Thomas Taylor (architect)

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St John's Church, Dewsbury, a Commissioners' church designed by Thomas Taylor St John's Church, Dewsbury Moor - geograph.org.uk - 377802.jpg
St John's Church, Dewsbury, a Commissioners' church designed by Thomas Taylor

Thomas Taylor (born 1777 or 1778, died 1826) was an English artist and architect. Although he did not achieve the reputation or the output of Thomas Rickman, he was another pioneer in the use of the Gothic Revival style in church architecture. [1]

Thomas Rickman, was an English architect and architectural antiquary who was a major figure in the Gothic Revival. He is particularly remembered for his Attempt to Discriminate the Styles of English Architecture (1817), which established the basic chronological classification and terminology that are still in widespread use for the different styles of English medieval ecclesiastical architecture.

Gothic Revival architecture architectural movement

Gothic Revival is an architectural movement popular in the Western World that began in the late 1740s in England. Its popularity grew rapidly in the early 19th century, when increasingly serious and learned admirers of neo-Gothic styles sought to revive medieval Gothic architecture, in contrast to the neoclassical styles prevalent at the time. Gothic Revival draws features from the original Gothic style, including decorative patterns, finials, lancet windows, hood moulds and label stops.

Contents

Career

Nothing is known of Taylor's early life. During the 1790s he was working in the London office of the architect James Wyatt. At the same time he enrolled in the Royal Academy Schools to study architecture on the 15th July 1791, giving his age as 22. Between 1792 and 1811 he exhibited 58 pictures at the Royal Academy. Some of these pictures were landscapes, but most were of medieval buildings. By 1810 he had moved to Leeds, West Yorkshire, where he established an architectural practice, and continued to work as an artist. [2] He died in Leeds in 1826 when he was aged in his late 40s. [3]

James Wyatt English architect

James Wyatt was an English architect, a rival of Robert Adam in the neoclassical style and neo-Gothic style.

Royal Academy of Arts art institution in London, England

The Royal Academy of Arts (RA) is an art institution based in Burlington House on Piccadilly in London. It has a unique position as an independent, privately funded institution led by eminent artists and architects. Its purpose is to promote the creation, enjoyment and appreciation of the visual arts through exhibitions, education and debate.

Middle Ages Period of European history from the 5th through the 15th centuries

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, High, and Late Middle Ages.

Works

His first known architectural work the rebuilding of the south side of Leeds Parish church (1808–12) in Gothic Revival style, including a large window in the south transept. This was followed by Leeds Court House (1811–13) in Neoclassical style. [4] Taylor's first commission for a new church came from Revd Hammond Robertson (1757–1841), an enthusiast for the use of the Gothic style in church architecture. This was Christ Church, Liversedge, West Yorkshire. Robertson bought the site, paid for the Act of Parliament, and also paid for the church itself. The foundation stone was laid in 1812, and the church was consecrated in 1816. It was a large church, with aisles, a clerestory, a west tower, and a chancel larger than was normal at the time. Christ Church was the first new church in Gothic style to be built in the local region. [5] [6] [7] More churches followed locally, including Holy Trinity Huddersfield, constructed 1816-19. [8] [9] By 1815–16 he was also working in Lancashire, repairing churches in Colne and Rochdale, and rebuilding Holy Trinity Church, Littleborough (1816–20). [10] [11] [12]

Leeds Minster Church in Great Britain

Leeds Minster, or the Minster and Parish Church of Saint Peter-at-Leeds,, in Leeds, West Yorkshire is a large Church of England foundation of major architectural and liturgical significance. A church is recorded on the site as early as the 7th century, although the present structure is a Gothic Revival one, dating from the mid-19th century. It is dedicated to Saint Peter and was the Parish Church of Leeds before becoming a Minster in 2012. It has been designated a grade I listed building by English Heritage.

Transept architectural term

A transept is a transverse part of any building, which lies across the main body of the edifice. In churches, a transept is an area set crosswise to the nave in a cruciform ("cross-shaped") building within the Romanesque and Gothic Christian church architectural traditions. Each half of a transept is known as a semitransept.

Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century. In its purest form, it is a style principally derived from the architecture of classical antiquity, the Vitruvian principles, and the work of the Italian architect Andrea Palladio.

The Church Buildings Act of 1818 provided grants for the building of new churches, especially in areas where their building had not kept up with the growth of the population. The grants were administered by the Church Building Commission, and these churches are generally known as Commissioners' churches. [13] Taylor, because of his recent building experience and his geographical location, was ideally placed to receive commissions for these churches. In all he was commissioned to build seven of these churches, all in Yorkshire, [14] the first being St Lawrence, Pudsey (1819–24). [15] [16] During the time he was designing these churches, he was also designing other new churches, and carrying out repairs and alterations to existing churches. [17]

Commissioners church type of Anglican church

A Commissioners' church, also known as a Waterloo church and Million Act church, is an Anglican church in the United Kingdom built with money voted by Parliament as a result of the Church Building Acts of 1818 and 1824. The 1818 Act supplied a grant of money and established the Church Building Commission to direct its use, and in 1824 made a further grant of money. In addition to paying for the building of churches, the Commission had powers to divide and subdivide parishes, and to provide endowments. The Commission continued to function as a separate body until the end of 1856, when it was absorbed into the Ecclesiastical Commission. In some cases the Commissioners provided the full cost of the new church; in other cases they provided a grant and the balance was raised locally.

Pudsey town in the City of Leeds, West Yorkshire, England

Pudsey is a market town in West Yorkshire, England. Once independent, it was incorporated into the City of Leeds metropolitan borough in 1974. It is located midway between Bradford city centre and Leeds city centre. Historically in the West Riding of Yorkshire, it has a population of 22,408. It also lends its name and sits in the local Leeds City Council ward of Pudsey and Pudsey parliamentary constituency.

See also

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References

  1. Webster 2012, p. 100.
  2. Webster 2012, pp. 99–105.
  3. Webster 2012, p. 124.
  4. Webster 2012, pp. 105–107.
  5. Pevsner & Radcliffe 2003, p. 354.
  6. Webster 2012, pp. 107–114.
  7. Historic England, "Christ Church, Liversedge (1313710)", National Heritage List for England , retrieved 24 October 2012
  8. Pevsner & Radcliffe 2003, p. 272.
  9. Historic England, "CHURCH OF THE HOLY TRINITY, Kirklees (1223128)", National Heritage List for England, retrieved 2017-09-22
  10. Webster 2012, pp. 116, 123.
  11. Hartwell, Hyde & Pevsner 2004, p. 249.
  12. Historic England, "Church of the Holy Trinity, Rochdale (1068518)", National Heritage List for England, retrieved 24 October 2012
  13. Port 2006, pp. 37–43.
  14. Port 2006, p. 329.
  15. Webster 2012, p. 117.
  16. Historic England, "Church of St Lawrence, Pudsey (1213930)", National Heritage List for England, retrieved 24 October 2012
  17. Webster 2012, pp. 121–123.

Sources

Nikolaus Pevsner German-born British scholar

Sir Nikolaus Bernhard Leon Pevsner was a German, later British scholar of the history of art, especially of architecture.

Yale University Press university press associated with Yale University

Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University. It was founded in 1908 by George Parmly Day, and became an official department of Yale University in 1961, but it remains financially and operationally autonomous.

International Standard Book Number Unique numeric book identifier

The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.