, it is the fifth-largest continent. For comparison, Antarctica is nearly twice the size of Australia. At 0.00008 people per square kilometre, it is by far the least densely populated continent. About 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice that averages 1.9 km in thickness, which extends to all but the northernmost reaches of the Antarctic Peninsula.

Contents

The pass forms part of the overland routes from Hurd Peninsula via Willan Saddle, the southern foothills of Burdick South Peak, and Orpheus Gate to upper Perunika Glacier, Wörner Gap and Camp Academia area, upper Huron Glacier, Tangra Mountains and Bowles Ridge.

Hurd Peninsula

Hurd Peninsula lies between South Bay and False Bay on the south coast of Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The Spanish Juan Carlos I Antarctic Base and the Bulgarian St. Kliment Ohridski Base are situated on its west coast.

Willan Saddle

Willan Saddle is a flat, crescent-shaped and ice-covered saddle extending 1 km in the northeast-southwest direction between Burdick South Peak and Willan Nunatak in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The saddle has an elevation of 400 m and is part of the overland route between Balkan Snowfield and Charrúa Gap in the west and Orpheus Gate in the east, thus providing access from the Bulgarian Base and the Spanish Base to the interior of eastern Livingston Island.

Burdick South Peak mountain in Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

Burdick South Peak rises 544 m and is formed by an offshoot extending 1 km west-southwestwards from the southeastern extremity of Burdick Ridge in eastern Livingston Island. The peak is narrow, with steep and partly ice-free southern and northern slopes. It is linked to Willan Nunatak by Willan Saddle.

Orpheus, a name of world and national culture, was originally applied in 1995 to a nearby peak but, due to the priority of the existing British nameform Willan Nunatak, was subsequently transferred to the present feature. [1]

Orpheus legendary musician, poet, and prophet in ancient Greek mythology

Orpheus is a legendary musician, poet, and prophet in ancient Greek religion and myth. Some ancient Greek sources note Orpheus' Thracian origins. According to Tzeztes, his home was the Odrysian city of Bisaltia. The major stories about him are centered on his ability to charm all living things and even stones with his music, his attempt to retrieve his wife, Eurydice, from the underworld, and his death at the hands of those who could not hear his divine music. As an archetype of the inspired singer, Orpheus is one of the most significant figures in the reception of classical mythology in Western culture, portrayed or alluded to in countless forms of art and popular culture including poetry, film, opera, music, and painting.

Location

The midpoint is located at 62°38′35″S60°14′31″W / 62.64306°S 60.24194°W / -62.64306; -60.24194 Coordinates: 62°38′35″S60°14′31″W / 62.64306°S 60.24194°W / -62.64306; -60.24194 , which is 6.3 km east of St. Kliment Ohridski base, 7.84 km east-northeast of Juan Carlos I base, 1.77 km east-northeast of Willan Saddle, 2.21 km southeast of Rezen Saddle, 3.87 km southwest of Omurtag Pass, 6.82 km west-southwest of Pirdop Gate, 3.61 km west of Camp Academia site, 5.29 km west of Lozen Saddle and 5.48 km northwest of Catalunyan Saddle (Detailed Spanish mapping in 1991, elevation and distances according to the Bulgarian topographic survey Tangra 2004/05).

Geographic coordinate system Coordinate system

A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.

St. Kliment Ohridski Base Antarctic base

St. Kliment Ohridski Base is a Bulgarian Antarctic base on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands.

Juan Carlos I Antarctic Base Antarctic base

Juan Carlos I Antarctic Base, named after the king of Spain, Juan Carlos I, is a seasonal scientific station operated by Spain, opened in January 1988. Situated on Hurd Peninsula, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica.

First crossed by the Bulgarian Kuzman Tuhchiev from St. Kliment Ohridski Base during the 1993/94 season.

Maps

Antarctic Place-names Commission

The Antarctic Place-names Commission was established by the Bulgarian Antarctic Institute in 1994, and since 2001 has been a body affiliated with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bulgaria.

International Standard Book Number Unique numeric book identifier

The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.

Notes

Related Research Articles

Catalunyan Saddle

Catalunyan Saddle is a saddle of 1260 m height in the Friesland Ridge of the Tangra Mountains on Livingston Island, in the South Shetland Islands. The saddle is bounded by Lyaskovets Peak to the east and by Presian Ridge to the west. The saddle was named in honour of the Catalans Francesc Sàbat and Jorge Enrique from Juan Carlos I Base who established the first route via the saddle to Mount Friesland on 30 December 1991.

Gurev Gap

Gurev Gap is a flat ice-covered saddle of elevation 450 m extending 3 km in south-north direction between Hemus Peak and Gleaner Heights in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The gap separates the glacial catchments of Kaliakra Glacier to the east, and Saedinenie Snowfield and Perunika Glacier to the west. It is part of the overland route from the St. Kliment Ohridski Base via the Balkan Snowfield, Rezen Saddle and Perunika Glacier to Varna Peninsula. The saddle was first trekked on 24 December 2004 by the Tangra 2004/05 Survey team from Camp Academia, and was named for Vasil Gurev, physicist at St. Kliment Ohridski in 1994/95 and subsequent seasons.

Nesebar Gap

Nesebar Gap is a 1.3 km wide gap in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica bounded to the west by Pliska Ridge and to the east by the northern slope of Mount Friesland, Tangra Mountains. It is part of the divide between the glacial catchments of Perunika Glacier to the north and Huntress Glacier to the south. The gap is part of an overland route between Orpheus Gate to the west, and Camp Academia locality and Lozen Saddle to the east.

Omurtag Pass

Omurtag Pass is a 720 m high pass between Mount Bowles and Ticha Peak in Bowles Ridge, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica and is part of an overland route between the Wörner Gap area and upper Kaliakra Glacier. The pass is named after Khan Omurtag of Bulgaria, 814-831 AD.

Perunika Glacier glacier in Antarctica

Perunika Glacier is an 8 km long and 3 km wide (average) roughly crescent-shaped glacier in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica situated east of Pimpirev Glacier, south of Saedinenie Snowfield, southwest of Kaliakra Glacier, west of Huron Glacier, and north of Balkan Snowfield and the head of Huntress Glacier.

Pirdop Gate

Pirdop Gate is a 300-m wide pass between Maritsa Peak and Atanasoff Nunatak in eastern Bowles Ridge, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. It has an elevation of 376 m at its northern entrance from Struma Glacier, and 261 m at the southern entrance from Huron Glacier. It forms part of an overland route between middle Huron Glacier and upper Kaliakra Glacier. The pass was first crossed by the Bulgarians Lyubomir Ivanov and Doychin Vasilev from Camp Academia on 28 December 2004. Named after the town of Pirdop in Central Bulgaria.

Rezen Saddle

Rezen Saddle is a geographical feature on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The 600 m long horseshoe-shaped flat saddle of elevation 420 m lies between Rezen Knoll and Burdick Ridge in eastern Livingston Island, affording overland access from Balkan Snowfield to upper Perunika Glacier and Bowles Ridge area.

Saedinenie Snowfield glacier in Antarctica

Saedinenie Snowfield on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is situated southwest of Rose Valley Glacier, west of Panega Glacier, northwest of Kaliakra Glacier, north of lower Perunika Glacier and east-northeast of Tundzha Glacier. It is bounded by Teres Ridge to the west, the glacial divide between the Drake Passage and Bransfield Strait to the south, Gleaner Heights, Elhovo Gap and Leslie Hill to the southeast, and Leslie Gap and Vidin Heights to the east. The snowfield extends 4.7 km inland and 15.5 km in southwest-northeast direction, and drains into Hero Bay between Melta Point and Slab Point.

Simeon Peak

Simeon Peak rises to 1,580 m in Friesland Ridge, Tangra Mountains, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The peak is heavily glaciated, connected to St. Boris Peak to the northeast by Paril Saddle, and surmounts Huntress Glacier to the northwest, Ruen Icefall to the southwest, and Macy Glacier to the east. It was first ascended and GPS-surveyed by the Bulgarian climbers D. Boyanov, N. Petkov and N. Hazarbasanov from Nesebar Gap via the head of Huntress Glacier, Academia Peak, St. Boris Peak and Paril Saddle on 15 January 2017.

St. Boris Peak

St. Boris Peak is an ice-covered mountain rising to 1,698 m in Friesland Ridge, Tangra Mountains on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. It is the second highest peak of both the mountains and the island after Mount Friesland. The two are connected by a short saddle dominated by ‘The Synagogue’, a sharp-peaked rock-cored ice formation abutting upon St. Boris Peak. The peak is also connected to Simeon Peak by Paril Saddle, and surmounts Huntress Glacier to the northwest and west, and Macy Glacier to the southeast. The peak's central summit is rising to 1,685 m, while its highest point ‘The Synagogue’ rises to 1,699 m. The local ice relief is subject to change; according to a Bulgarian GPS survey by D. Boyanov and N. Petkov the elevation of Mt. Friesland was 1,693 m in December 2016, making St. Boris Peak the summit of both Tangra Mountains and the island in that season. According to the American high accuracy Reference Elevation Model of Antarctica (REMA), Mount Friesland is 8 m (26 ft) higher than the central summit of St. Boris Peak and 14 m (46 ft) higher than ‘The Synagogue’.

Svoge Knoll

Svoge Knoll is an ice-covered peak rising to 560 m in Bowles Ridge, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Surmounting Perunika Glacier to the south and west.

Wörner Gap

Wörner Gap is a flat saddle extending 3 km in the south-north direction between Friesland Ridge and Bowles Ridge in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Its elevation decreases from 585 m in the south to 541 m in the middle, and 525 m in the north. The gap separates the glacial catchments of Perunika Glacier to the west and Huron Glacier to the east, and is linked to the east to Kuzman Knoll, a conspicuous landmark in the area. The gap is visited by field parties from St. Kliment Ohridski Base and Juan Carlos I Base and is subject to Spanish and Bulgarian glaciological studies.

Yankov Gap

Yankov Gap is an ice-covered saddle linking Melnik Ridge and Bowles Ridge in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The gap is at an elevation of 575 m and extends 1 km in the north-south direction from Samokov Knoll in Melnik Ridge to Asparuh Peak in Bowles Ridge. Yankov Gap is part of the divide between the glacial catchments of the head of Kaliakra Glacier to the west and Struma Glacier to the east.

Zograf Peak mountain in Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

Zograf Peak rises to 1,011 metres at the northeastern extremity of the Friesland Ridge in the Tangra Mountains, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The peak is heavily glaciated and crevassed, with precipitous and partly ice-free northern slopes. The peak surmounts Huron Glacier to the north and Shipka Valley to the east, and is accessible via the saddle of elevation 975 m linking it to the north rib of Lyaskovets Peak. The peak is linked to the northeast by Lozen Saddle to Lozen Nunatak, Erma Knoll and Aheloy Nunatak.

Camp Academia Antarctic camp

Camp Academia is a geographical locality in eastern Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, named for the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in appreciation of Academy’s contribution to the Antarctic exploration. The site was first occupied in the 2004/05 austral summer, and has been designated since 2004 as the summer post office Tangra 1091, the southernmost branch of the Bulgarian Posts Plc.

Bowles Ridge

Bowles Ridge is the central ridge of eastern Livingston Island. The ridge extends 6.5 km in the east-west direction and is 1.5 km wide. The summit of the ridge is Mount Bowles which rises to 822m and is located 9.77 km northwest of Great Needle Peak, 6.08 km north by west of Mount Friesland, 8.77 km east-northeast of St. Kliment Ohridski base and 9.25 km south by west of Miziya Peak.

Mount Friesland

Mount Friesland is a mountain rising to 1,700.2 metres (5,578 ft) in the homonymous Friesland Ridge, the summit of Tangra Mountains and Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Its north rib is connected to Pliska Ridge by Nesebar Gap on the west, and to Bowles Ridge by Wörner Gap on the north. On the east Mount Friesland is connected to Presian Ridge and further on to Catalunyan Saddle and Lyaskovets Peak. On the south-southwest it is connected by a short saddle to ‘The Synagogue’ a sharp-peaked rock-cored ice formation abutting neighbouring St. Boris Peak. The peak is heavily glaciated and crevassed, surmounting Huntress Glacier to the west, Perunika Glacier to the north-northwest, Huron Glacier to the northeast and Macy Glacier to the southeast. The local weather is notoriously unpleasant and challenging; according to the seasoned Antarctic mountaineer Damien Gildea who climbed in the area, 'just about the worst weather in the world'.

Huntress Glacier glacier in Antarctica

Huntress Glacier is a glacier 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) long and 3.7 kilometres (2.3 mi) wide flowing into the head of False Bay, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. It is situated east of Johnsons Glacier, southeast of Contell Glacier and Balkan Snowfield, south of upper Perunika Glacier, southwest of Huron Glacier and northwest of Macy Glacier, and is bounded by Friesland Ridge and the Tangra Mountains to the southeast, Nesebar Gap, Pliska Ridge, Burdick Ridge and Willan Nunatak to the north, and Charrúa Gap and Napier Peak to the northwest.

Burdick Ridge

Burdick Ridge is a ridge rising to an elevation of 773 metres (2,536 ft) on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands. Extending for 1.9 kilometres (1.2 mi) between Orpheus Gate in the southeast and Rezen Saddle in the northwest, it is bounded by Perunika Glacier to the northeast and Balkan Snowfield to the southwest. It takes its name from its highest point, Burdick Peak.

References


This article includes information from the Antarctic Place-names Commission of Bulgaria which is used with permission.