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Thomas William Salmon, M.D. (1876-1927) was a leader of the mental hygiene movement in the United States in early twentieth century.
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Salmon was born in Lansingburg (now Troy, New York), the son of a physician. [ citation needed ] and entered the Albany Medical College. He received his M.D. in 1899. He began his medical practice in Brewster, New York but left it 1901. He worked at Willard State Hospital to investigate a diphtheria epidemic, [ citation needed ] and became New York State mental hospital bacteriologist. The two years he spent at Willard gave him entry into the world of psychiatry.
Albany Medical College (AMC) is a medical school located in Albany, New York, United States. It was founded in 1839 by Alden March and James H. Armsby and is one of the oldest medical schools in the nation. The college is part of the Albany Medical Center, which includes the Albany Medical Center Hospital.
Diphtheria is an infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Signs and symptoms may vary from mild to severe. They usually start two to five days after exposure. Symptoms often come on fairly gradually, beginning with a sore throat and fever. In severe cases, a grey or white patch develops in the throat. This can block the airway and create a barking cough as in croup. The neck may swell in part due to enlarged lymph nodes. A form of diphtheria which involves the skin, eyes, or genitals also exists. Complications may include myocarditis, inflammation of nerves, kidney problems, and bleeding problems due to low levels of platelets. Myocarditis may result in an abnormal heart rate and inflammation of the nerves may result in paralysis.
Salmon entered the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) in 1903.The following year, he was assigned to the Immigration Station on Ellis Island to examine the immigrants arriving from Europe. At that time, Federal law excluded entry of immigrants with evidence of mental illness, feeble mindedness, epilepsy, or criminal background. Detainees were kept at Ellis Island until arrangements could be made to return to Europe. Salmon was distressed by the poor conditions under which the detainees were kept and pressed his superiors for improvements at Ellis Island. He also urged that those applying for entry into the United States be examined at the port of embarkation to weed out those with excludable conditions. He was unsuccessful and was transferred to a Public Health Service hospital in Chelsea, Massachusetts where he practiced general medicine for four years. He was assigned as medical officer to provide care to fishermen. On his return, he recommended to the Public Health Service that a hospital ship be provided to give medical care to the northeastern fishing communities. He wrote articles and testified before U.S. Congressional committees. His efforts in bypassing his superiors were not met kindly. However, five years later, Congress authorized a hospital ship.
Ellis Island is a federally owned island in New York Harbor, within the states of New York and New Jersey, that contains a museum and former immigration inspection station of the same name. As the nation's busiest immigrant inspection station from 1892 to 1954, it processed approximately 12 million immigrants to the United States through the Port of New York and New Jersey. Today, the island is part of the Statue of Liberty National Monument, a U.S. national monument. The north side of the island hosts a museum of immigration, accessible only by ferry. The south side of the island, including the Ellis Island Immigrant Hospital, is abandoned but accessible to the public through guided tours.
Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by recurrent epileptic seizures. Epileptic seizures are episodes that can vary from brief and nearly undetectable periods to long periods of vigorous shaking. These episodes can result in physical injuries, including occasionally broken bones. In epilepsy, seizures have a tendency to recur and, as a rule, have no immediate underlying cause. Isolated seizures that are provoked by a specific cause such as poisoning are not deemed to represent epilepsy. People with epilepsy may be treated differently in various areas of the world and experience varying degrees of social stigma due to their condition.
A hospital ship is a ship designated for primary function as a floating medical treatment facility or hospital. Most are operated by the military forces of various countries, as they are intended to be used in or near war zones. In the nineteenth century redundant warships were used as moored hospitals for seamen.
In 1911, the New York State Commission in Lunacy asked the Public Health Service to grant Salmon a leave of absence from the Public Health Service to study the problems of foreign-born patients in state mental hospitals. Salmon organized statistical surveys and helped to devise a uniform system of reporting admissions and discharges.
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During the years of Salmon’s work in the Public Health Service, a new movement was under way. Clifford Beers, a Yale graduate living in Connecticut became mentally ill. He was confined for three years in private and public mental hospitals where he received harsh treatment. Upon his recovery, he was determined to bring better care to mental patients. He wrote and published a book in 1909 titled A Mind that Found Itself which received favorable comments from lay and professional groups. With their help, Beers organized the Connecticut Association for Mental Hygiene and the following year he led the formation of the National Committee for Mental Hygiene. The aims of the organization were to raise standards of care for the mentally ill, to study and disseminate information about the illness, to seek methods of prevention, and to foster the organization of a mental hygiene society in each state. Funds for the new organization came from private philanthropists and foundations.
Salmon joined the National Committee for Mental Hygiene. Beers served as Secretary and Salmon became the Director of Special Surveys and his first task was to obtain information about conditions in state mental hospitals. More than 60 surveys were carried out in state and county hospitals in 35 states and the information was reported to state legislatures, which led to reforms in many states. In 1915, Salmon was given the title of Medical Director of the National Committee for Mental Hygiene and he resigned from the Public Health Service.
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In 1914, the U.S. Surgeon General established the position of Chief of Psychiatry under Dr. Pearce Bailey, an eminent neurologist. Salmon became interested in war psychiatry during World War I and in 1916, with Bailey visited the U.S. troops at the Mexican border and discovered that the rate of psychiatric disorders among soldiers was higher than among the civilian populations. The following year, Salmon went to England to study hospital care for soldiers suffering from “shell shock” which was then considered a war-related neurosis. His visit resulted in a detailed report titled The Care and Treatment of Mental Disorders and war neuroses (Shell Shock) in the British Army and included recommendations for a U.S. program in the event the country went to war.These recommendations included the screening of recruits before induction, the organizing of base hospitals and treatment centers, and the recruitment and training of physicians, nurses, reconstruction aides (occupational therapists) and social workers to care for the patients.
Pearce Bailey (1865–1922) was an American neurologist and psychiatrist, educated at Princeton and Columbia Universities. He became a consultant in several New York hospitals and with Collins and Frankel founded the Neurological Institute. He was also appointed an associate professor of neurology in Columbia. On the entry of the United States into World War I, he was appointed chief of the division of neurology and psychiatry in the United States army with the rank of colonel. He perfected a system for weeding out "mental defectives" which is said to have been used as a model by the Allies. His major literary efforts comprised a translation of Golobievski's Atlas and Epitome of Diseases Caused by Accident (1900) and a monograph Accident and Injury; Relation to the Nervous System (1906), which was later expanded into Diseases of the Nervous System Resulting from Accident and Injury, a valuable work for the medical world. At the time of his death, Bailey was chairman of the New York State Committee for Mental Defectives.
World War I, also known as the First World War, the Great War, the Seminal Catastrophe, and initially in North America as the European War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history. It is also one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the resulting 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide.
Neurosis is a class of functional mental disorders involving chronic distress but neither delusions nor hallucinations. The term is no longer used by the professional psychiatric community in the United States, having been eliminated from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in 1980 with the publication of DSM III. It is still used in the ICD-10 Chapter V F40–48.
In March, 1918, Colonel Salmon was asked to form a psychiatric base hospital at Camp Crane in Pennsylvania as part of the Army's newly formed neuropsychiatric service. His hospital team was deployed to La Fauche, France in May, 1918, and at the time represented one of the first successful wartime deployments of reconstruction aides, later known as occupational therapists. Based on his successes in France, Salmon became an advocate for use of reconstruction aides in the treatment of soldiers suffering from functional war neuroses.
When the war ended, Salmon became concerned with the plight of returning veterans who suffered from mental disorders. The veterans were first sent to state, county, and private mental hospitals, but their needs were greater than the hospitals could offer. Salmon pushed for the establishment of veteran hospitals around the country. Officials in Washington, DC were not favorable to the proposal but with the aid of the American Legion and other veteran groups, Congress eventually authorized the establishment of the Veterans Administration (VA). The first VA director was Dr. C.R. Forbes who soon ignored the psychiatrists’ recommendations regarding hospital care for veterans.
Beginning in 1920, Salmon worked with Pennsylvania's Commonwealth Fund to help create a juvenile delinquency research program and start clinics that offered services to children with emotional or behavioral problems. [ citation needed ] Salmon was elected as president of the American Psychiatric Association in 1923; he was the first president who had not been employed as a mental hospital superintendent.[ citation needed ]Salmon left the National Committee for Mental Hygiene in January 1922 and ended his work for the Commonwealth Fund later that year. He later accepted a professorship of psychiatry at the Columbia University in New York City.
On August 13, 1927, Salmon died in the Long Island Sound while sailing. [ citation needed ]He was buried in Dorset, Vermont.
Mental health is the level of psychological well-being or an absence of mental illness. It is the state of someone who is "functioning at a satisfactory level of emotional and behavioural adjustment". From the perspectives of positive psychology or of holism, mental health may include an individual's ability to enjoy life, and to create a balance between life activities and efforts to achieve psychological resilience. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), mental health includes "subjective well-being, perceived self-efficacy, autonomy, competence, inter-generational dependence, and self-actualization of one's intellectual and emotional potential, among others." The WHO further states that the well-being of an individual is encompassed in the realization of their abilities, coping with normal stresses of life, productive work and contribution to their community. Cultural differences, subjective assessments, and competing professional theories all affect how one defines "mental health".
Combat stress reaction (CSR) is a term used within the military to describe acute behavioral disorganization seen by medical personnel as a direct result of the trauma of war. Also known as "combat fatigue" or "battle neurosis", it has some overlap with the diagnosis of acute stress reaction used in civilian psychiatry. It is historically linked to shell shock and can sometimes precurse post-traumatic stress disorder.
The New York State Psychiatric Institute, located in the Columbia University Medical Center in the Washington Heights neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City, was established in 1895 as one of the first institutions in the United States to integrate teaching, research and therapeutic approaches to the care of patients with mental illnesses. In 1925, the Institute affiliated with Presbyterian Hospital, now New York-Presbyterian Hospital, adding general hospital facilities to the Institute's psychiatric services and research laboratories.
The psychiatric survivors movement is a diverse association of individuals who either currently access mental health services, or who are survivors of interventions by psychiatry, or who are ex-patients of mental health services.
Lawrence Coleman Kolb was an American psychiatrist who was the New York State Commissioner of Mental Hygiene from 1975 to 1978.
Dr Eric Cunningham Dax, AO, BSc Lond, HonMD, FRACP, FRANZCP, HonFRCPsych was a British-born Australian psychiatrist.
Forensic social work is the application of social work to questions and issues relating to law and legal systems. This specialty of the social work profession goes far beyond clinics and psychiatric hospitals for criminal defendants being evaluated and treated on issues of competency and responsibility. A broader definition includes social work practice which in any way is related to legal issues and litigation, both criminal and civil. Child custody issues, involving separation, divorce, neglect, termination of parental rights, the implications of child and spousal abuse, juvenile and adult justice services, corrections, and mandated treatment all fall under this definition. Forensic social worker may also be involved in policy or legislative development intended to improve social justice.
The Canadian Mental Health Association (CMHA) is the Canadian association founded on April 26, 1918 by Dr. Clarence M. Hincks and Clifford W. Beers. Originally named the Canadian National Committee for Mental Hygiene, it is one of the largest and oldest voluntary health organizations operating in Canada.
Military psychiatry covers special aspects of psychiatry and mental disorders within the military context. The aim of military psychiatry is to keep as many serving personnel as possible fit for duty and to treat those disabled by psychiatric conditions. Military psychiatry encompasses counseling individuals and families on a variety of life issues, often from the standpoint of life strategy counseling, as well as counseling for mental health issues, substance abuse prevention and substance abuse treatment; and where called for, medical treatment for biologically based mental illness, among other elements.
Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders. These include various maladaptations related to mood, behaviour, cognition, and perceptions. See glossary of psychiatry.
Karl Murdock Bowman, MD was a pioneer in the study of psychiatry. From 1944 to 1946 he was the president of the American Psychiatric Association. His work in alcoholism, schizophrenia, and homosexuality is particularly often cited.
Clarence Bynold Farrar was an influential psychiatrist, the first Director of the Toronto Psychiatric Hospital, and editor of The American Journal of Psychiatry for 34 years.
Harry C. Solomon (1889–1982), an American neurologist, psychiatrist, researcher, administrator, and clinician, was among the first to advocate for major changes in public psychiatry. He called for the closure of large, public mental hospitals and replaced with community-based facilities.
Daniel Blain, M.D. (1898–1981) was an American physician and was the first medical director of the American Psychiatric Association (APA), the first professional medical society, founded in the United States in 1844. He may be credited with the leadership which brought changes in the practice of psychiatry after World War II and in advocating the treatment for people with mental disorders.
James Vance May (1873–1947), an American psychiatrist, was an early proponent for statistical studies and classification of mental diseases. He was among the first to recognize mental disease as a public health problem, a view that did not gain recognition and acceptance for many years.
George Hughes Kirby (1875–1935) was an American physician and psychiatrist, administrator, and educator, who contributed to the advancement of psychiatry in the United States.
Albert Deutsch (1905–1965) was an American journalist and social historian. He received a George Polk Award for "Science Reporting" in 1948.
Walter Earl Barton, M.D. (1906–1999) was an American physician, a psychiatric administrator, and a leader in American psychiatry.
Harvey John Tompkins, M.D. (1906–1983) was an American physician, a psychiatrist, whose professional life was in public service.
Lucy Dorothy Ozarin was a psychiatrist who served in the United States Navy. She was one of the first women psychiatrists commissioned in the Navy, and she was one of seven female Navy psychiatrists who served during World War II.