In baseball statistics, **slugging percentage** (**SLG**) is a measure of the batting productivity of a hitter. It is calculated as total bases divided by at bats, through the following formula, where *AB* is the number of at bats for a given player, and *1B*, *2B*, *3B*, and *HR* are the number of singles, doubles, triples, and home runs, respectively:

Unlike batting average, slugging percentage gives more weight to extra-base hits such as doubles and home runs, relative to singles. Walks are specifically excluded from this calculation, as a plate appearance that ends in a walk is not counted as an at bat.

The name is a misnomer, as the statistic is not a percentage but a scale of measure whose computed value is a number from 0 to 4. The statistic gives a double twice the value of a single, a triple three times the value, and a home run four times.^{ [2] }

A slugging percentage is always expressed as a decimal to three decimal places, and is generally spoken as if multiplied by 1000. For example, a slugging percentage of .589 would be spoken as "five eighty nine."

In 2018, the mean average SLG among all teams in Major League Baseball was .409.^{ [3] }

For example, in 1920, Babe Ruth played his first season for the New York Yankees. In 458 at bats, Ruth had 172 hits, comprising 73 singles, 36 doubles, 9 triples, and 54 home runs, which brings the total base count to (73 × 1) + (36 × 2) + (9 × 3) + (54 × 4) = 388. His total number of bases (388) divided by his total at-bats (458) is .847 which constitutes his slugging percentage for the season. This also set a record for Ruth which stood until 2001 when Barry Bonds achieved 411 bases in 476 at-bats bringing his slugging percentage to .863, which has been unmatched since.^{ [4] }

Long after it was first invented, slugging percentage gained new significance when baseball analysts realized that it combined with on-base percentage (OBP) to form a very good measure of a player's overall offensive production (in fact, OBP + SLG was originally referred to as "production" by baseball writer and statistician Bill James). A predecessor metric was developed by Branch Rickey in 1954. Rickey, in * Life * magazine, suggested that combining OBP with what he called "extra base power" (EBP) would give a better indicator of player performance than typical Triple Crown stats. EBP was a predecessor to slugging percentage.^{ [5] }

Allen Barra and George Ignatin were early adopters in combining the two modern-day statistics, multiplying them together to form what is now known as "SLOB" (Slugging × On-Base).^{ [6] } Bill James applied this principle to his runs created formula several years later (and perhaps independently), essentially multiplying SLOB × At-Bats to create the formula:

In 1984, Pete Palmer and John Thorn developed perhaps the most widespread means of combining slugging and on-base percentage: On-base plus slugging (OPS), which is a simple addition of the two values. Because it is easy to calculate, OPS has been used with increased frequency in recent years as a shorthand form to evaluate contributions as a batter.

In a 2015 article, Bryan Grosnick made the point that "on base" and "slugging" may not be comparable enough to be simply added together. "On base" has a theoretical maximum of 1.000 whereas "slugging" has a theoretical maximum of 4.000. The actual numbers don't show as big a difference, with Grosnick listing .350 as a good "on base" and .430 as a good "slugging." He goes on to say that OPS has the advantages of simplicity and availability and further states, "you'll probably get it 75% right, at least."^{ [7] }

The maximum numerically possible slugging percentage is 4.000.^{ [2] } A number of MLB players (117 through the end of the 2016 season) have momentarily had a 4.000 career slugging percentage by homering in their first major league at-bat.

**Baseball statistics** play an important role in evaluating the progress of a player or team.

**On-base plus slugging (OPS)** is a sabermetric baseball statistic calculated as the sum of a player's on-base percentage and slugging percentage. The ability of a player both to get on base and to hit for power, two important offensive skills, are represented. An OPS of .900 or higher in Major League Baseball puts the player in the upper echelon of hitters. Typically, the league leader in OPS will score near, and sometimes above, the 1.000 mark.

**Runs created (RC)** is a baseball statistic invented by Bill James to estimate the number of runs a hitter contributes to his team.

**Larry Kenneth Robert Walker** is a Canadian former professional baseball right fielder in Major League Baseball (MLB). During his 17-year career, he played with the Montreal Expos, Colorado Rockies, and St. Louis Cardinals. In 1997, he became the only player in major league history to register both a .700 slugging percentage (SLG) and 30 stolen bases in the same season, on his way to winning the National League (NL) Most Valuable Player Award (MVP). The first player in more than 60 years to record a batting average of .360 in three consecutive seasons from 1997 to 1999, Walker also won three NL batting championships. He was inducted into Canada's Sports Hall of Fame in 2007, and the Canadian Baseball Hall of Fame in the Class of 2009, and was named the 13th-greatest sporting figure from Canada by *Sports Illustrated* in 1999. In 2020, he was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame.

**Vada Edward Pinson Jr.** was an American professional baseball player and coach. He played as a center fielder in Major League Baseball for 18 years, from 1958 through 1975, most notably for the Cincinnati Reds, for whom he played from 1958 to 1968 as a four-time National League All-Star. He was inducted into the Cincinnati Reds Hall of Fame in 1977. The 5 ft 11 in (1.80 m), 170 lb (77 kg) Pinson, who batted and threw left-handed, combined power, speed, and strong defensive ability.

**Joseph Franklin Vosmik** was an outfielder for the Cleveland Indians (1930–36), St. Louis Browns (1937), Boston Red Sox (1938–39), Brooklyn Dodgers (1940–41) and Washington Senators (1944). He helped the Dodgers win the 1941 National League Pennant.

**John Kelly Lewis**, better known as **Buddy Lewis**, was a third baseman/right fielder in Major League Baseball who played his entire career with the Washington Senators. Lewis was born in Gastonia, North Carolina.

The **Houston Astros' 1994 season** was a season in American baseball. It involved the Houston Astros attempting to win the inaugural season of the National League Central division; they finished in second place. First baseman Jeff Bagwell was a unanimous selection for the National League Most Valuable Player Award. Despite nearly the last two months of the being cancelled due to the 1994–95 strike, Bagwell set a then-club record for home runs with 39 and a club record for batting average (.368) and slugging percentage (.750).

**Lamar Ashby "Skeeter" Newsome** was an American shortstop in Major League Baseball who played for the Philadelphia Athletics (1935–39), Boston Red Sox (1941–45) and Philadelphia Phillies (1946–47).

The **1886 Detroit Wolverines** had the best winning percentage of any major league baseball team to play in Detroit. They compiled a record of 87–36 for a .707 winning percentage. Nevertheless, the Wolverines finished in second place, 2½ games behind the Chicago White Stockings.

**Matthew Martin Lee Carpenter** is an American professional baseball infielder for the St. Louis Cardinals of Major League Baseball (MLB). He made his MLB debut with the Cardinals on June 4, 2011. He has been their primary leadoff hitter since early in the 2013 season. A left-handed batter and right-handed thrower, Carpenter stands 6 feet 3 inches (1.91 m) and weighs 205 pounds (93 kg).

**On-base plus slugging plus runs batted in (OPSBI)** is a baseball statistic calculated as the normalized sum of a player's on-base percentage and slugging percentage added to their runs batted in. Former Major League Baseball general manager, Jim Bowden, created this statistic. Hall of Fame outfielder, Babe Ruth, holds both the single-season and career OPSBI records.

The **2016 Chicago White Sox season** was the club's 117th season in Chicago and 116th in the American League. The White Sox wore a black diamond patch on the uniform in honor of the late Eddie Einhorn, minority owner of the team. Despite a strong start by the team, they finished the season in fourth place in the AL Central.

The **2016 Seattle Mariners season** was the 40th season in franchise history. The Mariners played their 17th full season at Safeco Field. Despite finishing with a winning record of 86–76, they failed to make the playoffs, finishing second place in the American League West Division.

The **Miami Marlins' 2016 season** was the 24th season for the Major League Baseball franchise, and the fifth as the "Miami" Marlins. This was the first season under manager Don Mattingly. The Marlins finished in third place in the National League East and they failed to make the playoffs for the 13th consecutive season. This also marked José Fernández's final season, as he died in a boating accident on September 25.

The **2016 Cincinnati Reds season** was the 147th season for the franchise in Major League Baseball, and their 14th at Great American Ball Park in Cincinnati. The Reds attempted to rebound from their 2015 season, but ultimately finished in last place in the National League Central division for a second consecutive year. Their record was 68 wins and 94 losses, just four games better than 2015.

The **2017 Seattle Mariners season** was the 41st season in franchise history. The Mariners played their 18th full season at Safeco Field and failed to qualify for the postseason for the first time since 2001, extending their drought to 16 years. In addition to being the longest current streak in MLB, the drought became the longest currently in the four North American professional sports when the NFL's Buffalo Bills made it to the playoffs in December of that year.

The **2017 San Diego Padres season** was the 49th season of the San Diego Padres franchise in Major League Baseball and the Padres' 14th season at Petco Park. The Padres began the season on April 3 at the Los Angeles Dodgers. They ended the season on October 1 at the San Francisco Giants. They finished the season 71–91 to finish in fourth place in the National League West Division, 33 games behind the Los Angeles Dodgers. They missed the playoffs for the 11th straight year.

- ↑ "Career Leaders & Records for Slugging %".
*Baseball Reference*. Retrieved 2014-02-27. - 1 2 Baseball Scorekeeping: A Practical Guide to the Rules, Andres Wirkmaa, Jefferson, North Carolina, London: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers, 2003.
- ↑ "2018 MLB Team Statistics".
*Baseball Reference*. Retrieved 2019-06-15. - ↑ "Single-Season Leaders & Records for Slugging %".
*Baseball Reference*. Retrieved 2016-12-10. - ↑ Lewis, Dan (2001-03-31). "Lies, Damn Lies, and RBIs". nationalreview.com. Archived from the original on 2012-10-20. Retrieved 2012-07-01.
- ↑ Barra, Allen (2001-06-20). "The best season ever?".
*Salon.com*. Retrieved 2007-07-15. - ↑ Separate but not quite equal: Why OPS is a "bad" statistic, Bryan Grosnick, Beyond the Box Score, September 18, 2015.

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