|Producer||Social Networks and Archival Context (United States)|
|History||2010 to present|
|Format coverage||Finding aids|
Social Networks and Archival Context (SNAC) is an online project for discovering, locating, and using distributed historical records in regard to individual people, families, and organizations.
SNAC was established in 2010, with funding from the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA),California Digital Library (CDL), Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities (IATH) at the University of Virginia and the University of California, Berkeley School of Information. The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation funded the second phase of the project from 2012 to 2014.
The National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) is an independent federal agency of the U.S. government, established by the National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities Act of 1965, dedicated to supporting research, education, preservation, and public programs in the humanities. The NEH is housed at 400 7th St SW, Washington, D.C. From 1979 to 2014, NEH was at 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. in the Nancy Hanks Center at the Old Post Office.
The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency of the United States government charged with the preservation and documentation of government and historical records. It is also tasked with increasing public access to those documents which make up the National Archive. NARA is officially responsible for maintaining and publishing the legally authentic and authoritative copies of acts of Congress, presidential directives, and federal regulations. NARA also transmits votes of the Electoral College to Congress.
The California Digital Library (CDL) was founded by the University of California in 1997. In collaboration with the ten University of California Libraries and other partners, CDL has assembled one of the world's largest digital research libraries. CDL facilitates the licensing of online materials and develops shared services used throughout the UC system. Building on the foundations of the Melvyl Catalog, CDL has developed one of the largest online library catalogs in the country and works in partnership with the UC campuses to bring the treasures of California's libraries, museums, and cultural heritage organizations to the world. CDL continues to explore how services such as digital curation, scholarly publishing, archiving and preservation support research throughout the information lifecycle.
One of the project's tools is a radial-graph feature which helps identify a social network of a subject's connections to related historical individuals.
SNAC is used alongside other digital archives to connect related historical records.
SNAC is a digital research project that focuses on obtaining records data from various archives, libraries, and museums, so the biographical history of individuals, ancestry, or institutions are incorporated into a single file as opposed to the data being spread throughout different associations, thereby lessen the task of searching various memory organizations to locate the knowledge one seeks.
The Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities (IATH), University of Virginia; the School of Information, University of California, Berkeley (SI/UCB), and the California Digital Library (CDL), University of California are the three primary organizations responsible for processing the different elements of the project.
IATH conducts the project and also collect sourcing data from participating institutions, compile record descriptions from MARC catalogs and EAD finding aids, and turned them into EAC-CPF files.
SI/UCB manages the process of identifying and pairing similar EAC-CPF records to create a unifying file that searchable.
CDL utilizes the Extensible Text Framework (XTF) which connects the different sources that make up a single EAC-CPF file back to its primary resources.
With a variety of organizations such as the Library of Congress, Smithsonian Institution, and British Library contributing data to the project, it allows the SNAC team to collect a substantial amount of information available on a subject.
With the U.S. National Endowment for Humanities supplying financing, the first half of the project began, enabling the developers of SNAC to explore data extraction from the file creator and develop a model of the record description system. By gathering the contents found within the record creator, it helps to broaden the knowledge available on the entity biographical history.
With the tremendous progress made in the initial stage, planning for the second half of the project centered on adding more contributors to continue to build a dissimilar of information. To help the SNAC team with the second portion of the project, funding was received the U.S Institution for Museum and Library Services while global initiatives was managed by U.S. National Archives and Records Administration (NARA).
In 2010 the Encoded Archival Context-Corporate Bodies, Persons, and Families (EAC-CPF) was introduced. The new schema allowed each description to live independently from the record creator it was associated with. With the launch of EAC-CPF, the archival field had a universal standard allowing them to use archival authority records differently.
By using a few archival practices, the descriptions of the creator are isolated from the file itself. Permitting the gathering of information and building connections between varies entities. Helping to increase access to additional knowledge. Below are the integrated rational elements used to create relationships.
Authority Control - Allows you to locate information related to a subject with multiple or alternate spelling associated with its name through various applications.
Biographical/Historical Resources – Details all events, dates, and places associated with the file creator.
Cooperative Authority Control - Permits libraries to preserve, share, and distribute authority information with other libraries.
Flexible Descriptions – Incorporates a list of multiple institutions associated with a collection connecting the record creator to it.
Integrated Access to Cultural Heritage - Through authority records they act as a unifying folder for all of the descriptions tied to the subject. The authority records help lessen the issue of trying to retain and connect each institution description standard to a family, association, or individual.
Social/Historical Context - Professional and social knowledge linked to the subject help connect to other people, families, and institutions creating an integrated summary of them.
Within a record creator are EAC-CPF files to locate and retrieve them, the SNAC team uses Encoded Archival Description (EAD) finding aids and Machine Readable Catalog (MARC) bibliographic catalogs to gather biographical/historical data. After the information is placed an archival authority record featuring the EAC-CPF knowledge is created.
Once the EAC-CPF record is extracted, the data is compared to other similar files and paired together. To ensure the information is compactible, the SNAC team use Virtual International Authority File (VIAF), Union List of Artist Names (ULAN), and Library of Congress Name Authority File (LCNAF) to establish matches between authority records.
To link the knowledge found in one file to a similar one, names, dates, and other identifying aspects are used to draw a comparison to other related records. Links to where the data originated from is also included in the entity file.
By both national and international institutions providing source data, it increases the amount of information tied to one entity while linking it to other relevant subjects. With contributions from various organizations, it helps researchers, librarians, archivists, scholars, and none scholars locate an array of data available on associations, individuals, and families reducing the amount of time spent searching through an assortment of resources.
In library and archival science, digital preservation is a formal endeavor to ensure that digital information of continuing value remains accessible and usable. It involves planning, resource allocation, and application of preservation methods and technologies, and it combines policies, strategies and actions to ensure access to reformatted and "born-digital" content, regardless of the challenges of media failure and technological change. The goal of digital preservation is the accurate rendering of authenticated content over time. The Association for Library Collections and Technical Services Preservation and Reformatting Section of the American Library Association, defined digital preservation as combination of "policies, strategies and actions that ensure access to digital content over time." According to the Harrod's Librarian Glossary, digital preservation is the method of keeping digital material alive so that they remain usable as technological advances render original hardware and software specification obsolete.
In library science, authority control is a process that organizes bibliographic information, for example in library catalogs by using a single, distinct spelling of a name (heading) or a numeric identifier for each topic. The word authority in authority control derives from the idea that the names of people, places, things, and concepts are authorized, i.e., they are established in one particular form. These one-of-a-kind headings or identifiers are applied consistently throughout catalogs which make use of the respective authority file, and are applied for other methods of organizing data such as linkages and cross references. Each controlled entry is described in an authority record in terms of its scope and usage, and this organization helps the library staff maintain the catalog and make it user-friendly for researchers.
Encoded Archival Description (EAD) is a standard for encoding descriptive information regarding archival records.
The Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities (IATH) is a research unit of the University of Virginia, USA. Its goal is to explore and develop information technology as a tool for scholarly humanities research. To that end, IATH provide Fellows with consulting, technical support, applications development, and networked publishing facilities. It cultivates partnerships and participate in humanities computing initiatives with libraries, publishers, information technology companies, scholarly organizations, and other groups residing at the intersection of computers and cultural heritage.
Cornelis Hermanus Antonius "Kees" Koster was a Dutch computer scientist who was a professor in the Department of Informatics at the Radboud University Nijmegen in the Netherlands.
Digital humanities (DH) is an area of scholarly activity at the intersection of computing or digital technologies and the disciplines of the humanities. It includes the systematic use of digital resources in the humanities, as well as the reflection on their application. DH can be defined as new ways of doing scholarship that involve collaborative, transdisciplinary, and computationally engaged research, teaching, and publishing. It brings digital tools and methods to the study of the humanities with the recognition that the printed word is no longer the main medium for knowledge production and distribution.
A data library, data archive, or data repository is a collection of numeric and/or geospatial data sets for secondary use in research. A data library is normally part of a larger institution established for research data archiving and to serve the data users of that organisation. The data library tends to house local data collections and provides access to them through various means. A data library may also maintain subscriptions to licensed data resources for its users to access. Whether a data library is also considered a data archive may depend on the extent of unique holdings in the collection, whether long-term preservation services are offered, and whether it serves a broader community. Most public data libraries are listed in the Registry of Research Data Repositories.
The Humanities Advanced Technology and Information Institute (HATII) was a research and teaching institute at the University of Glasgow in Scotland. It was established in 1997 to enhance Glasgow’s reputation as a centre of excellence in Humanities Computing and Information Studies with Professor Seamus Ross as its Founding Director. HATII led innovative research in archival and library science and in information/knowledge management with emphasis on their impact on the growth of the creative industries. Recognised and pioneering research strengths were in the areas of humanities computing, digitisation, digital curation and preservation, and archives and records management. Members of HATII, most of whom had day-to-day experience mediating information in a variety of formats, led research under the broad headings of access and re-usability, content analysis and appraisal, evaluation and impact technologies, and preservation/curation.
Lorcan Dempsey is the Vice-President and Chief Strategist of the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC).
Appraisal, in the context of archival science and archive administration, is a process usually conducted by a member of the record-holding institution in which a body of records is examined to determine its value for that institution. It also involves determining how long this value will last. The activity is one of the central tasks of a archivist to determine archival value of specific records. When it occurs prior to acquisition, the appraisal process involves assessing records for inclusion in the archives. In connection with an institution's collecting policy, appraisal "represents a doorway into the archives through which all records must pass". Some considerations when conducting appraisal include how to meet the record-granting body's organizational needs, how to uphold requirements of organizational accountability, and how to meet the expectations of the record-using community. While sometimes archival collecting is equated with appraisal, appraisal is still seen as a critical function of modern archival profession even though historical societies have been argued to contribute to the "general randomness of collecting", which stands against rigorous appraisal standards even as many collecting programs still "acquire the collections of private collectors" and some aspects require partnerships between varied institutions. Appraisal is important in order to maintain cultural heritage for future generations and can provide a legal record for those concerned about their human rights.
Content creation is the contribution of information to any media and most especially to digital media for an end-user/audience in specific contexts. Content is "something that is to be expressed through some medium, as speech, writing or any of various arts" for self-expression, distribution, marketing and/or publication. Typical forms of content creation include maintaining and updating web sites, blogging, article writing, photography, videography, online commentary, the maintenance of social media accounts, and editing and distribution of digital media. A Pew survey described content creation as the creation of "the material people contribute to the online world."
Digital curation is the selection, preservation, maintenance, collection and archiving of digital assets. Digital curation establishes, maintains and adds value to repositories of digital data for present and future use. This is often accomplished by archivists, librarians, scientists, historians, and scholars. Enterprises are starting to use digital curation to improve the quality of information and data within their operational and strategic processes. Successful digital curation will mitigate digital obsolescence, keeping the information accessible to users indefinitely. Progressively, digital curation acts as an umbrella concept that includes many subsets appearing as related terms such as digital asset management, data curation, digital preservation, and electronic records management.
Encoded Archival Context - Corporate bodies, Persons and Families (EAC-CPF) is an XML standard for encoding information about the creators of archival materials -- i.e., a corporate body, person or family -- including their relationships to (a) resources and (b) other corporate bodies, persons and families. The goal is to provide contextual information regarding the circumstances of record creation and use. EAC-CPF can be used in conjunction with Encoded Archival Description (EAD) for enhancement of EAD's capabilities in encoding finding aids, but can also be used in conjunction with other standards or for standalone authority file encoding.
Describing Archives: A Content Standard (DACS) is a standard used for describing materials in an archive. First adopted by the Society of American Archivists (SAA) in March 2004, DACS was updated with a Second Edition in 2013. DACS is broken down into a set of rules used in crafting archival descriptions, and guidelines for creating authority records in archives.
Metadata is "data [information] that provides information about other data". Many distinct types of metadata exist, among these descriptive metadata, structural metadata, administrative metadata, reference metadata and statistical metadata.
A digital library, digital repository, or digital collection, is an online database of digital objects that can include text, still images, audio, video, or other digital media formats. Objects can consist of digitized content like print or photographs, as well as originally produced digital content like word processor files or social media posts. In addition to storing content, digital libraries provide means for organizing, searching, and retrieving the content contained in the collection.
Archival research is a type of research which involves seeking out and extracting evidence from archival records. These records may be held either in collecting institutions, such as libraries and museums, or in the custody of the organization that originally generated or accumulated them, or in that of a successor body. Archival research can be contrasted with (1) secondary research, which involves identifying and consulting secondary sources relating to the topic of enquiry; and (2) with other types of primary research and empirical investigation such as fieldwork and experiment.
Digital Scriptorium (DS) is a non-profit, tax-exempt consortium of American libraries with collections of pre-modern manuscripts, or manuscripts made in the tradition of books before printing. The DS database represents these manuscript collections in a web-based union catalog for teaching and scholarly research in medieval and Renaissance studies. It provides access to illuminated and textual manuscripts through online cataloging records, supported by high resolution digital images, retrievable by various topic searches. The DS database is an open access resource that enables users to study rare and valuable materials of academic, research, and public libraries. It makes available collections that are often restricted from public access and includes not only famous masterpieces of book illumination but also understudied manuscripts that have been previously overlooked for publication or study.
Edwin Burdette Tunis (1897–1973) was an American painter, mural artist, book illustrator, radio announcer, actor, theater set designer and author.
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