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|Born|| April 11, 1884|
Moorside, Oldham, England
|Died||May 1, 1955 (aged 71)|
|Residence||England, Germany, India, Turkey|
|Alma mater||Manchester University|
|Institutions|| Manchester University, |
Indian Meteorological Service,
Thomas Royds (April 11, 1884 – May 1, 1955) was a Solar physicist who worked with Ernest Rutherford on the identification of alpha radiation as the nucleus of the helium atom, and who was Director of the Kodaikanal Solar Observatory.
Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, HFRSE LLD, was a New Zealand-born British physicist who came to be known as the father of nuclear physics. Encyclopædia Britannica considers him to be the greatest experimentalist since Michael Faraday (1791–1867).
A helium atom is an atom of the chemical element helium. Helium is composed of two electrons bound by the electromagnetic force to a nucleus containing two protons along with either one or two neutrons, depending on the isotope, held together by the strong force. Unlike for hydrogen, a closed-form solution to the Schrödinger equation for the helium atom has not been found. However, various approximations, such as the Hartree–Fock method, can be used to estimate the ground state energy and wavefunction of the atom.
The Kodaikanal Solar Observatory is a solar observatory owned and operated by the Indian Institute of Astrophysics. It is on the southern tip of the Palani Hills 4 km from Kodaikanal town, Dindigul district, Tamil Nadu state, South India.
Thomas Royds was born April 11, 1884 in Moorside, near Oldham, Lancashire, UK. He was the third son of Edmund Royds and Mary Butterworth. His father was a cotton spinner and his mother had been a cotton weaver. His eldest brother, Robert Royds, who was 6 years older than Thomas, became an engineer and wrote books on temperature measurement and on the design of steam locomotives.
In 1897 he entered Oldham Waterloo Secondary School and in 1903 he won the King's Scholarship to Owen's College, Manchester University for three years, studying in the Honours School of Physics under Arthur Schuster.
Sir Franz Arthur Friedrich Schuster FRS FRSE was a German-born British physicist known for his work in spectroscopy, electrochemistry, optics, X-radiography and the application of harmonic analysis to physics. Schuster's integral is named after him. He contributed to making the University of Manchester a centre for the study of physics.
In 1906 he took a First Class B Sc Honours degree in Physics, and stayed at Manchester doing research in spectroscopy, especially on the constitution of the electric spark. From 1907 to 1909 he worked with Ernest Rutherford (later Lord Rutherford, the father of nuclear physics) on the spectrum of radon and, more importantly, on the identification of the alpha particle as the nucleus of the helium atom, in what is called "The Beautiful Experiment." Rutherford and Royds published four joint papers.
From 1909 to 1911, as an 1851 Exhibition Scholar, he worked under Professor Paschen in Tübingen, Germany on spectroscopic research mainly in the infra-red, and later under Professor Rubens in Berlin on "infra-red restrahlen."
At Manchester University in 1911, he took his D Sc degree in Physics awarded for all his research work to date.
The same year, he was appointed Assistant Director of Kodaikanal Solar Physics Observatory, South India, where he worked partly in collaboration with the director, Sir J Evershed. They studied the displacement of the lines in the sun's spectrum, calling attention to the significance and interpretation of negative displacements, i.e., towards the violet.
Between 1913 and 1937 he produced 49 research papers published at Kodaikanal Observatory. Others, such as the one proving the presence of oxygen in the sun's chromosphere, appeared in scientific journals, such as Nature.
He was appointed Director of Kodaikanal when Evershed retired in 1922.
In 1928, exceptional observation conditions enabled him to photograph a higher prominence on the sun's surface than ever seen before. He also photographed the brightest and largest solar hydrogen eruption up to that date.
The following year, Dr Royds and Professor Stratton of Gonville and Cauis College, Cambridge, led the eclipse expedition to Siam (now Thailand), to photograph a total solar eclipse. Unfortunately, clouds prevented almost all observations.
In 1936 Dr Royds acted as the Director General of Observatories in India for one year, while the DG was on leave. This entailed responsibility for the Indian Meteorological Service.
Later that year, Royds and Stratton led a solar expedition to Hojjaido, Japan, mainly to study how the wavelengths on different parts of the sun's disc were affected by the scattered light from other parts of the disc. Their work also confirmed Einstein's theory that wavelengths of lines in the sun's spectrum would deviate slightly from the same lines in terrestrial laboratories. This expedition was a complete success.
Dr Royds came home to England on well-earned leave in 1937 and two years later officially retired.
In the year following, the post of Professor of Astronomy and Director of the Observatory at Istanbul University, Turkey, fell vacant upon the death of the German incumbent. Anxious to increase British influence there, the British Council urged Dr Royds to apply. He was accepted.
He was now 58, and the voyage out was long and arduous in wartime conditions; he had to sail round the Cape of South Africa to Cairo, and from there by small boat to Istanbul.
The first term he lectured in French, but by the second term he was able to lecture in Turkish.
When his contract with Istanbul University ended in the Autumn of 1947, he returned to England, where he spent his last years in retirement. He died of a cerebral haemorrhage on 1 May 1955, leaving his widow, two daughters and a son.
Sir Joseph Norman Lockyer, known simply as Norman Lockyer, was an English scientist and astronomer. Along with the French scientist Pierre Janssen, he is credited with discovering the gas helium. Lockyer also is remembered for being the founder and first editor of the influential journal Nature.
Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that employs the principles of physics and chemistry "to ascertain the nature of the astronomical objects, rather than their positions or motions in space". Among the objects studied are the Sun, other stars, galaxies, extrasolar planets, the interstellar medium and the cosmic microwave background. Emissions from these objects are examined across all parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, and the properties examined include luminosity, density, temperature, and chemical composition. Because astrophysics is a very broad subject, astrophysicists apply concepts and methods from many disciplines of physics, including mechanics, electromagnetism, statistical mechanics, thermodynamics, quantum mechanics, relativity, nuclear and particle physics, and atomic and molecular physics.
Pierre Jules César Janssen, also known as Jules Janssen, was a French astronomer who, along with English scientist Joseph Norman Lockyer, is credited with discovering the gaseous nature of the solar chromosphere, and with some justification the element helium.
John Evershed CIE FRS FRAS was an English astronomer. He was the first to observe radial motions in sunspots, a phenomenon known as the Evershed effect.
The Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA), with its headquarters in Bangalore, is a premier National Research Institute of India. IIA conducts research primarily in the areas of astronomy, astrophysics and related subjects. It is widely recognised as a leading research center for Astrophysics in India.
Andrew David Thackeray, was an astronomer trained at Cambridge University. He served as director of the Radcliffe Observatory for 23 years.
The Evershed effect, named after the British astronomer John Evershed, is the radial flow of gas across the photospheric surface of the penumbra of sunspots from the inner border with the umbra towards the outer edge.
John Lewis Heilbron is an American historian of science best known for his work in the history of physics and the history of astronomy. He is Professor of History and Vice-Chancellor Emeritus at the University of California, Berkeley, senior research fellow at Worcester College, Oxford, and visiting professor at Yale University and the California Institute of Technology. He edited the academic journal Historical Studies in the Physical and Biological Sciences for twenty-five years.
A solar telescope is a special purpose telescope used to observe the Sun. Solar telescopes usually detect light with wavelengths in, or not far outside, the visible spectrum. Obsolete names for Sun telescopes include heliograph and photoheliograph.
Sir John Anthony Carroll was a British astronomer and physicist. In the 1920s he worked at the Solar Physics Observatory, Cambridge, UK with F.J.M. Stratton and Richard van der Riet Woolley. He made major technological advances, inventing a high resolution spectrometer, and a coronal camera.
Lieutenant-Colonel Frederick John Marrian Stratton DSO OBE TD DL FRS PRAS was a British astrophysicist, Professor of Astrophysics (1909) at the University of Cambridge from 1928 to 1947 and a decorated British Army officer.
Alpha particles, also called alpha ray or alpha radiation, consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium-4 nucleus. They are generally produced in the process of alpha decay, but may also be produced in other ways. Alpha particles are named after the first letter in the Greek alphabet, α. The symbol for the alpha particle is α or α2+. Because they are identical to helium nuclei, they are also sometimes written as He2+
indicating a helium ion with a +2 charge. If the ion gains electrons from its environment, the alpha particle becomes a normal helium atom 4
Appadvedula Lakshmi Narayan, better known as A. L. Narayan BA, MA, D.Sc., F.I.P. was an Indian Astrophysicist and was the first Indian Director of Kodaikanal Solar Observatory during between 1937–1946. He was born in 1887 to Shri Appadvedula Vyasulu and Smt. Mahalakshmi in the Mukkamala village of East Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh. He studied up to Matriculation in the higher secondary school at Kothapeta. He developed keen interest in the study of Science and continued his studies in the Government Arts College, Rajahmundry. He passed the B.A. degree and did Postgraduation (M.A.) in Physics from the University of Madras in 1914. He has joined as Lecturer in Physics in Maharajah's College of Vizianagaram.
Arvind Bhatnagar made significant contributions to Solar Astronomy, and founded several planetaria across India. He was the founder-director of the Udaipur Solar Observatory, and the founder director of Nehru Planetarium of Bombay.
Mary Acworth Evershed was a British astronomer and scholar. Her work on Dante Alighieri was written under the pen name M.A. Orr. Although her second name is increasingly appearing as Ackworth, this is totally incorrect, she always gave it as Acworth, and it appeared as such in both her obituaries, of which the one appearing in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society was written by her nephew A. David Thackeray, who presumably would have known. The first appearance of this incorrect version appears to have occurred in an article written by Mary Brück.
Kavasji Naegamvala, also known as Kavasji Dadabhai Naegamvala (1857-1938) (FRAS) was an astrophysicist and the director of the Takhtasingji Observatory.
Professor Charles Michie Smith CIE FRSE was a 19th century Scottish astronomer. He founded the Kodaikanal Solar Observatory in the mountains of south India and served as its first Director.
Obituary - Times of London, May 4, 1955, page 15d.
Obituary - Indian Journal of Meteorology and Geophysics, Quarterly Volume 6, July 1955, No:3 page 280.
Indian Institute of Astrophysics Repository - http://prints.iiap.res.in and search for Royds
The Nature of the Alpha Particle from Radioactive Substances (With E Rutherford) Phil Mag ser 6, xvii 281-6 1909 (the original paper)
http://web.lemoyne.edu/~giunta/royds.html (a copy of the paper on the internet)
Ernest Marsden, quoted on page 328 of Rutherford Scientist Supreme by John Campbell. AAS Publications 1999
Census of England and Wales, 1871 and 1881.