Thymus hyperplasia

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Thymus hyperplasia
Other namesThymic hyperplasia
Specialty Immunology   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg

Thymus hyperplasia refers to an enlargement ("hyperplasia") of the thymus. [1]

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It is not always a disease state. The size of the thymus usually peaks during adolescence and atrophies in the following decades. Before the immune function of the thymus was well understood, the enlargement was sometimes seen as a cause for alarm, and justification for surgical reduction. This approach is much less common today.

It can be associated with myasthenia gravis. [2] [3] Magnetic Resonance Imaging can be used to distinguish it from thymoma. [4]

Thymic hyperplasia

Thymic hyperplasia can be divided into three groups namely, those without any pre-existing medical condition, those recovering from a pre-existing medical condition such as pneumonia, corticosteroid therapy, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, surgery, and burns, and those with other disorders such as hyperthyroidism, sarcoidosis, or pure red cell aplasia. [5]

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Thymus Endocrine gland

The thymus is a specialized primary lymphoid organ of the immune system. Within the thymus, thymus cell lymphocytes or T cells mature. T cells are critical to the adaptive immune system, where the body adapts specifically to foreign invaders. The thymus is located in the upper front part of the chest, in the anterior superior mediastinum, behind the sternum, and in front of the heart. It is made up of two lobes, each consisting of a central medulla and an outer cortex, surrounded by a capsule.

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Gingival enlargement Human disease

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Acromegaly Human disease that results in excess growth of certain parts of the body

Acromegaly is a disorder that results from excess growth hormone (GH) after the growth plates have closed. The initial symptom is typically enlargement of the hands and feet. There may also be an enlargement of the forehead, jaw, and nose. Other symptoms may include joint pain, thicker skin, deepening of the voice, headaches, and problems with vision. Complications of the disease may include type 2 diabetes, sleep apnea, and high blood pressure.

Ectopic thymus is a condition where thymus tissue is found in an abnormal location. It usually does not cause symptoms, but may leads to a mass in the neck that may compress the trachea and the esophagus. It is thought to be the result of either a failure of descent or a failure of involution of normal thymus tissue. It may be diagnosed with radiology, such as an ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging. If it causes illness, surgery can be used to remove it. Recurrence after surgery is very unlikely.

Chronic sclerosing sialadenitis is a chronic (long-lasting) inflammatory condition affecting the salivary gland. Relatively rare in occurrence, this condition is benign, but presents as hard, indurated and enlarged masses that are clinically indistinguishable from salivary gland neoplasms or tumors. It is now regarded as a manifestation of IgG4-related disease.

Pneumatosis Abnormal presence of air or other gas within tissues

Pneumatosis is the abnormal presence of air or other gas within tissues.

A cervical thymic cyst, also called thymopharyngeal duct cyst, is a fluid-filled mass that occurs when the thymopharyngeal duct, an embryonic structure connecting the nascent thymus with the embryonic pharynx, fails to close and disappear. A thymic cyst is typically a solitary mass on one side of the neck, and is usually found near the carotid sheath. Some cervical thymic cysts may extend into the mediastinum. It is usually asymptomatic. The diagnostic process includes differentiating between other causes of neck masses in infants and children, including branchial cleft cysts and cystic hygromas. The treatment is surgical excision. On histologic examination, the wall of the cyst includes thymic tissue, and may include parathyroid gland tissue because of the parathyroid gland's common embryonic origin with the thymus gland in the third pharyngeal pouch. Fewer than 100 cases of cervical thymic cysts have been reported in the medical literature.

Adrenal hemorrhage (AH) describes an acute blood loss from a ruptured blood vessel connecting to adrenal glands above kidneys.

References

  1. "eMedicine - Surgery of the Thymus Gland : Article by Said Fadi Yassin". 2019-02-26.{{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  2. "Thymus, hyperplasia". Medcyclopaedia. General Electric.
  3. Murakami M, Hosoi Y, Negishi T, et al. (November 1996). "Thymic hyperplasia in patients with Graves' disease. Identification of thyrotropin receptors in human thymus". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 98 (10): 2228–34. doi:10.1172/JCI119032. PMC   507671 . PMID   8941638.
  4. Inaoka T, Takahashi K, Mineta M, et al. (June 2007). "Thymic hyperplasia and thymus gland tumors: differentiation with chemical shift MR imaging". Radiology. 243 (3): 869–76. doi:10.1148/radiol.2433060797. PMID   17463136.
  5. Nasseri, Farbod; Eftekhari, Farzin (March 2010). "Clinical and Radiologic Review of the Normal and Abnormal Thymus: Pearls and Pitfalls". RadioGraphics. 30 (2): 413–428. doi:10.1148/rg.302095131. ISSN   0271-5333. PMID   20228326.