SNAC

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Social Networks and Archival Context
ProducerSocial Networks and Archival Context (United States)
History2010 to present
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Social Networks and Archival Context (SNAC) is an online project for discovering, locating, and using distributed historical records in regard to individual people, families, and organizations. [1]

Contents

History

SNAC was established in 2010, with funding from the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), [2] California Digital Library (CDL), Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities (IATH) at the University of Virginia and the University of California, Berkeley School of Information. [3] [4] [5] The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation funded the second phase of the project from 2012 to 2014. [5]

The National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) is an independent federal agency of the U.S. government, established by the National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities Act of 1965, dedicated to supporting research, education, preservation, and public programs in the humanities. The NEH is housed at 400 7th St SW, Washington, D.C. From 1979 to 2014, NEH was at 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. in the Nancy Hanks Center at the Old Post Office.

National Archives and Records Administration independent agency of the United States government which preserves and provides access to federal records

The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency of the United States government charged with the preservation and documentation of government and historical records. It is also tasked with increasing public access to those documents which make up the National Archive. NARA is officially responsible for maintaining and publishing the legally authentic and authoritative copies of acts of Congress, presidential directives, and federal regulations. NARA also transmits votes of the Electoral College to Congress.

The California Digital Library (CDL) was founded by the University of California in 1997. In collaboration with the ten University of California Libraries and other partners, CDL has assembled one of the world's largest digital research libraries. CDL facilitates the licensing of online materials and develops shared services used throughout the UC system. Building on the foundations of the Melvyl Catalog, CDL has developed one of the largest online library catalogs in the country and works in partnership with the UC campuses to bring the treasures of California's libraries, museums, and cultural heritage organizations to the world. CDL continues to explore how services such as digital curation, scholarly publishing, archiving and preservation support research throughout the information lifecycle.

One of the project's tools is a radial-graph feature which helps identify a social network of a subject's connections to related historical individuals. [6]

SNAC is used alongside other digital archives to connect related historical records. [7]

SNAC is a digital research project that focuses on obtaining records data from various archives, libraries, and museums, so the biographical history of individuals, ancestry, or institutions are incorporated into a single file as opposed to the data being spread throughout different associations, thereby lessen the task of searching various memory organizations to locate the knowledge one seeks. [8]

The Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities (IATH), University of Virginia; the School of Information, University of California, Berkeley (SI/UCB), and the California Digital Library (CDL), University of California are the three primary organizations responsible for processing the different elements of the project. [8]

IATH conducts the project and also collect sourcing data from participating institutions, compile record descriptions from MARC catalogs and EAD finding aids, and turned them into EAC-CPF files.

SI/UCB manages the process of identifying and pairing similar EAC-CPF records to create a unifying file that searchable.

CDL utilizes the Extensible Text Framework (XTF) which connects the different sources that make up a single EAC-CPF file back to its primary resources. [8]

With a variety of organizations such as the Library of Congress, Smithsonian Institution, and British Library contributing data to the project, it allows the SNAC team to collect a substantial amount of information available on a subject. [8]

With the U.S. National Endowment for Humanities supplying financing, the first half of the project began, enabling the developers of SNAC to explore data extraction from the file creator and develop a model of the record description system. By gathering the contents found within the record creator, it helps to broaden the knowledge available on the entity biographical history. [9] [10] [11]

With the tremendous progress made in the initial stage, planning for the second half of the project centered on adding more contributors to continue to build a dissimilar of information. To help the SNAC team with the second portion of the project, funding was received the U.S Institution for Museum and Library Services while global initiatives was managed by U.S. National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). [9] [11]

Data gathering

In 2010 the Encoded Archival Context-Corporate Bodies, Persons, and Families (EAC-CPF) was introduced. The new schema allowed each description to live independently from the record creator it was associated with. With the launch of EAC-CPF, the archival field had a universal standard allowing them to use archival authority records differently. [8]

By using a few archival practices, the descriptions of the creator are isolated from the file itself. Permitting the gathering of information and building connections between varies entities. Helping to increase access to additional knowledge. Below are the integrated rational elements used to create relationships.

Authority Control - Allows you to locate information related to a subject with multiple or alternate spelling associated with its name through various applications.

Biographical/Historical Resources – Details all events, dates, and places associated with the file creator.

Cooperative Authority Control - Permits libraries to preserve, share, and distribute authority information with other libraries.

Flexible Descriptions – Incorporates a list of multiple institutions associated with a collection connecting the record creator to it.

Integrated Access to Cultural Heritage - Through authority records they act as a unifying folder for all of the descriptions tied to the subject. The authority records help lessen the issue of trying to retain and connect each institution description standard to a family, association, or individual.

Social/Historical Context - Professional and social knowledge linked to the subject help connect to other people, families, and institutions creating an integrated summary of them. [8] [12]

Within a record creator are EAC-CPF files to locate and retrieve them, the SNAC team uses Encoded Archival Description (EAD) finding aids and Machine Readable Catalog (MARC) bibliographic catalogs to gather biographical/historical data. After the information is placed an archival authority record featuring the EAC-CPF knowledge is created. [10] [12]

Once the EAC-CPF record is extracted, the data is compared to other similar files and paired together. To ensure the information is compactible, the SNAC team use Virtual International Authority File (VIAF), Union List of Artist Names (ULAN), and Library of Congress Name Authority File (LCNAF) to establish matches between authority records. [8] [12]

To link the knowledge found in one file to a similar one, names, dates, and other identifying aspects are used to draw a comparison to other related records. Links to where the data originated from is also included in the entity file.

By both national and international institutions providing source data, it increases the amount of information tied to one entity while linking it to other relevant subjects. With contributions from various organizations, it helps researchers, librarians, archivists, scholars, and none scholars locate an array of data available on associations, individuals, and families reducing the amount of time spent searching through an assortment of resources.

See also

Related Research Articles

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In library science, authority control is a process that organizes bibliographic information, for example in library catalogs by using a single, distinct spelling of a name (heading) or a numeric identifier for each topic. The word authority in authority control derives from the idea that the names of people, places, things, and concepts are authorized, i.e., they are established in one particular form. These one-of-a-kind headings or identifiers are applied consistently throughout catalogs which make use of the respective authority file, and are applied for other methods of organizing data such as linkages and cross references. Each controlled entry is described in an authority record in terms of its scope and usage, and this organization helps the library staff maintain the catalog and make it user-friendly for researchers.

Encoded Archival Description (EAD) is a standard for encoding descriptive information regarding archival records.

The Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities (IATH) is a research unit of the University of Virginia, USA. Its goal is to explore and develop information technology as a tool for scholarly humanities research. To that end, IATH provide Fellows with consulting, technical support, applications development, and networked publishing facilities. It cultivates partnerships and participate in humanities computing initiatives with libraries, publishers, information technology companies, scholarly organizations, and other groups residing at the intersection of computers and cultural heritage.

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References

  1. Bromley, Anne (November 8, 2017). "Digital Social Network Linking the Living and the Dead Expands". UVA Today. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  2. Ferriero, David (August 18, 2015). "Introducing SNAC". National Archives - AOTUS blog. Retrieved May 8, 2017.
  3. "SNAC: Social Networks and Archival Context". socialarchive.iath.virginia.edu. Archived from the original on 2016-06-19. Retrieved 2017-05-08.
  4. Larson, Ray R.; Pitti, Daniel; Turner, Adrian (2014). "SNAC: The Social Networks and Archival Context project - Towards an archival authority cooperative". IEEE/ACM Joint Conference on Digital Libraries. JCDL 2014. pp. 427–428. doi:10.1109/JCDL.2014.6970208.
  5. 1 2 Pitti, Daniel, Social Networks and Archival Context Project (PDF), University of Virginia, p. 1, retrieved 10 January 2019.
  6. Howard, Jennifer (May 13, 2012). "Projects Aims to Build Online Hub for Archival Materials". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved 10 January 2018.
  7. Bromley, Anne (October 2, 2018). "UVA Library to Enhance National Digital Archive of African-American Leaders". UVA Today. Retrieved 10 January 2018.
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Pitti, Daniel. "Social Networks and Archival Context Project (Archival Authority Control)" (PDF). Retrieved 21 April 2019.
  9. 1 2 Pitti, Daniel; Hu, Rachael; Larson, Ray; Tingle, Brian; Turner, Adrian (2015-04-03). "Social Networks and Archival Context: From Project to Cooperative Archival Program". Journal of Archival Organization. 12 (1–2): 77–97. doi:10.1080/15332748.2015.999544. ISSN   1533-2748.
  10. 1 2 Crowe, Katherine; Clair, Kevin (2015-10-02). "Developing a Tool for Publishing Linked Local Authority Data". Journal of Library Metadata. 15 (3–4): 227–240. doi:10.1080/19386389.2015.1099993. ISSN   1938-6389.
  11. 1 2 "About SNAC | SNAC Cooperative". portal.snaccooperative.org. Retrieved 2019-04-23.
  12. 1 2 3 Pitti, Daniel, Larson, Ray, Janakiraman, Krishna, and Tingle Brian (2011-06-19). "The Social Networks and Archival Context Project". Digital Humanities 2011: June 19-22. Retrieved 2019-04-21.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)