Thomas Ranken Lyle

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Thomas Ranken Lyle
Sir Thomas Lyle.JPG
Sir Thomas Lyle F.R.S.
Birth nameThomas Ranken Lyle
Date of birth(1860-08-26)26 August 1860
Place of birth Coleraine, County Londonderry, Ireland
Date of death31 March 1944(1944-03-31) (aged 83)
Place of death South Yarra, Australia
University Trinity College, Dublin
Notable relative(s)Dame Mary Herring (daughter)
Occupation(s)Mathematical physicist
Rugby union career
Position(s) Forward
Amateur team(s)
YearsTeamApps(Points)
188x–188x Dublin University ()
National team(s)
YearsTeamApps(Points)
1885–1887IRFU flag.svg  Ireland 5 (0)

Sir Thomas Ranken Lyle FRS [1] (26 August 1860 – 31 March 1944) [2] [3] was an Irish-Australian mathematical physicist, radiologist, educator, and rugby player.

Fellow of the Royal Society Elected Fellow of the Royal Society, including Honorary, Foreign and Royal Fellows

Fellowship of the Royal Society is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society of London judges to have made a 'substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge, including mathematics, engineering science and medical science'.

Mathematical physics Application of mathematical methods to problems in physics

Mathematical physics refers to the development of mathematical methods for application to problems in physics. The Journal of Mathematical Physics defines the field as "the application of mathematics to problems in physics and the development of mathematical methods suitable for such applications and for the formulation of physical theories". It is a branch of applied mathematics, but deals with physical problems.

Contents

Lyle was born and educated in Ireland before emigrating to Australia to take up a professorship at the University of Melbourne. There he was a pioneer in the use of X-rays as a medical tool. The Thomas Ranken Lyle Medal is awarded in his name to honour Australian achievements in Physics and Mathematics.

University of Melbourne Australian public university located in Melbourne, Victoria

The University of Melbourne is a public research university located in Melbourne, Australia. Founded in 1853, it is Australia's second oldest university and the oldest in Victoria. Melbourne's main campus is located in Parkville, an inner suburb north of the Melbourne central business district, with several other campuses located across Victoria.

The Thomas Ranken Lyle Medal is awarded at most every two years by the Australian Academy of Science to a mathematician or physicist for his or her outstanding research accomplishments. It is named after Thomas Ranken Lyle, an Irish mathematical physicist who became a professor at the University of Melbourne. The award takes the form of a bronze medal bearing the design of the head of Thomas Lyle, as sculpted by Rayner Hoff.

In his earlier years in Ireland he was a rugby union forward of some note, who played club rugby for Dublin University and international rugby for Ireland. [4]

Rugby union Team sport, code of rugby football

Rugby union, commonly known in most of the world simply as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century. One of the two codes of rugby football, it is based on running with the ball in hand. In its most common form, a game is between two teams of 15 players using an oval-shaped ball on a rectangular field with H-shaped goalposts at each end.

Dublin University Football Club (DUFC) is the rugby union club of the University of Dublin, Trinity College, in Dublin, Ireland, which plays in Division 1A of the All-Ireland League.

Ireland national rugby union team sports team

The Ireland national rugby union team represents the island of Ireland in rugby union. They are ranked third in the world by World Rugby as of 18 March 2019. The team competes annually in the current Six Nations Championship, which they have won fourteen times outright and shared nine times in its various formats. The team also competes every four years in the Rugby World Cup, where they reached the quarter-final stage in all but two competitions. Ireland is also one of the four unions that make up the British and Irish Lions – players eligible to play for Ireland are also eligible for the Lions.

Career

Lyle was born in Coleraine, Northern Ireland in 1860, the second son of Hugh Lyle, a well-to-do landowner. [5] He was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, graduating in 1883 with full honours and student medals for his work in mathematics and physics. He received his MA in 1887, and continued his studies in advanced physics and mathematics. By 1889 he had emigrated to Australia, and at the age of 29, took up the position of the chair of natural philosophy at the University of Melbourne. [2] In 1891 a Master of Science was introduced at the University, and Thomas Lyle used the opportunity to set up a small research program.

Coleraine town and civil parish in County Londonderry, Northern Ireland

Coleraine is a large town and civil parish near the mouth of the River Bann in County Londonderry, Northern Ireland. It is 55 miles (88.5 km) northwest of Belfast and 30 miles (48.3 km) east of Derry, both of which are linked by major roads and railway connections. It is part of Causeway Coast and Glens district.

Northern Ireland Part of the United Kingdom lying in the north-east of the island of Ireland, created 1921

Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region. Northern Ireland shares a border to the south and west with the Republic of Ireland. In 2011, its population was 1,810,863, constituting about 30% of the island's total population and about 3% of the UK's population. Established by the Northern Ireland Act 1998 as part of the Good Friday Agreement, the Northern Ireland Assembly holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters, while other areas are reserved for the British government. Northern Ireland co-operates with the Republic of Ireland in some areas, and the Agreement granted the Republic the ability to "put forward views and proposals" with "determined efforts to resolve disagreements between the two governments".

A Master of Arts is a person who was admitted to a type of master's degree awarded by universities in many countries, and the degree is also named Master of Arts in colloquial speech. The degree is usually contrasted with the Master of Science. Those admitted to the degree typically study linguistics, history, communication studies, diplomacy, public administration, political science, or other subjects within the scope of the humanities and social sciences; however, different universities have different conventions and may also offer the degree for fields typically considered within the natural sciences and mathematics. The degree can be conferred in respect of completing courses and passing examinations, research, or a combination of the two.

In 1892 he married Frances Isobel Clare Millear, the daughter of a prominent Western District grazier, and the two set up home in a professorial house provided by the University. [5] They had four children; Mary, Nancy, Thomas and Clare. Their first child, Mary Ranken Lyle (born in 1894), became a notable physician, and married Edmund Herring in 1922. [5]

Mary Herring Australian medical practitioner and community worker

Dr Dame Mary Ranken Herring, was an Australian medical practitioner and community worker.

Edmund Herring Australian Army general during World War II and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Victoria

Lieutenant General Sir Edmund Francis Herring, was a senior Australian Army officer during the Second World War, Lieutenant Governor of Victoria, and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Victoria. A Rhodes scholar, Herring was at New College, Oxford, when the First World War broke out and served with the Royal Field Artillery on the Macedonian front, for which he was awarded the Military Cross and Distinguished Service Order. After the war he carved out a successful career as a barrister and King's Counsel. He also joined the Australian Army, rising to the rank of colonel by 1939.

In February 1896, news reached the scientific community in Australia of Wilhelm Röntgen's discovery of a new electromagnetic radiation. Lyle was one of several scientists within Australia to attempt to recreate Röntgen's experiments. As the equipment did not exist in the university, Lyle was forced to create it himself. He was an expert glassblower, and was able to make and excavate his own Crookes tube to produce practical X-rays. [2]

Wilhelm Röntgen German physicist

Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen was a German mechanical engineer and physicist, who, on 8 November 1895, produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range known as X-rays or Röntgen rays, an achievement that earned him the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901. In honour of his accomplishments, in 2004 the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) named element 111, roentgenium, a radioactive element with multiple unstable isotopes, after him.

Vacuum Space that is empty of matter

Vacuum is space devoid of matter. The word stems from the Latin adjective vacuus for "vacant" or "void". An approximation to such vacuum is a region with a gaseous pressure much less than atmospheric pressure. Physicists often discuss ideal test results that would occur in a perfect vacuum, which they sometimes simply call "vacuum" or free space, and use the term partial vacuum to refer to an actual imperfect vacuum as one might have in a laboratory or in space. In engineering and applied physics on the other hand, vacuum refers to any space in which the pressure is lower than atmospheric pressure. The Latin term in vacuo is used to describe an object that is surrounded by a vacuum.

Crookes tube

A Crookes tube is an early experimental electrical discharge tube, with partial vacuum, invented by English physicist William Crookes and others around 1869-1875, in which cathode rays, streams of electrons, were discovered.

Lyle is credited with taking and publishing one of the first X-ray photo in Australia, independently of contemporary fellow pioneers Father Joseph Patrick Slattery and Walter Drowley Filmer, namely a picture of the foot of a Professor Masson, [5] which was reproduced in newspapers the next day. [6] [2] [7] [8] In June 1896 he was invited to take a photo of a patient who had a needle embedded in their hand. The resulting 'shadow photograph', as the images were then known, allowed doctors to remove the needle with a single incision. [2]

In 1901 Lyle and his family moved into a 20-room blue-stone mansion in Irvine Road, Toorak. Lyle and his wife's wealth was such that they were able to hire a staff of eight to look after the household and the family cow. [5] He had joined the board of visitors of the Melbourne Observatory in 1899, and from 1903 until his death he served as chairman. He represented the university on the Victorian Rhodes scholarship selection committee from 1904 until his retirement. [3]

Although Lyle made early advances in X-rays, his field of expertise was in electrical power technology, especially in the areas of magnetic fields and alternating currents. He published many papers, most of which were also published in London. His scientific achievements were acknowledged in 1905 with the award of Sc.D. from Trinity College, Dublin, and again in 1912 with Fellowship of the Royal Society. [1] [3]

Retirement

In 1914, with Ranken family inheritances, his wife's money, and wise financial investments, he was able to announce his retirement from the university. By this time, sporting injuries from his time playing rugby in Ireland had left him requiring crutches.

Lyle was a member of varying government bodies and inquiries, and held a directorship of the Metropolitan Gas Company. During the First World War he was a science advisor for the Naval Board, [9] a member of the Federal Munitions Committee, [10] and president of the Industries Exemption Advisory Committee. [3] He was also one of the first three commissioners of Victoria's State Electricity Commission and was later made the organisation's first chairman. In 1919 he became a foundation member of the Australian National Research Council (ANRC), (the forerunner of the Australian Academy of Science), [2] and served as its president in 1929–1932. He was knighted in 1922. "His outstanding contribution to the nation's scientific life was recognized by the ANRC when in 1931 it created the Thomas Ranken Lyle medal for distinguished Australian research in mathematics and physics." [3]

He was very active with a wide range of positions in a wide range of public and private organisation until 1940, when a cerebral haemorrhage left him semi-invalid. His health deteriorated, and he died at South Yarra on 31 March 1944, survived by his wife, son and three daughters. [2]

Legacy

Since 1931, the Thomas Ranken Lyle Medal of the Australian Academy of Science has been awarded at most every two years to an Australian mathematician or physicist in honour of their outstanding research achievements. [11]

On 7 September 1995, Lyle was one of seven scientists to be honoured with his image appearing on an Australian postage stamp. Lyle appeared on a 45-cent stamp, along with fellow pioneers of X-ray research Father Joseph Patrick Slattery and Walter Drowley Filmer. [12]

Honours and awards

Rugby career

While a student at Dublin University, Lyle played rugby union for the university team. He was impressive enough at university level to bring himself to the notice of the Irish selectors, and was capped for his first international match in the 1885 Home Nations Championship. Lyle played in both Irish games of the 1885 tournament, away loses to England and Scotland. The Scotland game was originally played in Ireland, but weather conditions forced the match to be abandoned after 20 minutes. [13] Lyle played in both the original game and the replay, which sometimes incorrectly causes Lyle to be credited with six international caps. Despite a poor record the previous season, Lyle was reselected for the 1886 tournament, playing in a single game, a one-try loss to England.[ citation needed ]

His final group of internationals were for the 1887 Home Nations Championship. Lyle was selected for the encounters with England and Scotland, which included his only winning international game when Ireland defeated England by two goals to nil. Lyle had one final role during the 1887 campaign when he was selected to referee the encounter between England and Scotland. His rugby career ended not much later when he suffered a knee injury which affected his health for the rest of his life. [2]

Notes

  1. 1 2 Grant, Kerr (1945). "Thomas Ranken Lyle. 1860-1944". Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society . 5 (14): 32. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1945.0003.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 "Biography of Sir Thomas Ranken Lyle". Australian Academy of Science. 8 January 2010. Archived from the original on 21 December 2010. Retrieved 6 June 2010.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 R.W. Home, 'Lyle, Sir Thomas Ranken (1860–1944)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 10, Melbourne University Press, 1986, pp 172–174.
  4. Thomas Lyle player profile Scrum.com
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 Diane Nicholas (March 2008). "Local History News, The Lyles of Lisbuoy" (PDF). Malvern Historical Society Inc. Retrieved 6 June 2010.
  6. Lyle, Sir Thomas Ranken (1860–1944) Australian Dictionary of Biography
  7. The History of Neuroradiology: An Australian Perspective Sage, Michael R.; Department of Radiology, Flinders Medical Centre and Flinders University of South Australia
  8. A short history of the origins of radiography in Australia Radiography, Volume 15, Supplement 1
  9. LYLE, Thomas Ranken Physics in Australia
  10. Sir Thomas Lyle, Presentation of Portrait, The Argus, 8 May 1925
  11. Thomas Ranken Lyle Medal Archived 28 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine , Australian Academy of Science, retrieved 6 June 2010.
  12. The Medical Science Stamps of 1995 Bert Bolton, HPS Department, University of Melbourne
  13. Home Nations – Belfast, 21 February 1885 Scrum.com

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